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Encyclopedia > Scots language
Scots
Spoken in: Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, England 
Region: Parts of the Scottish Lowlands, Caithness, the Northern Isles, Ulster
Total speakers: over 1.5 million:
— Scotland: 1.5 million (General Register Office for Scotland, 1996).
— Northern Ireland: 30,000 (Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999).
— Republic of Ireland: no official figures, but several thousand in eastern County Donegal.
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   Anglo-Frisian
    Anglic
     Scots 
Official status
Official language in: None.
— Classified as a "traditional language" by the Scottish Executive.
— Classified as a "regional or minority language" under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, ratified by the United Kingdom in 2001.
— Classified as a "traditional language" by The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999.
Regulated by: — Scotland: None, although the Dictionary of the Scots Language carries great authority (the Scottish Executive's Partnership for a Better Scotland coalition agreement, 2003, promises "support").
— Ireland: None, although the cross-border Ulster-Scots Agency, established by the Implementation Agreement following the Good Friday Agreement promotes usage.
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: sco
ISO 639-3: sco 

Scots refers to the Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland. In Scotland it is sometimes called Lowland Scots or its contraction Lallans to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides) and small communities in the urban lowlands. Scots is also spoken in parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans. Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Logo of the General Register Office General Register Office for Scotland is a government agency, accountable to Scottish ministers, that administers the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces and adoptions, and is responsible for the statutes relating to the formalities of marriage and conduct of civil marriage. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... The Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) is an online Scots-English language dictionary, now run by Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd (formerly the Scottish National Dictionary Association), based at George Square, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The Ulster-Scots Agency (in Ulster Scots, Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch) is a cross-border body set up in Ireland to promote the Ulster Scots language and culture. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... This article is about the country. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Highlands and Islands area is sometimes defined as that to which the Crofters Act of 1886 applied. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Since there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects, scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots. Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects do exist, these often render contradictory results (See Dialect). Consequently, Scots has, on the one hand, been traditionally regarded as one of the ancient dialects of English, but with its own ancient and distinct dialects. Scots has often been treated as part of English as spoken in Scotland but differs significantly from the Standard Scottish English taught in schools. On the other hand, it has been regarded as a distinct Germanic language the way Swedish is distinct from Danish. Its subordination to Anglo-English has also been compared to the subordination of West Frisian to Dutch in the Netherlands.[1] However, use of the word subordination in this context also implies that a standard or proper version of the language, in this case English, actually exists. Thus Scots can be interpreted as a collective term for the dialects of English spoken or originating in Scotland, or it can be interpreted as the autochthonous language of Lowland Scotland. See Status below for further discussion. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... An autochthonous language is an indigenous language, one resident for a considerable length of time in a territory or region spoken by an autochthonous group. ...


Native speakers in Scotland and Ireland usually refer to their vernacular as (braid) Scots (Eng: Broad Scots) or use a dialect name such as the Doric or the Buchan Claik. The old fashioned Scotch occurs occasionally, especially in Ireland. Some literary forms are often referred to as Lallans (Lowlands). First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Scotch is an obsolescent adjective meaning of Scotland. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots in Britain but Scotch is still in contemporary use outside of England and Scotland. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... Lallans ( a variant of the Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), was also traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the Scots language

The word Scot was borrowed from Latin to refer to Scotland and dates from at least the first half of the 10th century. Up to the 15th century Scottis (modern form: Scots) referred to Gaelic (a Celtic language and tongue of the ancient Scots, introduced from Ireland perhaps from the 4th century onwards). Since the late 15th century [2], Anglic speakers in Scotland also started occasionally referring to their vernacular as Scottis and increasingly called Gaelic Erse (from Erisch, or "Irish"), now often considered pejorative. Speakers of Northumbrian Old English settled in south eastern Scotland in the 7th century, at which time Celtic Brythonic was spoken in the south of Scotland to a little way north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde, and Pictish was spoken further north: almost nothing is... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article is about the country. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... my children are my life ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scottish ethnicity. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Northumbrian Old English had been established in southeastern Scotland as far as the River Forth by the 7th century. It remained largely confined to this area until the 13th century, continuing in common use while Gaelic was the court language. Early northern Middle English, also known as Early Scots, then spread further into Scotland via the burghs, proto-urban institutions which were first established by King David I. The growth in prestige of Early Scots in the 14th century, and the complementary decline of French in Scotland, made Scots the prestige language of most of eastern Scotland. Northumbrian was a dialect spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Linguistic division in early twelfth century Scotland. ... A prestige dialect is the dialect spoken by the most prestigious people in a speech community large enough to sustain multiple dialects. ...


Modern Scots thus grew out of the early northern form of Middle English spoken by the people of southeastern Scotland and northern England. Northern Middle English, or Early Scots as it is also known, made its first literary appearance in Scotland in the mid-14th century, when its form differed little from other northern Anglic dialects, and so Scots shared many Northumbrian borrowings from Old Norse and Anglo-Norman French. Later influences include Dutch and Middle Low German through trade with and immigration from the low countries, as well as Romance via ecclesiastical and legal Latin and French owing to the Auld Alliance. Scots has loan words resulting from contact with Gaelic. Early medieval legal documents show a language peppered with Gaelic legal and administrative loans. Today Gaelic loans are mainly for geographical and cultural features, such as ceilidh, loch and clan. Many Scots words have also become part of English: flit (to move home), greed, eerie, cuddle, clan, stob (a post). Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this list may require cleanup. ...


Status

Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self (Love God above all and your neighbour as yourself) an example of Early Scots on John Knox House, Edinburgh
Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self (Love God above all and your neighbour as yourself) an example of Early Scots on John Knox House, Edinburgh

Before the Treaty of Union 1707, when Scotland and England joined to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, there is ample evidence that Scots was widely held to be an independent language[3] as part of a pluricentric diasystem. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 507 KB)Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self, an example of Scots language at John Knox House, Edinburgh, 2004-11. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 507 KB)Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self, an example of Scots language at John Knox House, Edinburgh, 2004-11. ... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self: an example older Scots on John Knox House, Edinburgh The John Knox House is a historic house in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, reputed to have been owned and lived in by Protestant Reformer John Knox during the 16th century. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ... In linguistics, in the field of structural dialectology, a diasystem is a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ...


The linguist Heinz Kloss considered Modern Scots a Halbsprache (half language) in terms of a Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework although today, in Scotland, most people's speech is somewhere on a continuum ranging from traditional broad Scots to Scottish Standard English. Many speakers are either diglossic and/or able to code-switch along the continuum depending on the situation in which they find themselves. Where on this continuum English-influenced Scots becomes Scots-influenced English is difficult to determine. (see language change below). Since standard English now generally has the role of a Dachsprache, disputes often arise as to whether or not the varieties of Scots are dialects of Scottish English or constitute a separate language in their own right. Heinz Kloss (1904 - 1987) was a German linguist and internationally recognised authority on linguistic minorities . ... The Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework is a tool developed by sociolinguists, e. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ...


The British government now accepts Scots as a regional language and has recognised it as such under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...

Notwithstanding the UK government’s and the Scottish Executive’s obligations under part II of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the Scottish Executive recognises and respects Scots (in all its forms) as a distinct language, and does not consider the use of Scots to be an indication of poor competence in English.

[4]

Evidence for its existence as a separate language lies in the extensive body of Scots literature, its independent — if somewhat fluid — orthographic conventions and in its former use as the language of the original Parliament of Scotland.[5] Since Scotland retained distinct political, legal and religious systems after the Union, many Scots terms passed into Scottish English. For instance, libel and slander, separate in English law, are bundled together as defamation in Scots law. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ...


After the Union and the shift of political power to England, the use of Scots was discouraged by many in authority and education, as was the notion of Scottishness itself[citation needed]. Many leading Scots of the period, such as David Hume, considered themselves Northern British rather than Scottish[citation needed]. They attempted to rid themselves of their Scots in a bid to establish standard English as the official language of the newly formed Union[citation needed]. Enthusiasm for this new Britishness waned over time, and the use of Scots as a literary language was revived by several prominent Scotsmen such as Robert Burns. Such 18th and 19th century writers were well aware of cross-dialect standard literary norms, but during the first half of the 20th century, knowledge of such norms waned and currently there is no institutionalised standard literary form[6]. During the second half of the 20th century, enthusiasts developed regularised cross-dialect forms following historical orthographic conventions, but these have had a limited impact. In much contemporary written Scots language, local loyalties usually prevail, and the written form usually adopts standard English sound-to-letter correspondences to represent the local pronunciation. This article is about the philosopher. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Written Scots language examples from various sources. ...


No education takes place through the medium of Scots, though English lessons may cover it superficially, which usually entails reading some Scots literature and observing local dialect. Much of the material used is often Standard English disguised as Scots, which has upset both proponents of Standard English and proponents of Scots[7] alike. One example of the educational establishment's approach to Scots is "Write a poem in Scots. (It is important not to be worried about spelling in this – write as you hear the sounds in your head.)"[8], whereas guidelines for English require teaching pupils to be "writing fluently and legibly with accurate spelling and punctuation." [9]. This can be seen as revealing the institutionalised disregard for the idea of treating Scots as a language on a par with English and as a teaching method to perpetuate the experience of the pupils' and teachers' parents being taught in school that Scots is 'bad spelling', so that pupils will self-censor any Scots that they do know.[citation needed] Scots can also be studied at university level. The educational system often fails to further the objective to produce people able to read, write, and speak Scots as an autonomous alternative to English, thus contributing to its perceived status as a series of local dialects of English.[citation needed] Medium of instruction is the language that is used in teaching. ...


The use of Scots in the media is scant and is usually reserved for niches where local dialect is deemed acceptable, e.g. comedy, Burns Night, or representations of traditions and times gone by. Serious use for news, encyclopaedias, documentaries, etc. rarely occurs in Scots, although the Scottish Parliament website offers some information on it. A Burns Supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns, author of the version of the Scots song Auld Lang Syne, which is generally sung at Hogmanay and other New Year celebrations around the English-speaking world. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ...


It is often held that, had Scotland remained independent, Scots would have remained and been regarded as a separate language from English[citation needed]. On the other hand, a situation similar to that of Swiss German and standard German might have occurred. Equally, the present situation might have occurred, where the social elites and the upwardly mobile adopted Standard English, causing institutional language shift. A model of language revival to which many enthusiasts aspire is that of the Catalan language in areas spanning parts of Spain, France, Andorra and Italy, particularly as regards the situation of Catalan in Catalonia. Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ...


Language change

After the Union of Scotland and England, the issue of language became topical, and foremost was the question of whether Scottish people should speak standard English or Scots. Gaelic was never considered an option; at the time, it was mostly relegated to the Highlands and Islands. Scots became considered to have a substratal relationship to English, as opposed to an adstratal relationship. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term adstratum refers to a language which is equal in prestige to another. ...


On one hand, well-off Scots took to learning English through such activities as those of the Irishman Thomas Sheridan (father of Richard Sheridan), who in 1761 gave a series of lectures on English elocution. Charging a guinea at a time (about £65 in today's money), they were attended by over 300 men, and he was made a freeman of the City of Edinburgh. Following this, some of the city's intellectuals formed the Select Society for Promoting the Reading and Speaking of the English Language in Scotland. This was not universally welcomed, as was illustrated by the summary by F. Pottle, James Boswell's 20th century biographer, concerning James' view of his father Alexander Boswell's speech habits: He scorned modern literature, spoke broad Scots from the bench, and even in writing took no pains to avoid the Scotticisms which most of his colleagues were coming to regard as vulgar. Thomas Sheridan (1719 - 1788) was a stage actor and a major proponent of the elocution movement. ... Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 - July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and politician. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Elocution is proper speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleckand 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Alexander Boswell (1706-1782), lord of Auchinleck, was a judge of the supreme courts of Scotland. ...


On the other hand, the education system also became increasingly geared to teaching English, though this was initially impaired by the teachers' and students' lack of knowledge of English pronunciation through lack of contact with English speakers. Aspects of English grammar and lexis could be accessed through printed texts. By the 1840s the Scottish Education Department's language policy was that Scots had no value "...it is not the language of 'educated' people anywhere, and could not be described as a suitable medium of education or culture". Students, of course, reverted to Scots outside the classroom, but the reversion was not complete. What occurred, and has been occurring ever since, is a process of language attrition, whereby successive generations have adopted more and more features from English. This process has accelerated rapidly since wide-spread access to mass media in English, and increased population mobility, became available after the Second World War. It has recently taken on the nature of wholesale language shift. These processes are often erroneously referred to as language change, convergence or merger. For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ... Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language by either a community or an individual. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... Language change is the manner in which the phonetic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features of a language are modified over time. ... Language convergence is a type of contact-induced change whereby languages of equal social prestige with many bilingual speakers mutually borrow morphological and syntactic features, making their typology more similar. ... Language merger, in linguistics, is a theoretical phenomenon whereby two or more distinct languages combine to form a single language. ...


A rather more positive take on this is that, rather than reject English culture, the Scots mastered it, becoming bilingual and writing some of the greatest works of the time, such as Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, in what was still a foreign language [citation needed]. Residual features of Scots are often regarded as slang. The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of Adam Smith, published in 1776. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ...


Literature

Main article: Scottish literature

Examples of the first English literature include the Lord's Prayer in Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon from c. 650, which begins "Faeder ure, Thu the eart on heofonum,". Some Scottish and Northumbrian folk still say "oor faither" and "thoo art". Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The Lords Prayer (sometimes known by its first two Latin words as the Pater Noster, in Greek as the , or the English equivalent Our Father) is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. ... Northumbrian was a dialect spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. ...


Among the earliest Scots literature is John Barbour's Brus (fourteenth century), Whyntoun's Kronykil and Blind Harry's Wallace (fifteenth century). From the fifteenth century, much literature based around the Royal Court in Edinburgh and the University of St Andrews was produced by writers such as Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, Douglas and David Lyndsay. The Complaynt of Scotland was an early printed work in Scots. For the 19th-century U.S. senator from Virginia see John Strode Barbour Jr. ... Blind Harry (ca. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... Robert Henryson (or Robert Henderson) (c. ... William Dunbar (c. ... Sir David Lyndsay (c. ... The Complaynt of Scotland is a book printed in 1549 and is an important work of the Scots language. ...


After the seventeenth century, anglicisation increased, though Scots was still spoken by the vast majority of the population [citation needed]. At the time, many of the oral ballads from the borders and the North East were written down. Writers of the period were Robert Sempill, Robert Sempill the younger, Francis Sempill, Lady Wardlaw and Lady Grizel Baillie. The English/Scottish border has a long and bloody history of conquest and reconquest, raid and counter-raid. ... Robert Sempill (the elder) (c. ... Robert Sempill, the younger (1595? - 1663?), son of Robert Sempill, was educated at the university of Glasgow, having matriculated in March 1613. ... Francis Sempill (1616? - March, 1682) was a son of Robert Sempill the younger. ... Lady Grizel Baillie (December 25, 1665–December 6, 1746), was a Scottish song-writer. ...


In the eighteenth century, writers such as Allan Ramsay, Robert Burns, Robert Fergusson and Walter Scott continued to use Scots. Scott introduced vernacular dialogue to his novels. Allan Ramsay (October 15, 1686 – January 7, 1758) was a Scottish poet. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ...   Statue of Fergusson on Edinburghs Royal Mile Robert Fergusson (September 5, 1750 - October 16, 1774), Scottish poet, son of Sir William Fergusson, a clerk in the British Linen Company, was born at Edinburgh. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ...


Following their example, such well-known authors as Robert Louis Stevenson, William Alexander, George MacDonald and J. M. Barrie also wrote in Scots or used it in dialogue. Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... For the British Army surgeon, see James Barry (surgeon). ...


In the Victorian era popular Scottish newspapers regularly included articles and commentary in the vernacular, often of unprecedented proportions.[10] The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


In the early twentieth century, a renaissance in the use of Scots occurred, its most vocal figure being Hugh MacDiarmid. Other contemporaries were Douglas Young, Sidney Goodsir Smith, Robert Garioch and Robert McLellan. However, the revival was largely limited to verse and other literature. The Scottish version of modernism, the Scottish literary renaissance was begun by Hugh MacDiarmid in the 1920s when he abandoned his English language poetry and began to write in Lallans. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ... Robert Garioch Sutherland, (May 9, 1909 – April 26, 1981), was a Scottish poet and translator. ...


In 1983 William Laughton Lorimer's translation of the New Testament from the original Greek was published. William Laughton Lorimer (1885-1967) was born at Strathmartine on the outskirts of Dundee, Scotland. ...


Highly anglicised Scots is often used in contemporary fiction, for example, the Edinburgh dialect of Scots in Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh (later made into a motion picture of the same name, though with language allegedly anglicised even more to make it suitable for an international audience). Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh. ... Irvine Welsh (born Leith, Edinburgh, September 27, 1958) is an acclaimed contemporary Scottish novelist, most famous for his novel Trainspotting. ...


But'n'Ben A-Go-Go by Matthew Fitt is a cyberpunk novel written entirely in what Wir Ain Leid (Our Own Language) calls "General Scots". Like all cyberpunk work, it contains imaginative neologisms. Butnben a-go-go is a fictional, science fiction work by Scots writer Matthew Fitt, noteable for being entirely in the Scots language. ... Matthew Fitt is a Lowland Scots poet and novelist. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Dialects

Map of Scots dialects
Map of Scots dialects

There are at least five Scots dialects: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 557 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (635 × 684 pixels, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 557 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (635 × 684 pixels, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

  • Northern Scots, spoken north of Dundee, often split into North Northern, Mid Northern—also known as North East Scots and referred to as "the Doric"—and South Northern.
  • Central Scots, spoken from Fife and Perthshire to the Lothians and Wigtownshire, often split into North East and South East Central, West Central and South West Central Scots.
  • South Scots or simply the "Border Tongue" or "Borders' Dialect" spoken in the Border areas.
  • Insular Scots, spoken in Orkney and Shetland.
  • Ulster Scots, spoken by the descendants of Scottish settlers (and also many of Irish and English descent) in littoral Northern Ireland and County Donegal in the The Republic of Ireland, and sometimes described by the neologism "Ullans", a conflation of Ulster and Lallans. However, in a recent article, Caroline Macafee, editor of The Concise Ulster Dictionary, stated that Ulster Scots was "clearly a dialect of Central Scots".

As well as the main dialects, Edinburgh, Dundee and Glasgow (see Glasgow patter) have local variations on an anglicised form of Central Scots. In Aberdeen, Mid Northern Scots is spoken by a minority. For the Doric dialect of ancient Greek, see Doric Greek Doric was formerly used to refer to all dialects of Lowland Scots but is now usually used as a name for the dialect spoken in the north-east of Scotland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Central Scots is a group of dialects of Scots language. ... South Scots is one of the names given to the dialect (or group of dialects) of Scots spoken in most of the Scottish Borders region. ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Lallans ( a variant of the Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), was also traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Glasgow patter or Glaswegian is a dialect shouted in and around Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ...


Pronunciation

Wee Donald Angus. "Please, Sirr, what time wull it be?" Literal Gentleman. "When?" Cartoon from Punch magazine, August 25th 1920
Wee Donald Angus. "Please, Sirr, what time wull it be?"
Literal Gentleman. "When?"
Cartoon from Punch magazine, August 25th 1920

Many writers now strictly avoid apostrophes where they supposedly represent "missing" English letters. Such letters were never actually missing in Scots. For example, in the 14th century, Barbour spelt the Scots cognate of 'taken' as tane. Since there has been no k in the word for over 700 years, representing its omission with an apostrophe seems pointless. The current spelling is usually taen. The following is more a guide for readers. How the spellings are applied in practice is beyond the scope of such a short description. Phonetics are in IPA. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x552, 44 KB) Summary Scots Language cartoon from Punch - Project Gutenberg eText 16727 From The Project Gutenberg EBook of Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x552, 44 KB) Summary Scots Language cartoon from Punch - Project Gutenberg eText 16727 From The Project Gutenberg EBook of Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... For the 19th-century U.S. senator from Virginia see John Strode Barbour Jr. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Consonants

Most consonants are usually pronounced much as in English but:

  • c: /k/ or /s/, much as in English.
  • ch: /x/, also gh. Medial 'cht' may be /ð/ in Northern dialects. loch (fjord or lake), nicht (night), dochter (daughter), dreich (dreary), etc. Similar to the German "Nacht".
  • ch: word initial or where it follows 'r' /tʃ/. airch (arch), mairch (march), etc.
  • gn: /n/. In Northern dialects /gn/ may occur.
  • kn: /n/. In Northern dialects /kn/ or /tn/ may occur. knap (talk), knee, knowe (knoll), etc.
  • ng: is always /ŋ/.
  • nch: usually /nʃ/. brainch (branch), dunch (push), etc.
  • r: /r/ or /ɹ/ is pronounced in all positions, i.e. rhotically.
  • s or se: /s/ or /z/.
  • t: may be a glottal stop between vowels or word final. In Ulster dentalised pronunciations may also occur, also for 'd'.
  • th: /ð/ or /θ/ much as is English. Initial 'th' in thing, think and thank, etc. may be /h/.
  • wh: usually /ʍ/, older /xʍ/. Northern dialects also have /f/.
  • wr: /wr/ more often /r/ but may be /vr/ in Northern dialects. wrack (wreck), wrang (wrong), write, wrocht (worked), etc.
  • z: /jɪ/ or /ŋ/, may occur in some words as a substitute for the older <ȝ> (yogh). For example: brulzie (broil), gaberlunzie (a beggar) and the names Menzies, Finzean, Culzean, MacKenzie etc. (As a result of the lack of education in Scots, MacKenzie is now generally pronounced with a /z/ following the perceived realisation of the written form, as more controversially is sometimes Menzies.)

In linguistics, rhotic can refer to: a rhotic consonant such as IPA a rhotic accent such as General American an r-colored vowel such as IPA This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The letter yogh (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ogh) was used in Middle English and Middle Scots, representing y (IPA: ) and various velar phonemes. ... Menzies is a Scottish surname, originally the name of the Clan Menzies (Gaelic Mèinnearach). ... Finzean (pronounced fingen, IPA - see yogh) is a place in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. ... Culzean Castle. ... Mackenzie (also spelled MacKenzie or McKenzie), originally pronounced makenyie (IPA /məkˈenjɪ/), was originally a surname of Scottish origin (see Clan Mackenzie) and can refer to many different people, places and other subjects: // Clan MacKenzie, a Scottish clan Alastair MacKenzie (b. ...

Silent letters

  • The word final 'd' in nd and ld: but often pronounced in derived forms. Sometimes simply 'n' and 'l' or 'n'' and 'l''. auld (old), haund (hand), etc.
  • 't' in medial cht: ('ch' = /x/) and st and before final en. fochten (fought), thristle (thistle) also 't' in aften (often), etc.
  • 't' in word final ct and pt but often pronounced in derived forms. respect, accept, etc.

Vowels

In Scots, vowel length is usually conditioned by the Scots vowel length rule. Words which differ only slightly in pronunciation from Scottish English are generally spelled as in English. Other words may be spelt the same but differ in pronunciation, for example: aunt, swap, want and wash with /a/, bull, full v. and pull with /ʌ/, bind, find and wind v., etc. with /ɪ/. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The Scots Vowel-Length Rule, also known as Aitkens Law after Professor A.J. Aitken who formulated it, describes how vowel length in Scots and Scottish English is conditioned by environment. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ...

  • The unstressed vowel /ə/ may be represented by any vowel letter.
  • a: usually /a/ but in south west and Ulster dialects often /ɑ/. Note final a in awa (away), twa (two) and wha (who) may also be /ɑ/ or /ɔ/ or /e/ depending on dialect.
  • au, aw and sometimes a, a' or aa: /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ in Southern, Central and Ulster dialects but /aː/ in Northern dialects. The cluster 'auld' may also be /ʌul/ in Ulster. aw (all), cauld (cold), braw (handsome), faw (fall), snaw (snow), etc.
  • ae, ai, a(consonant)e: /e/. Often /ɛ/ before /r/. In Northern dialects the vowel in the cluster -'ane' is often /i/. brae (slope), saip (soap), hale (whole), ane (one), ance (once), bane (bone), etc.
  • ea, ei, ie: /iː/ or /eː/ depending on dialect. /ɛ/ may occur before /r/. Root final this may be /əi/ in Southern dialects. In the far north /əi/ may occur. deid (dead), heid (head), meat (food), clear, speir (enquire), sea, etc.
  • ee, e(Consonant)e: /iː/. Root final this may be /əi/ in Southern dialects. ee (eye), een (eyes), steek (shut), here, etc.
  • e: /ɛ/. bed, het (heated), yett (gate), etc.
  • eu: /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ depending on dialect. Sometimes erroneously 'oo', 'u(consonant)e', 'u' or 'ui'. beuk (book), eneuch (enough), ceuk (cook), leuk (look), teuk (took), etc.
  • ew: /ju/. In Northern dialects a root final 'ew' may be /jʌu/. few, new, etc.
  • i: /ɪ/, but often varies between /ɪ/ and /ʌ/ especially after 'w' and 'wh'. /æ/ also occurs in Ulster before voiceless consonants. big, fit (foot), wid (wood), etc.
  • i(consonant)e, y(consonant)e, ey: /əi/ or /aɪ/. 'ay' is usually /e/ but /əi/ in ay (yes) and aye (always). In Dundee it is noticeably /ɛ/.
  • o: /ɔ/ but often /o/.
  • oa: /o/.
  • ow, owe (root final), seldom ou: /ʌu/. Before 'k' vocalisation to /o/ may occur especially in western and Ulster dialects. bowk (retch), bowe (bow), howe (hollow), knowe (knoll), cowp (overturn), yowe (ewe), etc.
  • ou, oo, u(consonant)e: /u/. Root final /ʌu/ may occur in Southern dialects. cou (cow), broun (brown), hoose (house), moose (mouse) etc.
  • u: /ʌ/. but, cut, etc.
  • ui, also u(consonant)e, oo: /ø/ in conservative dialects. In parts of Fife, Dundee and north Antrim /e/. In Northern dialects usually /i/ but /wi/ after /g/ and /k/ and also /u/ before /r/ in some areas eg. fuird (ford). Mid Down and Donegal dialects have /i/. In central and north Down dialects /ɪ/ when short and /e/ when long. buird (board), buit (boot), cuit (ankle), fluir (floor), guid (good), schuil (school), etc. In central dialects uise v. and uiss n. (use) are [jeːz] and [jɪs].

Suffixes

  • Negative na: /ɑ/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'nae' or 'y' eg. canna (can't), dinna (don't) and maunna (mustn't).
  • fu (ful): /u/, /ɪ/, /ɑ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'fu'', 'fie', 'fy', 'fae' and 'fa'.
  • The word ending ae: /ɑ/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'a', 'ow' or 'y', for example: arrae (arrow), barrae (barrow) and windae (window), etc.

Some grammar features

Not all of the following features are exclusive to Scots and may also occur in other "Anglic varieties". The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ...


The definite article

The is used before the names of seasons, days of the week, many nouns, diseases, trades, occupations, sciences and academic subjects. It is also often used in place of the indefinite article and instead of a possessive pronoun: the hairst (autumn), the Wadensday (Wednesday), awa ti the kirk (off to church), the nou (at the moment), the day (today), the haingles (influenza), the Laitin (Latin), The deuk ett the bit breid (The duck ate a piece of bread), the wife (my wife) etc.


Nouns

Nouns usually form their plural in -(e)s but some irregular plurals occur: ee/een (eye/eyes), cauf/caur (calf/calves), horse/horse (horse/horses), cou/kye (cow/cows), shae/shuin (shoe/shoes). Nouns of measure and quantity unchanged in the plural: fower fit (four feet), twa mile (two miles), five pund (five pounds), three hunderwecht (three hundredweight). Regular plurals include laifs (loaves), leafs (leaves), shelfs (shelves) and wifes (wives), etc.


Diminutives

Diminutives in -ie, burnie small burn (brook), feardie/feartie (frightened person, coward), gamie (gamekeeper), kiltie (kilted soldier), postie (postman), wifie (woman), rhodie (rhododendron), and also in -ock, bittock (little bit), playock (toy, plaything), sourock (sorrel) and Northern –ag, bairnag (little) bairn (child), Cheordag (Geordie), -ockie, hooseockie (small house), wifeockie (little woman), both influenced by the Scottish Gaelic diminutive -ag (-óg in Irish Gaelic). A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ...


Modal verbs

The modal verbs mey (may), ocht tae (ought to), and sall (shall), are no longer used much in Scots but occurred historically and are still found in anglicised literary Scots. Can, shoud (should), and will are the preferred Scots forms. Scots employs double modal constructions He'll no can come the day (He won't be able to come today), A micht coud come the morn (I may be able to come tomorrow), A uised tae coud dae it, but no nou (I could do it once, but not now). Look up shall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Present tense of verbs

The present tense of verbs adhere to the Northern subject rule whereby verbs end in -s in all persons and numbers except when a single personal pronoun is next to the verb, Thay say he's ower wee, Thaim that says he's ower wee, Thir lassies says he's ower wee (They say he's too small), etc. Thay're comin an aw but Five o thaim's comin, The lassies? Thay've went but Ma brakes haes went. Thaim that comes first is serred first (Those who come first are served first). The trees growes green in the simmer (The trees grow green in summer). The Northern Subject Rule is a grammatical pattern inherited from Northern Middle English. ...


Wis 'was' may replace war 'were', but not conversely: You war/wis thare.


Past tense of verbs

The regular past form of the verb is -(i)t or -(e)d, according to the preceding consonant or vowel hurtit, skelpit (smacked), Mendit, kent/kenned (knew/known), cleant/cleaned, scrieved (scribbled), telt/tauld (told), dee'd (died). Some verbs have distinctive forms: greet/grat/grutten (weep/wept), fesh/fuish/fuishen (fetch/fetched), lauch/leuch/lauchen~leuchen (laugh/laughed), thrash/thruish/thrashen~thruishen (thresh/threshed), wash/wuish/washen~wuishen (wash/washed), gae/gaed/gane (go/went/gone), gie/gied/gien (give/gave/given), pit/pat/pitten (put/put/put/), git/gat/gotten (get/got/got(ten)), ride/rade/ridden (ride/rode/ridden), drive/drave/driven~dreen (drive/drove/driven), write/wrat(e)/written (write/wrote/written), bind/band/bund (bind/bound/bound), find/fand/fund (find/found/found), fecht/focht/fochten (fight/fought), bake/bakit~beuk/baken (bake/baked), tak(e)/teuk/taen (take/took/taken), chuse/chusit/chusit (choose/chose/chosen).


Word order

Scots prefers the word order He turnt oot the licht to 'He turned the light out' and Gie me it to 'Give it to me'.


Certain verbs are often used progressively He wis thinkin he wad tell her, He wis wantin tae tell her.


Verbs of motion may be dropped before an adverb or adverbial phrase of motion A'm awa tae ma bed, That's me awa hame, A'll intae the hoose an see him.


Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers ending in -t seicont, fowert, fift, saxt— (second, fourth, fifth, sixth) etc. first, Thrid/third— (first, third).


Adverbs

Adverbs are usually of the same form as the verb root or adjective especially after verbs. Haein a real guid day (Having a really good day). She's awfu fauchelt (She's awfully tired).


Adverbs are also formed with -s, -lies, lins, gate(s)and wey(s) -wey, whiles (at times), mebbes (perhaps), brawlies (splendidly), geylies (pretty well), aiblins (perhaps), airselins (backwards), hauflins (partly), hidlins (secretly), maistlins (almost), awgates (always, everywhere), ilkagate (everywhere), onygate (anyhow), ilkawey (everywhere), onywey(s) (anyhow, anywhere), endweys (straight ahead), whit wey (how, why).


Subordinate clauses

Verbless subordinate clauses introduced by an and expressing surprise or indignation She haed tae walk the hale lenth o the road an her sieven month pregnant, He telt me tae rin an me wi ma sair leg (and me with my sore leg).


Negation

Negation occurs by using the adverb no, in the North East nae, as in A'm no comin (I'm not coming), A'll no learn ye (I will not teach you), or by using the suffix -na (pronunciation depending on dialect), as in A dinna ken (I don't know), Thay canna come (They can't come), We coudna hae telt him (We couldn't have told him), and A hivna seen her (I haven't seen her). The usage with no is preferred to that with -na with contractable auxiliary verbs like -ll for will, or in yes no questions with any auxiliary He'll no come and Did he no come?


Relative pronoun

The relative pronoun is that ('at is an alternative form borrowed from Norse but can also be arrived at by contraction) for all persons and numbers, but may be left out Thare's no mony fowk (that) leeves in that glen (There aren't many people who live in that glen). The anglicised forms wha, wham, whase 'who, whom, whose', and the older whilk 'which' are literary affectations; whilk is only used after a statement He said he'd tint it, whilk wis no whit we wantit tae hear. The possessive is formed by adding 's or by using an appropriate pronoun The wifie that's hoose gat burnt, the wumman that her dochter gat mairit; the men that thair boat wis tint.


A third adjective/adverb yon/yonder, thon/thonder indicating something at some distance D'ye see yon/thon hoose ower yonder/thonder? Also thae (those) and thir (these), the plurals of this and that.


In Northern Scots this and that are also used where "these" and "those" would be in Standard English.


Notes

  1. ^ The Oxford Companion to the English Language p.894
  2. ^ A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992.
  3. ^ NOSTRA VULGARI LINGUA: SCOTS AS A EUROPEAN LANGUAGE 1500 - 1700 [1]
  4. ^ "SECOND REPORT SUBMITTED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM PURSUANT TO ARTICLE 25, PARAGRAPH 1 OF THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES" Available here
  5. ^ See for example Confession of Faith Ratification Act 1560, written in Scots and still part of British Law
  6. ^ Eagle, Andy (2006) Aw Ae Wey - Written Scots in Scotland and Ulster. Available at http://www.scots-online.org/airticles/AwAeWey.pdf
  7. ^ Exposed to ridicule Scotsman 7 Feb 2004
  8. ^ Scots - Teaching approaches Learning and Teaching Scotland Online Service
  9. ^ National Guidelines 5-14: ENGLISH LANGUAGE Learning and Teaching Scotland Online Service
  10. ^ William Donaldson, The Language of the People: Scots Prose from the Victorian Revival, Aberdeen University Press 1989.

Professor Adam Jack Aitken (1921-1998) Jack Aitken was born in Edinburgh but grew up in Bonnyrigg and was educated at Lasswade Secondary School. ...

References

  • Corbett, John; McClure, Derrick; Stuart-Smith, Jane (Editors)(2003) The Edinburgh Companion to Scots. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1596-2
  • Eagle, Andy (2005) Wir Ain Leid. Scots-Online. Available in full at http://www.scots-online.org/airticles/WirAinLeid.pdf
  • Gordon Jr., Raymond G.(2005), editor The Ethnologue Fifteenth Edition. SCI. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. Available in full at http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sco
  • Jones, Charles (1997) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Press. ISBN 0-7486-0754-4
  • Jones, Charles (1995) A Language Suppressed: The pronunciation of the Scots language in the 18th century. Edinburgh, John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-427-3
  • Kingsmore, Rona K. (1995) Ulster Scots Speech: A Sociolinguistic Study. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0711-7
  • MacAfee, Caroline (1980/1992) Characteristics of Non-Standard Grammar in Scotland (University of Aberdeen: available at http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~enl038/grammar.htm)
  • McClure, J. Derrick (1997) Why Scots Matters. Edinburgh, Saltire Society. ISBN 0-85411-071-2
  • Niven, Liz; Jackson, Robin (Eds.) (1998) The Scots Language: its place in education. Watergaw Publications. ISBN 0-9529978-5-1
  • Robertson, T.A.; Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Use of the Shetland Dialect. Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd.
  • Ross, David; Smith, Gavin D. (Editors)(1999) Scots-English, English-Scots Practical Dictionary. New York, Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0779-4
  • Scottish National Dictionary Association (1999) Concise Scots Dictionary . Edinburgh, Polygon. ISBN 1-902930-01-0
  • Scottish National Dictionary Association (1999) Scots Thesaurus. Edinburgh, Polygon. ISBN 1-902930-03-7
  • Warrack, Alexander (Editor)(1911) Chambers Scots Dictionary. Chambers.
  • Yound, C.P.L. (2004) Scots Grammar. Scotsgate. Available in full at http://www.scotsgate.com/scotsgate01.pdf

See also

Wikipedia
Scots language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... The Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) is an online Scots-English language dictionary, now run by Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd (formerly the Scottish National Dictionary Association), based at George Square, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech (SCOTS) is an ongoing project to build a corpus of modern-day texts in Scottish English and varieties of Scots. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Billy Kay is a writer, broadcaster and language activist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lallans ( a variant of the Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), was also traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Lowland Scots
Wikipedia
Scots language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

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Ulster Scots language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1641 words)
Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scotch-Irish, refers to the variety of the Scots language spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland.
Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) is a West Germanic language closely related to the English language.
Ulster Scots is defined in legislation (The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999) as: the variety of the Scots language which has traditionally been used in parts of Northern Ireland and in Donegal in Ireland [1].
Scots language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4102 words)
Evidence for its existence as a separate language lies in the extensive body of Scots literature, in independent—if somewhat fluid—orthographic conventions and in its former use as the official language of the original Scottish Parliament.
A model of language revival to which many enthusiasts aspire is that of the Catalan language in areas spanning parts of Spain, France, Andorra and Italy, particularly as regards the situation of Catalan in Catalonia.
Ulster Scots, spoken by the descendants of Scottish settlers as well as those of Irish descent in Northern Ireland and County Donegal in the Irish Republic, and sometimes described by the neologism "Ullans", a conflation of Ulster and Lallans.
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