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Encyclopedia > Scotland in the Late Middle Ages
History of Scotland
Chronological Eras
Prehistoric Scotland
Scotland in the Early Middle Ages
Scotland in the High Middle Ages
Wars of Scottish Independence
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages
Scotland in the Early Modern Era
Scottish Enlightenment
Scotland in the Modern Era
Dynasties and Regimes
House of Alpin (843–878) & (889–1040)
House of Moray (1040–1058)
House of Dunkeld (1058–1286)
House of Balliol (1292–1296)
House of Bruce (1306–1371)
House of Stuart (1371–1707)
Act of Union (1707)
Topical
Art history
Colonial history
Culture
Economic history
Historiography
Literary history
Military history
Politics
Timeline of Scottish history
Scottish portal

The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. It is a period where the boundaries are set by the death of kings-that of Alexander III in 1286 and James IV in 1513, one by accident and the other by war; both different and yet, in a deeper sense, linked. The kingdom was to be tested both in war and in internal political struggles; and though at times it came dangerously close both to outright extinction, or permanent subordination to England, its powerful southern neighbour, it survived, in large measure due to the maturity and sophistication of the Scottish state itself. The foundations laid earlier by David I and his immediate successors, involving a blending of older Gaelic and newer Norman elements, ensured that the country avoided the piecemeal conquest and absorption that was to be the experience of Wales and Ireland, where local elites remained wedded, in large measure, to older Celtic practices, with decentralised and diffuse power structures. Another positive event in this period would be during the reigns of James III and James IV, which would see the Renaissance arrive in Scotland. Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... The House of Alpin is a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 843 to 1058. ... The House of Moray was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1040 to 1058. ... The House of Dunkeld or Canmore was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1058 to 1290. ... The House of Balliol was a Scottish royal family in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... The House of Bruce was a Scottish Royal House in the 14th century. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper: Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! The culture of Scotland is the national culture of Scotland. ... Scottish historiography refers to the sources and critical methods used by scholars to come to an understanding of the history of Scotland. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The Thin Red Line of 1854. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), King of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) - King of Scots from 1488 to 1513. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh Government Monarchy Head of State King of Scots Parliament Parliament of Scotland Currency Pound Scots This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707). ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Gaelic as an adjective means pertaining to the Gaels, whether to their language or their culture. ... Norman may refer to: the Normans, the Norman people. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd in... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ...


The Wars of Scottish Independence had seen the previously fractured Scottish nation unite somewhat during dynastic struggles and English intervention. The late Middle Ages would see the development of more centralised Monarchy under the House of Stuart, who attempted to consolidate their power over Scotland’s other powerful noble families, like the Douglases, the Livingstons and the Boyd family. As well as the strengthening of the Scottish Parliament. The era also witnessed the Scots language take it’s place as the language of law, government and of the people of lowland Scotland. Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Clan Douglas Crest: Jamais arriere (Never behind) Clan Douglas is an Scottish clan originating in South Lanarkshire, Scotland and since spread through the Scottish Borderland, Angus, Lothian and beyond. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... Scots is an Anglic variety spoken in Scotland, where it is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides). ...


It was also a period where a distinct national identity began to take shape. While it is true that nationalism in the modern sense is largely a creation of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and that loyalties in the Middle Ages tend to be focused on kings and chieftains, rather than abstract concepts of race and nation, the sentiments and ideals expressed in the 1320 Declaration of Arbroath stand comparison with all of the great statements of national self-determination. Intermittent warfare since the 14th Century, from the Wars of Scottish Independence to the The Rough Wooing had one lasting side effect, to fuse the Lowlanders into a single people. The wars of the fourteenth century led people to lose any old ethnic loyalties and become part of a coherent Scottish nation. This emerging identity was to be shaped not by what Scots were, but by what they were not: subjects of the English crown. In the period before 1286 war with England had been the exception rather than the rule. When it had come it was more often through the aggression of the Scots, and the expansionist ambitions of their kings, rather than the imperialism of the English. But from 1296 there was to be a fundamental change: for the crown of England Scottish kings were no longer brother monarchs but rebels, in breach of feudal law. War, and rumours of wars, thus became part of the whole national experience. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The Rough Wooing was a term coined by Sir Walter Scott and H. E. Marshall to describe the Anglo-Scottish war pursued intermittently from 1544 to 1551. ... This article describes the British monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... The list of monarchs of Scotland (Scottish Gælic: Rìghrean agus Bàn-rìghrean na h-Alba) concerns the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba) which was first unified as a state by Kenneth I of Scotland in 843. ... Feudal law describes a political system which placed men and estates under the hierarchical distinctions of lords and vassals. Feudalism refers to the relations and interdependence between lord and vassal, based on the fief, or ownership of land. ...

Contents

Geography

During this period the borders of the Kingdom of Scotland evolved to closely resemble what is now modern Scotland. There was some significant changes during this era. The Orkney and Shetland came under the ownership of the Scottish crown on February 20, 1472 following non-payment of the marriage dowry of Margaret of Denmark, queen of James III of Scotland. James IV, successfully ended the quasi-independent rule of the Lord of the Isles, bringing the Western Isles under effective Royal control for the first time. In 1482 the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, which had changed hands 13 times over the previous 335 years was captured for the final time by the English Richard Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, although not officially merged into England until 1746 with the Wales and Berwick Act it has been administered by England since this date. Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh Government Monarchy Head of State King of Scots Parliament Parliament of Scotland Currency Pound Scots This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707). ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the groomss family to that of the bride to permit their marriage. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) - King of Scots from 1488 to 1513. ... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles The designation Lord of the Isles (Scottish Gaelic: ), now a Scottish title of nobility, emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... King Richard III held the title of Duke of Gloucester from 1461 until his accession in 1483 The title Duke of Gloucester (pronounced gloss-ter) is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was an act of Parliament explicitly expressing that all future laws applying to England would likewise also be applicable to Wales and Berwick unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. ...


Demographics

One interpretation of the linguistic divide in 1400, here based on place-name evidence.
One interpretation of the linguistic divide in 1400, here based on place-name evidence.

The population of Scotland in this period is unknown. Not until 1755 do we get reliable information about the population of Scotland, when it was 1,265,380. However, best estimates put the Scottish population in this period between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people, growing from a low point to a high point.[1] This population was much more evenly spread than today. Image File history File links RossScotLang1400. ... Image File history File links RossScotLang1400. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... British toponymy (relating to the mainland and islands closely linked to it including the Shetland Islands, the Orkney Islands, and the Channel Islands) is the study of place names, their origins and the trends associated with naming places in specific regional areas. ...


The late middle ages saw the emergence of the literary language of the Anglic-speaking parts of Scotland known as Early Scots which had already begun diverging from the varieties of early Middle English previously established in the kingdom. These varieties had particular affinities with Early Northern English, the northern forms of Middle English descended from Northumbrian Old English. During this period, English in Scotland was simply was referred to using the word Inglis, a Middle English spelling of "English", thus indicating that speakers perceived no difference with any other English dialect. By the 14th and 15th centuries, the variety of English (Inglis that resulted from the above influences had replaced Gaelic (Scottis) in much of the lowlands and Norman French had ceased to be used as the language of the elite. By this time differentiation into Southern, Central and Northern dialects had perhaps occurred. Scots was also beginning to replace Latin as a language for records and literature. In Caithness, it came into contact with both Norn and Gaelic. The end of the period saw the language begin to evolve into what is now known as Middle Scots. The Stewart identification with the lowland language had finally secured the division of Scotland into two somewhat antagonistic parts, the Gaelic Highlands and the Anglic Lowlands. The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Northumbrian was a dialect spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... The Norns The Norns of the Norse Mythology are three old crones by the names of Urd (fate), Skuld (necessity) and Verdandi (in the making). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Middle Scots describes the language of Anglic-speaking Lowland Scotland in the period 1450 to 1700. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Anglic is a term used to refer to speech varieties derived from Old English, especially the Anglian variety thereof spoken in Northumbria—the most notable modern descendants of which are English and Scots—and their corresponding speech communities. ... The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary...


During the 14th Century and 15th Century Edinburgh started to come be regarded as Scotland’s capital. In 1360 Edinburgh had 4,000 houses, the castle began to be used as the usual royal residence, being strengthened in stone. The city became capital officially in 1437. The next most populous burghs at the time were Aberdeen, Dundee, Haddington, Glasgow and Berwick (although eventually being lost to England). Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth Edinburgh Castle is an ancient stronghold on the Castle Rock in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, has been in use by assorted military forces since 900 BC and only transferred from Ministry of Defence administration recently. ... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... A burgh (pronounced burruh) is the Scots language equivalent of the English language borough. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... Haddington. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Death of a Dynasty

Main article: Great Cause

The death of Alexander in March 1286, in a fall from his horse, left his dynasty hanging by the thinest of threads. His older children had all predeceased him, leaving his granddaughter, Margaret, known to history as the Maid of Norway. Margaret, only two years old at the time of her grandfather's death, remained for the time being with her father King Eric II in Norway, while Scotland was placed under the governace of six Guardians. The arrangement worked well; but there were worrying signs. Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, had a claim to the throne through his descent from David of Huntingdon, a grandson of David I. His neighbour in Galloway, John Balliol had a superior claim by his descent from the same Earl David, through the elder of his daughters. But Bruce was a much more forceful man than his rival. The Guardians-two bishops, two earls and two barons-managed to head off this crisis, in part by appealing to Edward I of England for help. Edward obliged-but at a price. In 1290, after the death of Margaret I of Scotland, the Crown of Scotland was without an immediate heir; however, there existed many distant heirs. ... This article is about Margaret, Queen of Scots. ... Eirik Magnusson, king of Norway from 1280 until 1299. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... The Guardians of Scotland were the de facto heads of state of Scotland during the First Interregnum of 1290-1292, and the Second Interregnum of 1296-1306. ... Robert Bruce a. ... David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon (d. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... John Balliol, the son of Devorguilla Balliol and John, 5th Baron de Balliol, was the king of Scotland from November 17, 1292-1296. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch (1. ...


Edward's father, Henry III, tried unsuccessfully to obtain recognition of his rights as the feudal superior of Scotland from the young King Alexander in 1251. Edward himself pressed the same claim in 1278, with no more success. The untimley death of Alexander, and the succession of a female infant, offered the English king of enforcing his authority. He obtained the agreement of the Guardians to a marriage between Margaret and his son and heir, Edward of Caernarvon. While agreeing to the marriage the Guardians were mindful of their duty to preserve the liberty of Scotland when the terms were settled at Birgham-on-Tweed in July 1290. This was to be a mere personal union of the crowns, and Scotland was to remain "separate, apart and free in itself, without subjugation to the English kingdom." But Edward insisted on the insertion of his favourite caveat into the Treaty of Birgham-"Saving always the rights of the King of England, which belonged, or ought to belong to him." Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... The Treaty of Birgham comprised two treaties intended to secure the independence of Scotland after Alexander III died without issue in 1286. ...


All this came to nothing; for that autumn news reached the Guardians that Margaret had died in Orkney on her way to Scotland. This is, perhaps, one of the defining moments in all of Scottish history. In the Middle Ages only the monarch could be said to bind together all of the threads of the national community; a country without a crowned head risked disintegration into its component parts. It also faced the danger of dynastic war. No sooner had Bruce of Annandale heard the news than he was once again in arms. Scotland was saved by two things: the Guardians effective control of public affairs and, paradoxically, by the intervention of King Edward himself. Flag of Orkney (unofficial). ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ...


Fearful of Bruce's sabre-rattling, William Fraser, Bishop of St Andrews, and one of the Guardians, wrote to Edward in October 1290, advising him of the rumoured death of Margaret and the armed rising of Robert Bruce. Fraser proceeded to ask Edward to intervene to prevent bloodshed, and also recommending that he reach an understanding with John Balliol, whose supporter he was. Sir William Augustus Fraser, 4th Baronet (10 February 1826–17 August 1898), English politician, author and collector, was born the son of Sir James Fraser, a colonel of the 7th Hussars, who had served on Wellingtons staff at Waterloo. ...


History has not been kind to Bishop Fraser. He stands condemned to read the past backwards, so to speak, from consequences to causes. Some judgements have been particularly harsh. In his Lion in the North, John Prebble says that "by this letter he opened the door to half a century of savage bloodshed." Yet the fact remains that in 1290 Scotland could not settle the dynastic question by any acceptable internal process. It is impossible to accept that Edward would have sttod aside while Scotland sank into chaos. If Edward really intended to subjugate Scotland this would have been far easier in 1290, when there was no king, than in 1296. Edward was generally respected as an arbiter in international affairs, who had taken pains on the Continent to prevent political quarrels ending in warfare. His intervention in Scotland was widely accepted by the community of the realm, offering the only way out of a potentially lethal deadlock. Even Bruce, if he had been so minded, could not have defied Edward, to whom he owed allegiance for the several lands he held in England. Bishop Fraser's chief fault, perhaps, was not his appeal to Edward but his recommendation of John Balliol, destined to be one of history's great losers. John Edward Curtis Prebble, FRSL, OBE (June 23, 1915 - January 30, 2001) was an journalist, novelist, documentarian and historian. ...


In the end the whole contest for the Scottish throne—known as the Great Cause—was decided with srupulous fairness, and much self-interest. As a preliminary Edward insisted that all the leading Scots, both Guardians and Competitors, recognise him as Lord Paramount of the Realm-the feudal overlord-, the very thing that Alexander had rejected. There was some attempt to resist, which made little headway against Edward's intransigence. Once this matter was out of the way a feudal court was convened at Berwick-upon-Tweed, then the most prosperous town in Scotland, and John Balliol duly emerged as king in November, 1292. The list of monarchs of Scotland (Scottish Gælic: Rìghrean agus Bàn-rìghrean na h-Alba) concerns the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba) which was first unified as a state by Kenneth I of Scotland in 843. ... In 1290, after the death of Margaret I of Scotland, the Crown of Scotland was without an immediate heir; however, there existed many distant heirs. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


Desiring nothing but our own

For Bruce the Competitor this was a bitter outcome. According to the chronicle of Sir Thomkas Gray, he made his feelings plain; "all the magnates of Scotland yielded allegiance to John de Balliol with oath and homage, except Robert de Bruce the elder, who persisted in his claim, and declared in the hearing of King Edward that he would never do homage." It is certainly true that rather than submit to King John he resigned his lordship of Annandale, and his claim to the throne to his son Robert, Earl of Carrick, retaining only his English estates. Shortly after the younger Bruce resigned his own earldom of Carrick, which he held in right of his wife, to his son, also Robert, the future king, now eighteen years old. Robert of Annandale left Scotland in 1293, thus avoiding paying homage to Balliol like his father, and keeping alive the Bruce claim to the throne. The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... Robert de Brus or Robert Bruce whom some genealogists name Robert VI de Brus (c 1250 - c 1304), 6th Lord of Annandale, Earl of Carrick jure uxoris was a feudal lord in Scotland and England during prelude stages of Wars of Scottish Independence. ... The Earldom of Carrick has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and once in the Peerage of Ireland. ... Robert I, the Bruce, in a conjectural drawing Robert I, (Roibert a Briuis in medieval Gaelic, Raibeart Bruis in modern Scottish Gaelic and Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys in Norman French), usually known in modern English today as Robert the Bruce (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), was...


History is rightly concerned with what actually happened and not with what might have been; but it is surely fortunate for the reputation of the Bruce family that they lost the contest of 1292: for a claim to the throne, in the circumstances of the time, was surely better than the reality. Determined to insist on the letter iof the law, Edward treated John with humiliating condescension-forcing one concession after another. For the barons of Scotland his determination to force the country to join him in his war with France was a step too far. Tiring of their compromised king, in 1295 the community appointed a council of twelve-in effect a new panel of Guardians-to manage national affairs on his behalf. In recognition that the country was drifting towards a showdown with England the council concluded a defensive bond with France, destined to be the most enduring in Scottish history, and in time to be referred to as the Auld Alliance. But Scotland was ill-prepared for war: the following year the host-which last saw action in 1263-was overwhelmed at the Battle of Dunbar. Soon after John and his son, Edward, were taken into captivity. Scotland was now little better than a conquered province; a nation, once again, without a monarch. Nevertheless, the process of 1292 still held good: it still had a king in name, a focus for the idea of the nation; and for many that was enough in itself. It should always be remembered that the Wars of Independence began with a determination to uphold the rights of the absent King John. The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Richard Siward John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey Strength Approx. ... Edward Balliol (c. ...


In 1297 Edward was faced with a major rising in the north, and in September William Wallace and Andrew de Moray defeated an English army at the battle of Stirling Bridge. Thus began what might be referred to as the 'war of the scales', with one side up at one moment, and the other at the next. After the death of Moray, either at or shortly after Stirling Bridge, Wallace emerged as sole Guardian of the realm in the name of "the illustrious King John"; but his brief glory ended in the summer of 1298 at the Battle of Falkirk. The Guardianship survived, though, in the person of John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, head of an important Scottish noble house and the absent king's nephew. He is better known to history simply as the Red Comyn. He was joined in office, oddly enough, by Robert Bruce of Carrick, whose father continued to fight on the side of the English. This was clearly a political balancing act, intended to unite all shades of Scottish opinion behind Balliol. But while Bruce paid lip-service to the illustrious and conveniently absent John, it was perfectly clear that he continued to nurture the family ambition, and the arrangement with Comyn proved too fragile to last. In 1302 Bruce made his own peace with Edward. Two years later Comyn was forced to make a peace on behalf of the nation, after Edward led yet another major invasion. William Wallace Sir William Wallace (c. ... Andrew de Moray, a member of the Scottish nobility, went to prison with his father, Sir Andrew de Moray, following the 1296 Battle of Dunbar. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Andrew Moray William Wallace Surrey Cressingham† Strength 7,000 infantry and 150 cavalry 30,000[citation needed] infantry and 750 cavalry Casualties  ? Over 7,000 killed The Battle of Stirling Bridge was one of the series of conflicts of the Wars of... Combatants Scotland England Commanders William Wallace Edward I of England Strength 500 cavalry, 9,500 infantry 2,000 cavalry, 12,000 infantry. ... John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch or John the Red, also known simply as the Red Comyn, (died 10 February 1306), was a Scottish nobleman who was Lord of Badenoch. ...


In 1306, with Scotland seemingly subdued and at peace, Robert Bruce killed John Comyn for reasons that have never been absolutely clear. It was a dramatic act followed by one even more dramatic: a few weeks later he was crowned King of Scots at Scone. But the Wars of Independence were now parallelled and overlaped by a new contest, involving Scot against Scot. The cival war between the Bruces and the Balliols was to last almost as long as the war with England itself. This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ...


In the years that followed, with England now ruled by Edward II, the Scots steadily gained the military initiative, with major victories at the Battle of Bannockburn and elsewhere. In 1328 the Englsh government finally recognised the independence of Scotland-and the legitimacy of the Bruce dynasty-in the Treaty of Northampton. By the time of Robert Bruce's death in 1329 his dynasty seemed secure. He was succeeded by his infant son, David II, who already had an heir in the person of his older nephew, Robert Stewart, son of Bruce's daughter, Marjorie, and Walter FitzAlan, High Steward of Scotland. Robert was to become, in time, the first of the Stewart kings of Scotland. Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II of England Strength about 8,000 20,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bannockburn (June 23, 1314 – June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Prior to the Treaty of Edinbugh-Northampton, Edward II claimed he adhered to a truce, but he allowed English privateers to attack Flemish vessels trading with Scotland. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... Robert II (March 2, 1316 – April 19, 1390), king of Scotland, called the Steward, a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). ... Margaret de Bruce or Marjorie Bruce (December, 1296 - March 2, 1316) was the only daughter of Robert I of Scotland and his first wife Isabella of Mar. ... Walter Stewart or Steward (1293 -1326) was the 6th High steward of Scotland. ...


Birth of a Dynasty

The Peace of Nothampton was of brief duration, less because of English resentment—though that was real enough—and more because of Balliol ambition. By 1332 the former King John was long dead but his son, Edward, offered an alternative to all those with Balliol and Comyn associations, who over the years had maintained their hostility to the Bruces as allies of the English. Although officially disinherited in Scotland these men were particularly tenacious in pursuit of their various claims; none more so than Henry de Beaumont, who had a right by marriage to the earldom of Buchan, formerly held by the Comyns. With his encouragement—and the tacit agreement of Edward III—Balliol came to England, subsequently launching a 'free enterprise' attack on Scotland, winning a dramatic victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. He was subsequently crowned at Scone, the traditional site of all Scottish enthronments, though his regime was too superficial to last. The following year Edward came out in his support, and the Scots were subjected to an even more devastating defeat than Dupplin at the Battle of Halidon Hill. The military initiative which had been lost to England during the days of Robert Bruce was now back in their hands: from this point forward it was rarely lost. The Second War of Scottish Independence began properly in 1333 when Edward III overturned the 1328 Treaty of Northampton, under which England recognised the legitimacy of the dynasty established by Robert Bruce. ... Henry Beaumont, titular Earl of Buchan, was a key figure in the Anglo-Scots wars of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, known as the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English kings of medieval times. ... Battle of Dupplin Moor was fought between supporters of the infant Bruce king and rebels supporting the Balliol claim in 1332. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders Sir Archibald Douglas Edward III of England Strength 13,000 9,000 Casualties exact figure unknown, but very high exact figure unknown, but very low Battle of Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333) was fought during the second War of Scottish Independence. ...


With the political and military situation in Scotland both confused and dangerous, David was sent to France for safety in 1334. National resistance was kept alive by a new series of Guardians, the most notable of whom was Sir Andrew Murray, the son of Wallace's companion in 1297, who won a small but important victory against the supporters of Edward Balliol at the Battle of Culblean on St. Andrew's Day, 1335. The national cause, though at times very weak, was preserved, especially after the outbreak of the Hundred Years War between England and France in 1337, when Edward lost interest in Balliol and Scotland. By the time David returned in 1341 the country was largely free of both English and Balliol forces. Important political changes occurred during his absence. The weakening of central power saw the emergence of the semi-independent Lordship of the Isles under the chiefs of Clan Donald, which was to enjoy a troubled and uneasy relationship with the Scottish crown until it was abolished in 1493. Sir Andrew Murray or Moray was the son and namesake of William Wallaces companion-in-arms. ... Combatants Forces loyal to David Bruce Forces loyal to Edward Balliol Commanders Sir Andrew Murray, Guardian of Scotland David de Strathbogie, titular Earl of Atholl † Strength 1100 3000 Casualties unknown unknown. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Lord of the Isles, now a Scottish title of nobility, originally referred to a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. ... The Donald Clan Crest. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


In response to a plea from Philip VI of France, under serious military threat from Edward, David invaded northern England in late 1346, only to be defeated and captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross. He spent eleven years in captivity, during which time national affairs were managed by Robert Stewart. Once again, a half-hearted attempt was made to revive the Balliol cause, with no lasting effect. In 1356 he surrendered his claim to the Scottish crown to King Edward, and the long struggle between the Bruces and the Balliols, stretching all the way back to 1286, was finally at an end. The following year David was released after a ransom treaty was concluded at Berwick. Berwick was in no sense a comprehensive treaty of peace, like Northampton in 1328, but it marked an important new stage in Anglo-Scottish relations. Although the claim to feudal superiority was never fully abandoned, it became less significant after the release of David. In both practical and symbolic terms, the Wars of Independence were truly at an end. It left in its wake a legacy of bitterness and mutual mistrust, the occasion for intermitant conflict on the borders, destined to last for close on two hundred years. Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders David II of Scotland William Zouche, Archbishop of York Strength 12,000 3,000-3,500 Casualties Unknown (high) Unknown (very low) The Battle of Nevilles Cross took place near Durham, England on October 17, 1346. ...


The remainder of David's reign was dominted by two themes: the question of the English ransom and the question of the Scottish succession, separate but related.


Society

In the early Stewart period, Scottish society often organised along lines of kinship. The period of weak government had led to people owing allegiance, first and foremost, to their superior kinsman, then to the Monarch. This in turn led to the Scottish clan system remaining strong throughout Scotland into the 17th Century. In some area’s, such as the Borders (with families such as the Armstrongs, the Humes, the Chisholms) and the Highlands, the leader of the clan held huge sway over local society, sometimes more so than the king. This respect for kinship was unusual in that pride in one’s family, could be totally divorced from one’s economic and social rank. This sometimes led to confusion or derision in other parts of Europe, because this culture of kinship was a muddled mix of egalitarian and patriarchal features, and appeared uncouth and alien to the rest of the world as it was mainly a legacy of Celtic Scotland. Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relatives throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the heraldry and Coat... // Origin of name The name means strong weapen Tartan Armstrong tartan This tartan is from the Low Lands and is mentioned in Vestiarium Scoticum (1842) Chief Crest A arm held upp. ... Clan Home Crest: A Home Clan Home sometimes called Clan Hume is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... Clan Chisholm Crest: I Am Fierce With The Fierce Clan Chisholm is a Scottish clan. ...


Slavery was absent in late medieval Scottish society, this was an important distinction which Scots did not share with other countries. Celtic Scotland had been familiar with slavery and the reasons for it’s decline, however, remain obscure, the Wars of Independence could well have been a factor, although another cause may have been that the Black Death struck Scotland four times in the later fourteenth century, the first time in 1349. Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...

 “In Scotland the first Pestilence Began of so great violence That it was said of living men The third part it destroyed then; A year or more it was wed and raging. Before that time was never seen A pestilence in our land so keen Both men, and bairnies and women, It spared not for to kill them." Andrew of Wyntoun 

Quoted in L.A. Barbe, Sidelights of the History, Industries and Social Life of Scotland (Glagow 1919), p.289 Andrew of Wyntoun (?1350-?1420), author of a long metrical history of Scotland, called the Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, was a canon regular of St Andrews, and prior of St Serfs in Lochieven. ...


It is possible that if around a third of the population of Scotland had been killed by the plague (as is consistent with it‘s effects in England), then this enormous loss of life, on top of the mortality caused by war, would have improved the balance of men and land and therefore, the bargaining position of the peasants. Lords, anxious to get tenants working the estates may have granted a large amount of freedom and terms that were less favourable to themselves. John Mair described the upper grades of the Scottish peasantry as having remarkable freedom of spirit to match their freedom in law. He mentions that they are more “elegant” than those of France, and aspired in dress and manners to be like lower nobles. John Mair, or John Major (1467-1550) was Scottish philosopher. ...


Another feature of late medieval Scotland that differed from the rest of Europe was the apparent absence of the Popular revolts and class warfare that had occurred from England, Germany and Flanders to Croatia and Slovenia, despite Scotland’s peasants suffering the same hardships as the rest of Europe such as the Black Death and the Little Ice Age. This could have been a result of the importance of kinship and being more likely to feud between families, rather than the Scottish people conceiving themselves as being divided by class. Popular revolts in late medieval Europe were uprisings and rebellions by (typically) peasants in the countryside, or the bourgeois in towns, against nobles, abbots and kings during the upheavals of the 14th through early 16th centuries, part of a larger Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Sometimes also known as... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a... The Peasant revolt in Flanders 1323-1328 was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe. ... The Croatian and Slovenian peasant revolt of 1573 was a large peasant revolt in Croatia and what is now Slovenia. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


Law and government

The Rise of the Stuart State

For the majority of the late middle ages Scotland was ruled by monarchs of the House of Stewart (later Stuart). The first Stewart monarch of Scotland was Robert II, son of Marjorie Bruce and Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and grandson of Robert the Bruce. He had been regent and Earl of Strathearn fighting the forces of Edward III of England while his uncle David II reigned in exile in France. The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Robert II (March 2, 1316 – April 19, 1390), king of Scotland, called the Steward, a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). ... Margaret de Bruce or Marjorie Bruce (December, 1296 - March 2, 1316) was the only daughter of Robert I of Scotland and his first wife Isabella of Mar. ... Walter Stewart or Steward (1293 -1326) was the 6th High steward of Scotland. ... Robert I, the Bruce, in a conjectural drawing Robert I, (Roibert a Briuis in medieval Gaelic, Raibeart Bruis in modern Scottish Gaelic and Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys in Norman French), usually known in modern English today as Robert the Bruce (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), was... The title of Earl of Strathearn or Stratherne was created several times in Scotland. ... Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English kings of medieval times. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ...


The reigns of the early Stewart kings were marred by the comparative failure of Royal government. David II and James I were kept prisoner in England for a total of 29 years. Kings Robert II and Robert III ruled with such incompetence that one chronicler wrote ~”justice herself seemed outlaw in the kingdom”. After James I emerged from captivity he tried to be a strong, reforming monarch, but his reign met an end at the assassin’s dagger in 1437, and for nearly 200 years every Scottish monarch came to the throne as a child. These periods of minority rule and regency meant that much of the good work done by Kings in their majority was undone by cliques and family feuding during their successor’s minority. In some cases, Lords secured privileges that in effect almost elevated to the status of petty kings. The system of feudalism was often the vehicle of faction and rebellion, hindering the monarchy, rather than being an institution that aided it. The office of Sheriff, established by David I, at times became a hereditary one, held by the most powerful noble of the Sheriffdom rather than by a civil servant. Justiciars made little attempt to supervise the royal Sheriff Courts. Their duty to keep order in their district often led to them holding their own “Baron Courts”, where more and more offences were tried without genuine appeal to the crown. David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... The Sheriff Courts are the local Court system in Scotland. ...


In the 14th Century, many of the greatest lords had obtained heritable grants of “regality”, which legally recognised them as having all the rights of the king himself within their own territories; royal servants and royal writs were formally excused from such an area, and the courts of regality were declared competent to hear every case except high treason. The surrender of power and privilege downwards from the crown confirmed the situation that had existed, that when the king had failed to, or was unable to govern, local lords had to take their place, and rule themselves to prevent the collapse of the society. Kings continuing to recognise the ‘fait accompli’ made it more difficult to recover any power later. James I was perhaps the first to make vigorous efforts to restore central government machinery and reinstate royal justice. He was forced to ignore his predecessors extravagant grants of private rights to nobles, who eventually conspired and assassinated him. His son, James II, proved to be an active and interventionist king. Making plans to take Orkney, Shetland and the Isle of Man. The king travelled the country, and seems to have originated the practice of raising money by giving remissions for serious crimes. He enthusiastically promoted modern artillery, and tried to increase Scotland’s standing in Europe, he died trying to recapture the last Scottish castle still held by the English after the Wars of Independence. The Scots eventually succeeded in taking the castle, and his death marked the Scots finally reclaiming the last occupied part of Scotland. Flag of Orkney (unofficial). ... Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland) formerly called Hjaltland, is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


While the later Stuart dynasty consolidated their power in Scotland, the monarchy was sometimes still vulnerable, examples of this would be the assassination of James I by competing nobles, and James III who was briefly deposed by his brother Alexander Stewart, (styling himself “Alexander IV“) Duke of Albany and later being killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn by an army raised by disaffected nobles, and many former councillors, supported by James’ son. James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. ... Duke of Albany is a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the youngers sons in the Scottish and later the British Royal Family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Hanover. ... The Battle of Sauchieburn was fought on June 11, 1488, at the side of Sauchie Burn, a brook about two miles south of Stirling, Scotland. ...


The Scottish Parliament

The Parliament of Scotland in this period was unicameral. The members were collectively referred to as the Three Estates (Scots: Thrie Estaitis), for nearly all of parliament's history, composed of: The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Scots is an Anglic variety spoken in Scotland, where it is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides). ...

Most obviously it was needed for consent for taxation (although taxation was only raised irregularly in Scotland in the medieval period), but it also had a strong influence over justice, foreign policy, war, and all manner of other legislation, whether political, ecclesiastical, social or economic. Parliamentary business was also carried out by ‘sister’ institutions, before c. 1500 by General Council. These could carry out much business also dealt with by Parliament—taxation, legislation and policy-making—but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament. Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A mitre is used as a symbol of the bishops ministry. ... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... A lord is a male who has power and authority. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... An Earl or Jarl was an Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian title, meaning chieftain and it referred especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a kings stead. ... A Lord of Parliament is a member of the lowest rank of Scottish peerage, ranking below a viscount. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A Royal Burgh is a type of Scottish burgh (town or city), used today for ceremonial purposes only. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Council can refer to: An Ecumenical council of the Christian Church, particular in Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ...


From the early 1450s great deal of the legislative business of the Scottish Parliament was usually carried out by a parliamentary committee known as the ‘Lords of the Articles’. This was a committee chosen by the three estates to draft legislation which was then presented to the full assembly to be confirmed. In the past, historians have been particularly critical of this body, claiming that it quickly came to be dominated by royal nominees, thus undermining the power of the full assembly. Recent research suggests that this was far from always being the case. Indeed, in March 1482, the committee was taken over by men shortly to be involved in a coup d’etat against the King and his government. On other occasions the committee was so large that it could hardly have been easier to control than the full assembly. More generally, the committee was a pragmatic means to delegate the complicated drafting of acts to those members of parliament skilled in law and letters — not unlike a modern select committee of the UK parliament — while the right to confirm the act remained with the full assembly of three estates.


After 1424, Parliament was often willing to defy the King. During the fifteenth century, Parliament was called far more often than, for instance, the English Parliament — on average over once a year — a fact that both reflected and augmented its influence. It repeatedly opposed James I’s (1424–1437) requests for taxation to pay an English ransom in the 1420s, in 1458 an Act of Parliament criticised James II and parliament was openly hostile to James III (1460–1488) in the 1470s and early 1480s. In 1431, Parliament granted a tax to James I for a campaign in the Highlands on the condition that it be kept in a locked chest under the keepership of figures deeply out of favour with the King. In 1436, there was even an attempt made to arrest the King 'in the name of the three estates'. Between October 1479 and March 1482, Parliament was conclusively out of the control of James III. It refused to forfeit his brother, the Duke of Albany, despite a royal siege of the Duke's castle, tried to prevent the King leading his army against the English (a powerful indication of the estates' lack of faith in their monarch), and appointed men to the Lords of the Articles and important offices who were shortly to remove the King from power. James IV (1488–1513) realised that Parliament could often create more problems than it solved, and avoided meetings after 1509. This was a trend seen in other European nations as monarchical power grew stronger—for instance England under Henry VII, France and some of the Spanish Cortes Generales. Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1420s ... Events January 24 - Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis Births February 15 - Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... Events and Trends battle of Avenches 1476 Prominent Persons Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer and mathematician A map of Europe in the 1470s. ... Centuries: 14th century - 15th century - 16th century Decades: 1430s 1440s 1450s 1460s 1470s - 1480s - 1490s 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s Years: 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 Events and Trends Categories: 1480s ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) - King of Scots from 1488 to 1513. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish: General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ...


References

  • Boardman, Steve (1 Feb 2006). The First Stewart Dynasty: Scotland, 1371-1488. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 074861236X.
  • Brown, Michael (30 April 2004). The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748612386.
  • Macdougall, Norman (2001). An Antidote to the English: The Auld Alliance, 1295-1560. Tuckwell Press Ltd. ISBN 1862321450.
  • Brown, Keith M., Roland J. Tanner (17 Feb 2004). The History of the Scottish Parliament: Parliament and Politics in Scotland, 1235-1560 Vol I. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748614850.
  • McGladdery, Christine (26 Sep 1997). James II. John Donald Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0859763048.
  • Smout, T.C. (2 Mar 1998). A History of the Scottish People, 1560-1830. Glasgow: Fontana Press. ISBN 0006860273.
  • Barbe, Louis A. (1919). Sidelights of the History, Industries and Social Life of Scotland.

 
 

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