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Encyclopedia > Scottish Civil War
Map of Scotland
Contents

8.1 Second Civil War
8.2 Montrose's defeat and death
8.3 Third Civil War
Modified CIA-sourced map of Scotland File links The following pages link to this file: Scotland Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Modified CIA-sourced map of Scotland File links The following pages link to this file: Scotland Categories: CIA World Factbook images ...

The Scottish Civil War

The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. The war was fought between Scottish Royalists - supporters of Charles I, under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, and the Covenanters, who had controlled Scotland since 1639 and allied themselves with the English Parliament. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms include an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 which included the Bishops Wars of 1639 and 1640, the Scottish Civil War of 1644-5; the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Confederate Ireland, 1642-9 and... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of... Irish Confederate Wars began with the rebellion of the Irish of Ulster in October 1641, during which they regained their confiscated lands and murdered thousands, of Scots and English Protestant settlers. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 - 21 May 1650), was a Scottish nobleman and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House...


Origins of the War - Wars in Three Kingdoms

The start - Riots set off by Jenny Geddes.

Scotland had helped to spark this series of civil wars in 1639, when it had risen in revolt against Charles I's religious policies. The National Covenant of Scotland was formed to resist the King's imposition of Anglicanism on Presbyterian Scotland. In practice, the Covenant also represented wider Scottish dissatisfaction with Charles' policies, especially the sidelining of Scotland since the Stuart Kings had also become monarchs of England in 1603. The Covenanters raised a large army from the dependants of their landed class and successfully resisted Charles I's attempt to re-conquer Scotland in the so called Bishops Wars. Rioting at a church service in Scotland after the angry reaction from Jenny Geddes to use of the Anglican service in St Giles Cathedral in 1637. ... Rioting at a church service in Scotland after the angry reaction from Jenny Geddes to use of the Anglican service in St Giles Cathedral in 1637. ... Riot against use of prescribed prayer book The legendary Jenny Geddes famously threw her stool at the head of the minister in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, beginning a riot which led to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms that included the English Civil War. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The term Anglican (from the Angles or English) describes those people and churches following the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ...


The Scottish uprising triggered civil war in Charles' other two Kingdoms, first in Ireland, then in England. Charles and his minister Wentworth were unable to persuade the English Parliament, which itself was unhappy with Charles' civil and religious policies, to pay for an army to put down the Scots. As a result, they had proposed raising an army from Irish Catholics, in return for abolishing discriminatory laws against them. This prospect alarmed Charles' enemies in England and Scotland and the Covenanters threatened to invade Ireland. In response a group of Irish conspirators launched the Irish Rebellion of 1641, which quickly degenerated into a series of massacres of English and Scottish Protestant settlers in Ireland. Wentworth may refer to: Wentworth, New South Wales William Wentworth Wentworth, South Dakota Wentworth, Missouri Wentworth, North Carolina Wentworth, Grafton County, New Hampshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody inter communal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


This in turn sparked civil war in England, because the Long Parliament did not trust Charles with command of an army to put down the Irish rebellion, fearing that it would also be used against them. The English Civil War broke out in 1642. The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ...


The Scottish Covenanters sent an army to Ulster in Ireland in 1642 to protect the Scottish settlers there. In 1643, following the signing of a treaty - The Solemn League and Covenant - with the English Parliament, the bulk of the Covenanters armed forces were sent south to fight on the Parliamentarian side in the English Civil War. The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh) is one of the four provinces on the island of Ireland. ... Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ...


Scottish Royalists

However, some in Scotland continued to side with the King. These were most prominent in the Highlands and north-east of Scotland. There were several factors that inclined people towards Royalism. Among them were religion, culture, clan politics and political allegiance. In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Highland or Highlands has these meanings:- The term highland is used in geography for any elevated mountainous plateau. ...


The Covenanters were committed to establishing Presbyterianism as the national religion of Scotland, however many people in the northern and Highlands regions were Anglicans or Roman Catholics. Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Furthermore, the Highlands was a distinct cultural, political and economic region of Scotland. It was Gaelic in language and customs and at this time was largely outside of the control of the governments of England and Scotland. Some Highland clans preferred the more distant authority of Charles Stuart with the powerful and well organised Lowlands based government of the Covenanters. Highland or Highlands has these meanings:- The term highland is used in geography for any elevated mountainous plateau. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Disambiguation: For the region of Scotland please see Scottish Lowlands Lowlands, also known as A Campingflight to Lowlands Paradise, is a music festival, held annually in the Netherlands in August. ...


However, the largest Highland clan, the Campbells, led by their chief, Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, did side with the Covenanters. This meant that the Campbell's rivals in the violent world of clan politics, notably the MacDonalds, automatically took the opposing side. It should be said that some of these factors overlap, for instance the MacDonalds were Catholics, sworn enemies of the Campbells and had a strong Gaelic (Irish as well as Highland) identity. This article is about the Scottish clan; for other Campbells see Campbell (disambiguation). ... Archibald Campbell Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess and 8th Earl of Argyll (1607 - 27 May 1661), eldest son of Archibald, 7th Earl, by his first wife, was educated at St Andrews University, where he matriculated on 15 January 1622. ... The Scottish Clan Donald (motto: Per Mare Per Terras which means By sea and by land ) is split into several branches including MacDonald of the Isles, MacDonald of Clan Ranald, MacDonald of Sleat, MacDonald of Keppoch, MacDonald of Ardnamurchan and McDonell of Glengarry. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ...


Finally, there were those like James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, who were both Lowlanders and Presbyterians but who saw allegiance to the King as more important than any other religious or political principal. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 - 21 May 1650), was a Scottish nobleman and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


The Irish Intervention

's painting "" shows the Highland charge from the era of the Jacobite Risings, the tactic was pioneered in the Scottish Civil War by Alasdair MacColla
Morier's painting "Culloden" shows the Highland charge from the era of the Jacobite Risings, the tactic was pioneered in the Scottish Civil War by Alasdair MacColla

Montrose had already tried and failed to lead a Royalist uprising by 1644, when he was presented with a ready made Royalist army. The Irish Confederates, who were loosely aligned with the Royalists, agreed in that year to send an expedition to Scotland. From their point of view, this would tie up Scottish Covenanter troops who would otherwise be used in Ireland or England. The Irish sent 1500 men to Scotland under the command of Alasdair MacColla MacDonald, a MacDonald clansman from the Western Isles of Scotland. Shortly after landing, the Irish linked up with Montrose at Blair Atholl and proceeded to raise forces from the MacDonalds and other anti-Campbell Highland clans. Battle of Culloden, by David Morier. ... James Justinian Morier (1780? - 1849), traveller and novelist, son of Isaac Morier, descended from a Huguenot family resident at Smyrna, where he was born, was educated at Harrow. ... The Battle of Culloden (April 16, 1746), was the last military clash in mainland Britain, between the forces of the Jacobites and those of the reigning Hanoverians in the 45 Jacobite Rising. ... Montrose is the name of several places in the world. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Confederate Ireland refers to a brief period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. ... Alasdair MacColla (circa 1620 to 1647) was Scottish-Irish soldier. ... The Outer Hebrides or Western Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar), also traditionally known as the Outer Isles, comprise an island chain off the west coast of Scotland. ... Blair Atholl is a small town in Perthshire, Scotland. ...


The new Royalist army led by Montrose and MacColla was in some respects very formidable. Its Irish and Highland troops were extremely mobile, marching quickly over long distances - even over the rugged Highland terrain - and were capable of enduring very harsh conditions and poor rations. They did not fight in the conventional pike and musket formations used by most armies at the time, but launched rapid charges, firing their muskets at close range before closing with swords and half-pikes. This tactic swept away the poorly trained Covenanter militias that were sent against them. These locally raised levies frequently ran away when faced with a terrifying Highland charge, resulting in them being slaughtered as they ran. Pike can mean: A pole weapon, see pike (weapon) A carnivorous fish, see pike (fish) A programming language, see Pike programming language Stream cipher Pike (cryptography) A male elf character (skilled with his namesake weapon) in the comic book Elfquest Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, see Pi Kappa Alpha Pike is... A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore long gun. ... The Highland charge was battlefield tactic used by the Scottish clans of the Scottish Highlands in the 17th and 18th century. ...


On the other hand, the clans from the west of Scotland could not be persuaded to fight for long away from their homes - seeing their principal enemy as the Campbells rather than the Covenanters. The Royalists also lacked cavalry, leaving them vulnerable in open country. Finally, although they won a string of victories, the Scottish Royalists were unable to hold territory after they had taken it, retreating again and again to the safety of the Highlands. An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers is commonly known as cavalry. ...


Tippermuir, Aberdeen and Inverlochy

Archibald Campbell -Covenanter and Chief of the Campbell clan
Archibald Campbell -Covenanter and Chief of the Campbell clan

In the Autumn of 1644, the Royalists marched across the Highlands to Perth, where they smashed a Covenanter force at the battle of Tippermuir. Shortly afterwards, another Covenanter militia met a similar fate outside Aberdeen. Unwisely, Montrose let his men pillage Perth and Aberdeen after taking them, leading to hostility to his forces in an area where Royalist sympathies had been strong. Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Location within the British Isles. ... Battle of Tippermuir Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date September 1, 1644 Place Perth, Scotland Result Royalist Victory The Battle of Tippermuir (September 1, 1644) was the first battle James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose fought for the king during the Scottish Civil War. ... Battle of Aberdeen Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date September 13, 1644 Place Aberdeen, Scotland Result Royalist Victory The Battle of Aberdeen was an engagement in the Scottish Civil War which took place between Royalist and Covenanter forces outside the city of Aberdeen on September 13, 1644. ...


Following these victories, MacColla insisted on pursuing the MacDonald's war against the Campbells in Argyll in western Scotland. In December 1644, the Royalists rampaged through the Campbell's country, killing around 900 civilian men of military age and burning their homesteads. Argyll (Earra-Ghaidheal in Gaelic), sometimes called Argyllshire, is one of the traditional counties of Scotland. ...


In response to the attack on his clansmen, Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll assembled the Campbell clansmen to repel the invaders. In February 1645, the Campbells met the Royalist and Highland force at the battle of Inverlochy, near Lochaber and Ben Nevis. The Campbells were crushed, taking heavy casualties. Archibald Campbell Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess and 8th Earl of Argyll (1607 - 27 May 1661), eldest son of Archibald, 7th Earl, by his first wife, was educated at St Andrews University, where he matriculated on 15 January 1622. ... Battle of Inverlochy Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date February 2, 1645 Place Inverlochy Result Royalist Victory The Battle of Inverlochy (February 2, 1645) was a battle of the Scottish Civil War in which Montrose routed the pursuing forces of the Marquess of Argyll. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ... Map sources for Ben Nevis at grid reference NN166713 Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in the British Isles. ...


Montrose's troops, in particular the Clan Donald clansmen and Irish Confederates, gained a very bad reputation among the general Scottish population. They committed a series of attrocities against enemy civilians, especially when campaigning in the Campbell territory of Argyll. By modern standards, the Scottish Royalist's were certainly guilty of war-crimes, although it should be said that the Covenanter's troops behaved equally badly in the Highlands, north-east Scotland and Ulster towards civilians in Royalist or Confederate controlled territory. The Scottish Clan Donald (motto: Per Mare Per Terras which means By sea and by land ) is split into several branches including Macdonald of the Isles, Macdonald of Clan Ranald, Macdonald of Sleat, Macdonald of Keppoch, Macdonald of Ardnamurchan and McDonell of Glengarry. ...


Triumph and Disaster for the Royalists

Their victory at Inverlochy gave the Royalists control over the western Highlands and attracted other clans and noblemen to their cause. The most important of these were the Gordons, who provided the Royalists with cavalry for the first time. Another Covenanter army under John Urry was hastily assembled and sent against the Royalists but was defeated at Auldearn, near Nairn. Yet another Covenanter levy was crushed by Montrose's men at Alford, and another at Kilsyth when it tried to block the victorious Royalist's advance into the Lowlands. This string of battles showed the dangers of sending half-trained, or even untrained, troops into battle and resulted in giving Montrose temporary control over almost all of Scotland. In late 1645, such prominent towns as Dundee and Glasgow fell to his forces. The title Marquess of Huntly was created in the peerage of Scotland in 1599, making it the oldest existing marquessate in Scotland, and the second-oldest in the British Isles, only the English Marquessate of Winchester being older. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers is commonly known as cavalry. ... Battle of Auldearn Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date May 9, 1645 Place Auldearn, Nairnshire Result Royalist Victory The Battle of Auldearn was an engagement of the Scottish Civil War, which took place on May 9, 1645, near the village of Auldearn in Nairnshire. ... Nairn is a burgh in the Scottish Highlands, lying about fifteen miles east of Inverness. ... The Battle of Alford was an engagement of the Scottish Civil War, which took place near the village of Alford, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on July 2, 1645. ... Battle of Aberdeen Conflict Wars of the Three Kingdoms Date August 15, 1645 Place Aberdeen, Scotland Result Royalist Victory The Battle of Kilsyth was an engagement of the Scottish Civil War which took place on August 15, 1645. ... Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill. ... Map sources for Dundee at grid reference NO404301 Dundee is Scotlands fourth largest city, population 154,674 (2001), situated on the North bank of the Firth of Tay. ... Glasgows location in Scotland Glasgow or Ghlaschu is Scotlands largest city, on the River Clyde in west central Scotland. ...


However, whereas Montrose wanted to further Royalist objectives by raising troops in the south east of Scotland and marching on England, MacColla showed that his priorities lay with war of the MacDonalds against the Campbells and occupied Argyll. The Gordons also returned home, to defend their own lands in the north-east. Montrose, his forces having split up, was routed by the Covenanters at the battle of Philiphaugh. MacColla retreated to Kintyre, where he held out until the following year. The Battle of Philiphaugh was fought on September 13th, 1645 during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and took place outside the town of Philiphaugh near Selkirk in Scotland between the armies of the Royalist Marquis of Montrose, and the Covenanter army of General Leslie. ... Kintyre shown within Argyll Kintyre is a region of western Scotland located at the south-western tip of the Argyll Peninsula. ...


The Royalist victories in Scotland therefore evaporated almost overnight owing to the disunited nature of their forces.


The End of the Scottish Civil War

The first English Civil War had ended in May 1646, when Charles I surrendered to the Scottish Covenanter army in England. The Scots promptly handed him over to the English Parliament in return for a large cash payment. Experienced Covenanter troops could be brought back to Scotland to mop up the remaining Royalists there. In 1647, Montrose fled for Norway, while MacColla returned to Ireland with his remaining Irish and Highland troops to re-join the Confederates. Those who had fought for Montrose, particularly the Irish, were massacred by the Covenanters whenever they were captured, in reprisal for the atrocities the Royalists had committed in Argyll. The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of... Events Ongoing events English Civil War (1642-1649) Births April 15 - King Christian V of Denmark (d. ... The name Charles I is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland Charles I of France (also known as Charles the Bald) Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V of the German Empire) Charles I of Romania Charles I... Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... Confederate Ireland refers to a brief period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. ...


Scotland and the Second and Third English Civil Wars

Second Civil War

Ironically, no sooner had the Covenanters defeated the Royalists at home than they were negotiating with Charles I against the English Parliament. The Covenanters could not get their erstwhile allies to agree on a political and religious settlement to the wars, failing to get Presbyterianism established as the official religion in the Three Kingdoms and fearing that the Parliamentarians would threaten Scottish independence. Many Covenanters feared that under Parliament, "our poor country should be made a province of England". A faction of the Covenanters known as "the Engagers" therefore sent an army to England to try to restore Charles I in 1648. However it was routed by Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army at Preston. Charles was executed by the Rump Parliament in 1649. The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The noun or adjective, Royalist, can have several shades of meaning. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... The Engagers in Scottish history were a moderate faction of the Covenanter movement, who ruled Scotland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Two battles are known as the Battle of Preston: The Battle of Preston (1648) was a victory for Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists during the English Civil War. ... The Rump Parliament was the remnant of the Long Parliament, following Prides Purge on 6 December 1648. ... Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


Montrose's defeat and death

In June 1649, Montrose was restored by the exiled Charles II to the now nominal lieutenancy of Scotland. Charles also open negotiations with the Covenanters, now dominated by the radical Presbyterian "Kirk Party" or "Whigs". Because Montrose had very little support in the lowlands, Charles was willing to disavow his most consistent supporter in order to become a king on terms dictated by the Covenanters. In March 1650 Montrose landed in the Orkneys to take the command of a small force, composed mainly of continental mercenaries, which he had sent on before him. Crossing to the mainland, he tried in vain to raise the clans, and on 27 April he was surprised and routed at Carbiesdale in Ross-shire. After wandering for some time he was surrendered by Macleod of Assynt, to whose protection, in ignorance of Macleod's political enmity, he had entrusted himself. He was brought a prisoner to Edinburgh, and on 20 May sentenced to death by the Parliament. He was hanged on the 21st, with Wishart's laudatory biography of him put round his neck. To the last he protested that he was a real Covenanter and a loyal subject. Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... The Kirk Party were a radical Presbyterian faction of the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... This article is about the British Whig party. ... Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... Hanging to Music. ... George Wishart George Wishart (c. ...


Third Civil War

"Cromwell at Dunbar", Andrew Carrick Gow. The battle of Dunbar was a crushing defeat for the Scottish Covenanters

In spite of their conflict with the Scottish Royalists, the Covenanters then committed themselves to the cause of Charles II, signing the Treaty of Breda (1650) with him in the hope of securing a independent Presbyterian Scotland free of English Parliamentary interference. Charles landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Morayshire on June 23 1650 and signed the 1638 Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League immediately after coming ashore. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II... The Treaty of Breda (1650) was signed on May 1, 1650 between Charles II (King in exile of England, Scotland and Ireland) and the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Morayshire or Elginshire is one of the traditional counties of Scotland, bordering Nairnshire to the west, Inverness-shire to the south, and Banffshire to the east. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ...


The threat posed by King Charles II with his his new Covenanter allies was considered to be the greatest facing the new English Republic so Oliver Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and crossed the Irish channel to Scotland. He arrived in Scotland on July 22 1650 and proceeded to lay siege to Edinburgh. By the end of August, his army was reduced by disease and running out of supplies, so he was forced to order a retreat towards England. A Scottish Covenanter army under the command of David Leslie had been shadowing his progress, and Leslie was happy to see Cromwell's troops forced to retreat for lack of supplies. However, he was ordered by the Covenanter General Assembly to bring the English to battle. The New Model Army inflicted a crushing defeat on them at the subsequent Battle of Dunbar on September 3. Leslie's army, which had strong ideological ties to the radical Kirk Party, was destroyed, losing over 14,000 men killed, wounded and taken prisoner. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland. Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... See also David Leslie the Scottish rugby player. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... Battle of Dunbar (1650) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... The Kirk Party were a radical Presbyterian faction of the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ...


This military disaster discredited the radical Covenanters known as the Kirk Party and caused the Covenanters and Scottish Royalists to bury their differences (at least temporarily) to try and repel the English parliamentarian invasion of Scotland. The Scottish Parliament passed the Act of Levy in December 1650, requiring every burgh and shire to raise a quota of soldiers. A new round of conscription was undertaken, both in the Highlands and the Lowlands, to form a truly national army named the Army of the Kingdom, that was put under the command of Charles II himself. Although this was actually the largest force put into the field by the Scots during the Wars, it was badly trained and its morale was low as many of its constituent Royalist and Covenanter parts had until recently been killing each other. The Kirk Party were a radical Presbyterian faction of the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II...


In July 1651 Cromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing. The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles at the head of the Scottish army to move south into England. Desperate, the Scottish army commanded by Charles II attempted a last ditch invasion of England to outflank Cromwell and spark a Royalist uprising there. Cromwell followed Charles into England leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland. Monck took Stirling on the August 14 and Dundee on September 1. The Forth Bridges cross the Firth The Firth of Forth is the estuary or firth of the River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea between Fife to the north, and West Lothian, the City of Edinburgh, and East Lothian to the south. ... Fife (Scottish Gaelic, Fiobh) is a unitary council region of Scotland situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth. ... The Battle of Inverkeithing [1] (20 July 1651) was a battle in the Third English Civil War. ... Perth is the name of several towns and cities: Perth, Scotland is the original Perth, after which the others are named, and the administrative town of the region of Perth and Kinross in Scotland. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... Stirling is a city in central Scotland, in the district of Stirling. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Map sources for Dundee at grid reference NO404301 Dundee is Scotlands fourth largest city, population 154,674 (2001), situated on the North bank of the Firth of Tay. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ...


The Scottish Army of the Kingdom marched towards the west of England because it was in that area that English Royalist sympathies were strongest. However, although some English Royalists joined the army, they came in far fewer numbers than Charles and his Scottish supporters had hoped. Cromwell finally engaged the new king at Worcester on September 3, 1651, and beat him - in the process all but wiping out his army, killing 3000 and taking 10,000 more prisoners. This marked the real end of the Scottish war effort. Charles escaped to the European continent and with his flight the Coventers hopes for political independence from the Commonwealth of England were dashed. The Battle of Worcester was the final battle of the Second English Civil War. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the...


From Occupation to Restoration

George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 16651666. Monck commanded the Parliamentarian forces that occupied Scotland during the Interregnum and in 1660 led his troops to London to restore the monarchy

The next year, 1652, the remnants of Royalist resistance in Scotland was mopped up and under the terms of the "Tender of Union", the Scots were given 30 seats in a united Parliament in London, with General Monck appointed as the military governor of Scotland. During the Interregnum, Scotland was kept under the military occupation of an English army under George Monck. Sporadic Royalist rebellions continued throughout the Commonwealth period in Scotland, particularly in western Highlands, where Alasdair MacColla had raised his forces in the 1640s. Monck garrisoned forts all over the Highlands - for example at Inverness, and finally put an end to Royalist resistance when he began deporting prisoners to the West Indies as slaves. However, lawlessness remained a problem, with bandits known as mosstroopers, very often former Royalist or Covenanter soldiers, plundering both the English troops and the civilian population. Download high resolution version (700x860, 77 KB)George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of... Download high resolution version (700x860, 77 KB)George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of... Portrait painter and collector of Old Masters, Sir Peter Lely (original name, Pieter van der Faes) was active in England from the early 1640s. ... Events March 4 - Start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War March 6 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication March 16 - Bucharest allows Jews to settle in the city in exchange of annual tax of 16 guilders June 3 - The Duke of York defeats the Dutch Fleet off the... Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... The English Interregnum was the period of republican rule after the English Civil War between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... Alasdair MacColla (circa 1620 to 1647) was Scottish-Irish soldier. ... Inverness is the only city in the Scottish Highlands. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Moss-troopers were bandits that operated in Scotland during and after the time of the English Commonwealth. ...


After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, the factions and divisions which had struggled for supremacy during the early years of the interregnum reemerged. Monck, who had served Cromwell and the English Parliament throughout the civil wars, judged that his best interests and those of his country lay in the Restoration of Charles II. In 1660, he marched his troops south from Scotland to ensure the monarchy's reinstatement. Scotland's Parliament and legislative autonomy were restored under the Restoration, though many issues that had led to the wars; religion, Scotland's form of government and the status of the Highlands, remained unresolved. After the Glorious Revolution of 1689, many more Scots would die over the same disputes in Jacobite rebellions. The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II... The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ... The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ...


The Cost

Its is estimated that roughly 28,000 men were killed in combat in the Scottish Civil War. More soldiers usually died of disease than in action at this time (the ratio was often 3-1), so it is reasonable to speculate that the the true military death toll is higher than this figure. In addition, it is estimated that around 15,000 civilians died as direct result of the war - either through massacres or by disease. More indirectly, another 30,000 people died of the plague in Scotland between 1645 ad 1649, a disease that was partly spread by the movement of armies throughout the country. If we also take into account the thousands of Scottish troops who died in the civil wars in England and Ireland (another 20,000 soldiers at least), the Wars of the Three Kingdoms certainly represents one of the bloodiest episodes in Scottish history. Plague redirects here. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms include an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 which included the Bishops Wars of 1639 and 1640, the Scottish Civil War of 1644-5; the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Confederate Ireland, 1642-9 and...


Sources

  • David Stephenson, Alasdair MacColla and the Highland Problem in the Seventeenth century, Edinburgh 1980.
  • Jane Ohlmeyer, John Kenyon (Ed.?s) The Civil Wars, Oxford 1998.(Chapter on the Civil Wars in Scotland by Edward Furgol).

See Also

History of Scotland Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ...


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