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Encyclopedia > Scotland in the High Middle Ages
Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. The site was in use throughout the High Middle Ages, and the castle itself dates to the thirteenth century.
Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. The site was in use throughout the High Middle Ages, and the castle itself dates to the thirteenth century.

The history of Scotland in the High Middle Ages concerns itself with Scotland in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of king Alexander III in 1286, which led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. Image File history File links DUNNOTTAR_CASTLE_Large. ... Image File history File links DUNNOTTAR_CASTLE_Large. ... Dunnottar Castle Dunnottar Castle is a ruined medieval fortress located upon a rocky outcrop on the north-east coast of Scotland, about two miles south of Stonehaven. ... Kincardineshire, also known as The Mearns (from A Mhaoirne meaning The Stewartry) is a traditional county on the coast of Northeast Scotland. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Motto: (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... Donald II of Scotland (Domnall mac Causantín) was king of Scotland from 889 to 900. ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), King of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of campaigns launched after the English invasion of Scotland in 1296. ...


In the tenth and eleventh centuries, northern Great Britain was increasingly dominated by Gaelic culture, and by a Gaelic regal lordship known in Gaelic as "Alba", in Latin as either "Albania" or "Scotia", and in English as "Scotland". From a base in eastern Scotland north of the River Forth, the kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the south. It had a flourishing culture, comprising part of the larger Gaelic-speaking world. The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) are one of two major divisions of modern-day Insular Celtic languages (the other being the Brythonic languages). ... Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ...


After the twelfth-century reign of King David I, the Scottish monarchs are better described as Scoto-Norman than Gaelic, preferring French culture to native Scottish culture. They fostered and attached themselves to a kind of Scottish "Norman Conquest". The consequence was the spread of French institutions and social values. Moreover, the first towns, called burghs, began in the same era, and as these burghs spread, so did the Middle English language. To a certain degree these developments were offset by the acquisition of the Norse-Gaelic west, and the Gaelicization of many of the great families of French and Anglo-French origin, so that the period closes with what has been called a "Gaelic revival", and an integrated Scottish national identity. Although there remained a great deal of continuity with the past, by 1286 these economic, institutional, cultural, religious and legal developments had brought Scotland closer to its neighbours in England and the Continent. By 1286 the Kingdom of Scotland had political boundaries that closely resemble those of modern Scotland. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim), known as the Saint (1084 – May 24, 1153), was king of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that were of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish origin, but came to be associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... Gaelicization (NAE or CwE) or Gaelicisation (CwE) is the act or process of making something Gaelic. ... Norman conquests in red. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh Government Monarchy Head of State King of Scots Parliament Parliament of Scotland Currency Pound Scots This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707). ...

History of Scotland
Chronological Eras
Prehistoric Scotland
Scotland in the Early Middle Ages
Scotland in the High Middle Ages
Wars of Scottish Independence
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages
Scotland in the Early Modern Era
Scottish Enlightenment
Scotland in the Modern Era
Dynasties and Regimes
House of Alpin (843–878) & (889–1040)
House of Moray (1040–1058)
House of Dunkeld (1058–1286)
House of Balliol (1292–1296)
House of Bruce (1306–1371)
House of Stuart (1371–1707)
Act of Union (1707)
Topical
Art history
Colonial history
Culture
Economic history
Historiography
Literary history
Military history
Politics
Timeline of Scottish history
Scottish portal

Contents

Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... The House of Alpin is a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 843 to 1058. ... The House of Moray was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1040 to 1058. ... The House of Dunkeld or Canmore was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1058 to 1290. ... The House of Balliol was a Scottish royal family in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... The House of Bruce was a Scottish Royal House in the 14th century. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper: Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! The culture of Scotland is the national culture of Scotland. ... Scottish historiography refers to the sources and critical methods used by scholars to come to an understanding of the history of Scotland. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The Thin Red Line of 1854. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Historiography

Scotland is relatively well-studied in this period. New works come out every year, and the field of Scottish medievalism is a vibrant and changing one. Scottish medievalists can generally be grouped into two categories: Celticists and Normanists. The former, such as David Dumville, Thomas Owen Clancy and Dauvit Broun, are interested in the native cultures of the country, and often have linguistic training in the Celtic languages. Normanists are concerned with the French and Anglo-French cultures as they were introduced to Scotland after the eleventh century. The most prominent of such scholars is G.W.S. Barrow, who has devoted his life to studying feudalism in Britain and Scotland in the High Middle Ages. The change-continuity debate that derives from this division is currently one of the most active topics of discussion. For much of the twentieth century, scholars tended to stress the cultural change that took place in Scotland in the Norman era. However, many scholars, for instance Cynthia Neville and Richard Oram, while not ignoring cultural changes, are arguing that continuity with the Gaelic past was just as, if not more, important.[1] Professor David Norman Dumville (b. ... Dr. Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland. ... Dauvit Broun (David Brown) is a Scottish historian based at the University of Glasgow, and one of the most prominent and influential scholars in the field of medieval Scottish or Celtic studies. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Geoffrey W.S. Barrow is a Scottish historian and academic. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Cynthia J Neville, Chair, Department of History, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ...


Origins of the Kingdom of Alba

Sueno's Stone Located in Forres, in the old kingdom of Fortriu, it is a testament to the power of the Kings of the Picts.
Sueno's Stone Located in Forres, in the old kingdom of Fortriu, it is a testament to the power of the Kings of the Picts.

During the period of occupation by the Roman Empire, the province of Britannia formally ended at Hadrian's Wall. Between this wall and the Antonine Wall, the Romans fostered a series of buffer states separating the Roman-occupied territory from the territory of the Picts. The development of "Pictland" itself, according to the historical model developed by Peter Heather, was a natural response to Roman imperialism.[2] Around 400 the buffer states became the Brythonic kingdoms of "The Old North", and by 900 the Kingdom of the Picts had developed into the Gaelic Kingdom of Alba. The Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey, 1855. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 87 KB)Suenos stone in Forres Author: Wojsyl File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 87 KB)Suenos stone in Forres Author: Wojsyl File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Suenos Stone in Forres Suenos Stone is an ancient Pictish standing stone—standing 23 feet high—on a major road junction. ... Suenos Stone in Forres The Royal Burgh of Forres (Gaelic: Farrais), an ancient burgh, is situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast. ... Fortriu or the the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater Powers that by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Y Gogledd Hen or The Old North. A map of northern Britain before the Anglo-Saxon-Scottish conquest Y Gogledd Hen is an Old Welsh term meaning The Old North and referred specifically to the Brythonic kingdoms of northern Britain that flourished during the 5th, 6th and 7th Centuries in... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ...


In the tenth century, the Scottish elite began to develop a conquest myth to explain their Gaelicization, a myth often known as MacAlpin's Treason, in which Cináed mac Ailpín is supposed to have annihilated the Picts in one fell takeover. The earliest versions include the Life of St Cathróe of Metz[3] and royal genealogies tracing their origin to Fergus Mór mac Eirc, [4]. In the reign of Máel Coluim III, the Duan Albanach formalised the myth in Gaelic poetic tradition.[5] In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, these mythical traditions were incorporated into the documents now in the Poppleton Manuscript, and in the Declaration of Arbroath. They were believed in the early modern period, and beyond; even King James VI/I traced his origin to Fergus, saying, in his own words, that he was a "Monarch sprunge of Ferguse race".[6] ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... MacAlpins treason is a medieval myth which purports to explain the replacement of Pictish language and culture by Scots (Gaelic) language and culture in the 9th and 10th centuries. ... Kenneth MacAlpin (c. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fergus Mòr Mac Earca) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... The Duan Albanach (Song of the Scots) is a Middle Gaelic poem found with the Lebor Bretnach, a Gaelic version of the Historia Brittonum of Nennius, with extensive additional material (mostly concerning Scotland). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... The Poppleton Manuscript is the name given to the fourteenth century codex compiled, probably, by Robert of Poppleton, a Carmelite friar who was the Prior of Hulne, near Alnwick. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ...


However, modern historians are now beginning to reject this conceptualization of Scottish origins.[7] No contemporary sources mention this conquest. Moreover, the Gaelicization of Pictland was a long process predating Cináed, and is evidenced by Gaelic-speaking Pictish rulers,[8] Pictish royal patronage of Gaelic poets,[9] Gaelic inscriptions,[10] and Gaelic placenames.[11] The term king of Alba, although only registered at the start of the tenth century,[12] is possibly just a Gaelic translation of Pictland. The change of identity can perhaps be explained by the death of the Pictish language, but also important may be Causantín II's alleged Scoticisation of the "Pictish" Church[13] and the trauma caused by Viking invasions, most strenuously felt in the Pictish Kingdom's heartland of Fortriu. [14] ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... Constantine II (874?–952) was king of Scotland from 900 to 942 or 943. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Fortriu or the the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. ...


Outside of Alba, the Kingdom of Strathclyde on the valley of the river Clyde remained semi-independent, as did the Gaels of Argyll and the islands to the west (formerly Dál Riata). The south-east had been absorbed by the English Kingdom of Bernicia/Northumbria in the seventh century, and other Germanic invaders, the Norse, were beginning to incorporate much of the Western and Northern Isles, as well as the Caithness area. Galloway too was under strong Norse-Gaelic influence, but there was no one kingdom in that area. Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... The River Clyde, looking eastwards upstream, as it passes beneath the Kingston Bridge in Central Glasgow. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Bernicia (Brythonic, Brynaich or Bryneich) was a kingdom of the Angles in northern England during the 6th and 7th centuries AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... Norsemen (the Norse) is the indigenous or ancient name for the people of Scandinavia, including (but not limited to) the Vikings. ... Western Isles redirects here. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ...


Kingdom of Alba or Scotia

Main article: Kingdom of Alba

The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ...

Gaelic kings: Domnall II to Alexander I

The Pictish Beast, by far the most commonly depicted image on Pictish stones. An intriguing question about this period is to what extent symbols like this continued to have meaning.
The Pictish Beast, by far the most commonly depicted image on Pictish stones. An intriguing question about this period is to what extent symbols like this continued to have meaning.

King Domnall II was the first man to have been called rí Alban (i.e. King of Alba) when he died at Dunnottar in 900 [12] - this meant king of Britain or Scotland. All his predecessors bore the style of either King of the Picts or King of Fortriu. Such an apparent innovation in the Gaelic chronicles is occasionally taken to spell the birth of Scotland, but there is nothing special about his reign that might confirm this. Domnall had the nickname dásachtach. This simply meant a madman, or, in early Irish law, a man not in control of his functions and hence without legal culpability.[15] In fact, the long reign (900–942/3) of Domnall's successor Causantín is more often regarded as the key to formation of the High Medieval Kingdom of Alba.[16] Despite some setbacks, it was during his half-century reign that the Scots saw off any danger that the Vikings would expand their territory beyond the Western and Northern Isles and the Caithness area. Image File history File links PictishBeast. ... Image File history File links PictishBeast. ... The Pictish Beast (sometimes Pictish Dragon) is an artistic representation of an animal, and is depicted on Pictish symbol stones. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Donald II of Scotland (Domnall mac Causantín) was king of Scotland from 889 to 900. ... Dunnottar Castle Dunnottar Castle is a ruined medieval fortress located upon a rocky outcrop on the north-east coast of Scotland, about two miles south of Stonehaven. ... Constantine II (874?–952) was king of Scotland from 900 to 942 or 943. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Western Isles redirects here. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ...


The period between the accession of Máel Coluim I and Máel Coluim II was marked by good relations with the Wessex rulers of England, intense internal dynastic disunity and, despite this, relatively successful expansionary policies. In 945, king Máel Coluim I received Strathclyde as part of a deal with King Edmund of England, an event offset somewhat by Máel Coluim's loss of control in Moray.[17] Sometime in the reign of king Idulb (954–962), the Scots captured the fortress called oppidum Eden, i.e. Edinburgh.[18] Scottish control of Lothian was strengthened with Máel Coluim II's victory over the Northumbrians and the Battle of Carham (1018). The Scots had probably had some authority in Strathclyde since the later part of the ninth century, but the kingdom kept its own rulers, and it is not clear that the Scots were always strong enough to enforce their authority.[19]. Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill), the son of Donald II of Scotland, became the King of Scotland in 942 or 943 after his cousin King Constantine II of Scotland abdicated and became a monk. ... Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (anglicised Malcolm II) (c. ... Map of the British Isles circa 802 Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the Kingdom of England. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Edmund I, or Edmund the Deed-Doer (Eadmund) (921–May 26, 946) was King of England from 939 until his death. ... Indulf (Scottish: Idulb mac Causantín) was king of Scotland from 954 until 962, although there is no record of his coronation, if there ever was one. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south...


The reign of King Donnchad I from 1034 was marred by failed military adventures, and he was defeated and killed by the Mormaer of Moray, Mac Bethad mac Findláich, who became king in 1040.[20] Mac Bethad ruled for seventeen years, so peacefully that he was able to leave to go on pilgrimage to Rome. However, he was overthrown by Máel Coluim, the son of Donnchad who eighteen months later defeated Mac Bethad's successor Lulach to become king Máel Coluim III. In subsequent medieval propaganda Donnchad's reign was portrayed positively, while Mac Bethad was vilified. William Shakespeare followed this distorted history in describing both men in his play Macbeth. Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (1001 - August 15, 1040) was a son of Crinan the Thane de Mormaer, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Princess Bethoc of Scotland. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word pilgrimage, see Pilgrimage (disambiguation). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer This article is on Shakespeares play, for other meanings see Macbeth (disambiguation). ...

A modern depiction of Máel Coluim III and his second wife, the Anglo-Hungarian princess Margaret.
A modern depiction of Máel Coluim III and his second wife, the Anglo-Hungarian princess Margaret.

It was Máel Coluim III, not his father Donnchad, who did more to create the dynasty that ruled Scotland for the following two centuries, successfully compared to some. Part of the resource was the large number of children he had, perhaps as many as a dozen, through marriage to the widow or daughter of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney and afterwards to the Anglo-Hungarian princess Margaret, granddaughter of Edmund Ironside. However, despite having a royal Anglo-Saxon wife, Máel Coluim spent much of his reign conducting slave raids against the English, adding to the woes of that people in the aftermath of the Norman Conquest of England and the Harrying of the North. Marianus Scotus tells us that "the Gaels and French devastated the English; and [the English] were dispersed and died of hunger; and were compelled to eat human flesh".[21] Image File history File links MalcolmIII.jpg Summary Rampant Scotland, http://www. ... Image File history File links MalcolmIII.jpg Summary Rampant Scotland, http://www. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... The English are an ethnic group or nation primarily associated with England and the English language. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... The House of Dunkeld or Canmore was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1058 to 1290. ... Thorfinn Sigurdsson (c. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England was the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... The Harrying (or Harrowing) of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror, King of England, in the winter of 1069–1070 in order to subjugate the north of his newfound English kingdom (primarily Northumbria and the Midlands) as part of the Norman Conquest of England. ... Marianus Scotus (1028-1082 or 1083), chronicler (who must be distinguished from his namesake Marianus Scotus, d. ...


Máel Coluim's raids and attempts to further the claims for his successors to the English kingdom prompted interference by the Norman rulers of England in the Scottish kingdom. He had married the sister of the native English claimant to the English throne, Edgar Ætheling, and had given most of his children by this marriage Anglo-Saxon royal names. In 1080, King William the Conqueror sent his son on an invasion of Scotland, and Máel Coluim submitted to the authority of the king, giving his oldest son Donnchad as a hostage. King Máel Coluim himself died in one of the raids, in 1093. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... --86. ...


Tradition would have made his brother Domnall Bán Máel Coluim's successor, but it seems that Edward, his eldest son by Margaret, was his chosen heir. With Máel Coluim and Edward dead in the same battle, and his other sons in Scotland still young, Domnall was made king. However, Donnchad II, Máel Coluim's eldest son by his first wife, obtained some support from William Rufus and took the throne, but according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle his English and French followers were massacred,[22], and Donnchad II himself was killed later in the same year (1094) by Domnall's ally Máel Petair of Mearns. However, in 1097, William Rufus sent another of Máel Coluim's sons, Edgar, to take the kingship. The ensuing death of Domnall Bán secured the kingship for Edgar, and there followed a period of relative peace. The reigns of both Edgar and his successor Alexander are obscure in comparison with their successors. The former's most notable act was to send a camel (or perhaps an elephant) to his fellow Gael Muircheartach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland.[23] When Edgar died, Alexander took the kingship, while his youngest brother David became Prince of "Cumbria" and ruler of Lothian. Donald III of Scotland (c. ... Duncan II (1060?- November 12, 1094) was king of Scotland and a son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg and therefore a grandson of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance) (c. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Great Britain. ... Máel Petair of Mearns is the only known Mormaer of the Mearns. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camels are even-toed ungulates in the genus Camelus. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... Muircheartach Ua Briain was a high king of Ireland (1101-1118 AD). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scoto-Norman kings: David I to Alexander III

Image of David I, the Venerable and revolutionary Scoto-Norman king.
Image of David I, the Venerable and revolutionary Scoto-Norman king.

The period between the accession of David I and the death of Alexander III was marked by dependency upon and relatively good relations with the Kings of the English. As long as one remembers the continuities, the period can also be regarded as one of great historical transformation, part of a more general phenomenon which has been called the "Europeanisation of Europe".[24] As a related matter, the period witnessed the successful imposition of royal authority across most of the modern country. After David I, and especially in the reign of William I,[25] Scotland's Kings became ambivalent about the culture of most of their subjects. As Walter of Coventry tells us that "The modern kings of Scotland count themselves as Frenchmen, in race, manners, language and culture; they keep only Frenchmen in their household and following, and have reduced the Scots [=Gaels] to utter servitude."[26] Image File history File linksMetadata DavidIofScotland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DavidIofScotland. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... A Stained Glass image of Venerable Father Samuel Mazzuchelli in St. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), King of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... Walter of Coventry (fl. ...


The ambivalence of the kings was matched to a certain extent by the Scots themselves. In the aftermath of William's capture at Alnwick in 1174, the Scots turned on the small number of Middle English-speakers and French-speakers among them. William of Newburgh related that the Scots first attacked the Scoto-English in their own army, and Newburgh reported a repetition of these events in Scotland itself.[27] Walter Bower, writing a few centuries later albeit, wrote about the same events, and confirms that "there took place a most wretched and widespread persecution of the English both in Scotland and Galloway".[28] For the parish in New Brunswick, see Alnwick, New Brunswick Alnwick (pronounced ) is a small market town in north Northumberland, in the north-east of England. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... William of Newburgh (1136?-1198?), also known as Nubrigensis, was a 12th century English historian, and monk, from Yorkshire. ... Walter Bower or Bowmaker (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at Haddington, East Lothian. ...

The ruins of the main tower of Urquhart Castle. After the Conquest of Moray in the 1130s, this castle was one of dozens established in the area for the king's Frankish followers.
The ruins of the main tower of Urquhart Castle. After the Conquest of Moray in the 1130s, this castle was one of dozens established in the area for the king's Frankish followers.
The seal of William I, or Guillaume le Lion as he became known. His title among the native Scots was probably Uilleam Garbh (i.e. "William the Rough").
The seal of William I, or Guillaume le Lion as he became known. His title among the native Scots was probably Uilleam Garbh (i.e. "William the Rough").[25]

Opposition to the Scottish kings in this period was indeed hard. The first instance is perhaps the revolt of Óengus, the Mormaer of Moray. Other important resistors to the expansionary Scottish kings were Somairle mac Gillai Brigte, Fergus of Galloway, Gille Brigte, Lord of Galloway and Harald Maddadsson, along with two kin-groups known today as the MacHeths and the MacWilliams.[29] The latter claimed descent from king Donnchad II, through his son William fitz Duncan. The MacWilliams appear to have rebelled for no less a reason than the Scottish throne itself. The threat was so grave that, after the defeat of the MacWilliams in 1230, the Scottish crown ordered the public execution of the infant girl who happened to be the last of the MacWilliam line. This was how the Lanercost Chronicle related the fate of this last MacWilliam: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 554 KB) A photo I took: Urquhart castle, main tower, Scotland File links The following pages link to this file: Urquhart Castle ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x750, 554 KB) A photo I took: Urquhart castle, main tower, Scotland File links The following pages link to this file: Urquhart Castle ... Urquhart Castle, main tower Urquhart Castle (, ; Ordnance Survey Grid reference NH530286) sits beside Loch Ness in Scotland along the A82 road, between Fort William and Inverness. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WilliamI.jpg Summary SOURCE: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WilliamI.jpg Summary SOURCE: http://www. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Óengus of Moray is the last Mormaer or King of Moray, which he ruled from some unknown date until his death in 1130. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. ... Gille Brigte or Gilla Brigte mac Fergusa of Galloway (†1185), also known as Gillebrigte, Gille Brighde, Gilbridge, Gilbride, etc, and most famously known in French sources as Gilbert, was Lord of Galloway (from 1161 with Uchtred; 1174 alone, to 1185). ... The Lewis chessmen an iconic image of Scandinavian Scotland in Harald Maddadssons time. ... The MacHeths were a Gaelic kindred who raised several rebellions against the Scotto-Norman kings of Scotland in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Meic Uilleim (MacWilliams) were the Gaelic descendants of William fitz Duncan, grandson of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, king of Scots. ... Duncan II (1060?- November 12, 1094) was king of Scotland and a son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg and therefore a grandson of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald... William fitz Duncan is a modern anglicisation of either the Old French Guillaume fils de Duncan or the Middle Irish Uilleam mac Donnchada. ...

"the same Mac-William's daughter, who had not long left her mother's womb, innocent as she was, was put to death, in the burgh of Forfar, in view of the market place, after a proclamation by the public crier. Her head was struck against the column of the market cross, and her brains dashed out" [30]

Many of these resistors collaborated, and drew support not just in the peripheral Gaelic regions of Galloway, Moray, Ross and Argyll, but also from eastern "Scotland-proper", and elsewhere in the Gaelic world. However, by the end of the twelfth century, the Scottish kings had acquired the authority and ability to draw in native Gaelic lords outside their previous zone of control in order to do their work, the most famous examples being Lochlann, Lord of Galloway and Ferchar mac in tSagairt. Cumulatively, by the reign of Alexander III, the Scots were in a strong position to annex the remainder of the western seaboard, which they did in 1265, with the Treaty of Perth. The conquest of the west, the creation of the Mormaerdom of Carrick in 1186 and the absorption of the Lordship of Galloway after the Galwegian revolt of Gille Ruadh in 1235 meant that the number and proportion of Gaelic speakers under the rule of the Scottish king actually increased, and perhaps even doubled, in the so-called Norman period. It was the Gaels and Gaelicised warriors of the new west, and the power they offered, that enabled King Robert I (himself a Gaelicised Scoto-Norman of Carrick) to emerge victorious during the Wars of Independence, which followed soon after the death of Alexander III. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Lochlann or Lachlan, (d. ... Fearchar of Ross or Ferchar mac in tSagairt (Fearchar mac an t-sagairt, often anglicized as Farquhar MacTaggart), was the first Mormaer or Earl of Ross (1223-1251) we know of from the thirteenth century, whose career brought Ross into the fold of the Scottish kings for the first time... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ... The Lords of Galloway ruled Galloway from about 1138 to 1234. ... Gille Ruadh was the Galwegian leader who led the revolt against King Alexander II of Scotland. ... Robert I, the Bruce, in a conjectural drawing Robert I, (Roibert a Briuis in medieval Gaelic, Raibeart Bruis in modern Scottish Gaelic and Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys in Norman French), usually known in modern English today as Robert the Bruce (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), was... The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that were of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish origin, but came to be associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... The ex-comital district of Carrick today forms part of South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of campaigns launched after the English invasion of Scotland in 1296. ...


Other Kingdoms

Main article: Mormaer of Moray
Main article: Lords of Galloway
Map of Comital and other Lordships in Medieval Scotland, c. 1230.
Map of Comital and other Lordships in Medieval Scotland, c. 1230.

Amidst the genre of National histories and the scholarly desire to explain and legitimise modern national entities, it is easy to forget that the Kingdom of Alba was not the only source of regal authority in northern Britain. In fact, until the Norman era, and perhaps even until the reign of Alexander II, the Scottish king controlled only a minority of the people who lived inside the boundary of modern Scotland, in the same way as the French monarchs of the Middle Ages only had control of patches of what is now modern France. The ruler of Moray was called not only king in both Scandinavian and Irish sources, but before Máel Snechtai, king of Alba/Scotland.[31] After Máel Snechtai, Irish sources call them merely kings of Moray. The rulers of Moray in fact took over the entire Scottish kingdom in 1040, under the famous Mac Bethad mac Findláich (1040–1057) and his successor Lulach mac Gillai Choemgáin (1057–1058). However, Moray was subjugated by the Scottish kings after 1130, when the last native ruler, Óengus of Moray was defeated in an attempt to seize the Scottish throne. The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... The Lords of Galloway ruled Galloway from about 1138 to 1234. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x994, 105 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x994, 105 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The title of mormaor or mormaer designated one of the rulers of the seven provinces of Celtic Scotland, i. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Regal is an adjective meaning king-like or pertaining to royalty. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... Máel Snechtai of Moray, or Máel Snechtai mac Lulaich, was the ruler of Moray, and, as his name suggests, the son of Lulach, King of Scotland. ... Moray (Moireibh in Gaelic), one of the 32 unitary council regions (or areas) of Scotland, lies in the north-east of the country and borders on the regions of Aberdeenshire and Highland. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Lulach (Lulach mac Gilla Comgain) (c. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Óengus of Moray is the last Mormaer or King of Moray, which he ruled from some unknown date until his death in 1130. ...


Galloway, likewise, was a Lordship with some regality. In a Galwegian charter dated to the reign of Fergus, the Galwegian ruler styled himself rex Galwitensium, King of Galloway.[32] We know that Irish chroniclers continued to call Fergus' successors King. Although the Scots obtained greater control after the death of Gilla Brigte and the installation of Lochlann/Roland in 1185, Galloway was not in fact fully absorbed by Scotland until 1235, after the rebellion of the Galwegians was crushed. Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. ... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect formerly spoken in South West Scotland. ... Gille Brigte or Gilla Brigte mac Fergusa of Galloway (†1185), also known as Gillebrigte, Gille Brighde, Gilbridge, Gilbride, etc, and most famously known in French sources as Gilbert, was Lord of Galloway (from 1161 with Uchtred; 1174 alone, to 1185). ... Lochlann or Lachlan, (d. ... Gilla Ruadh the Galwegian was the Galwegian leader who led the revolt against King Alexander II of Scotland. ...


Galloway and Moray were not the only other territories whose rulers had regal status. Both the rulers of Mann & the Isles, and the rulers of Argyll had the status of kings, even if some southern Latin writers called them merely reguli (i.e. "kinglets"). The Mormaers of Lennox referred to their predecessors as Kings of Balloch, and indeed many of the Mormaerdoms had been kingdoms at an earlier stage. Another kingdom, Strathclyde (or Cumbria), had been incorporated into Scotland in a slow process that started in the ninth century and was not fully realized until perhaps the twelfth. Motto: Quocunque Jeceris Stabit  (Latin) Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand Anthem: Isle of Man National Anthem Capital Douglas Largest city Douglas English, Manx Government Crown Dependency (UK)   - Lord of Mann Elizabeth II  - Lieutenant Governor Paul Haddacks  - Chief Minister Donald Gelling  - First Deemster Michael Kerruish  - President of Tynwald Noel... The Hebrides The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of Scotland, and in geological terms are composed of the oldest rocks in the British Isles. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Lennox was the long-lasting native Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots. ... Balloch (pronounced bæ:-lÉ™x) is a small town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the banks of Loch Lomond. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Geography

Neither the political nor the theoretical boundaries of Scotland in this period, as both Alba and Scotia, corresponded exactly to modern Scotland. The closest approximation came at the end of the period, when the Treaty of York (1237) and Treaty of Perth (1266) fixed the boundaries between the Kingdom of the Scots with England and Norway respectively; although in neither case did this border exactly match the modern one, Berwick and the Isle of Man being eventually lost to England, and Orkney and Shetland later being gained from Norway. Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... Treaty of York 1237 Signed between Henry III and Alexander II, king of Scots (1214-1249), this treaty secured Englands northern border. ... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ... Berwick-upon-Tweed is a border town, now in England, formerly in Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland) formerly called Hjaltland, is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


Until the thirteenth century, Scotland referred to the land to the north of the river Forth, and for this reason historians sometimes use the term "Scotland-proper". By the middle of the thirteenth century, Scotland could include all the lands ruled by the King of Scots, but the older concept of Scotland remained throughout the period. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ...


For legal and administrative purposes, the Kingdom of the Scots was divided into three, four or five zones: Scotland-proper (north and south of the Grampians), Lothian, Galloway and, earlier, Strathclyde. Like Scotland, neither Lothian nor Galloway had its modern meaning. Lothian could refer to the entire Middle English-speaking south-east, and latterly, included much of Strathclyde. Galloway could refer to the entire Gaelic-speaking south-west. Lothian was divided from Scotland-proper by the river Forth. To quote the early thirteenth century tract, de Situ Albanie, There are at least two ranges of mountains called the Grampian Mountains or The Grampians: one in Scotland (Grampian Mountains, Scotland) one in Australia (Grampians National Park). ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... De Situ Albanie (dSA) is the name given to the first of seven Scottish documents found in the so-called Poppleton Manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. ...

"the excellent piece of water that is called in Scottish the 'Froth', in British the 'Werid', and in Romance the 'Scottewatre' that is, the Water of the Scots, which divides the kingdoms of the Scots and of the English, and runs near the town of Stirling"[33]

Here Scottish refers to the language now called the Middle Irish language, British to the Welsh language and Romance to the Old French language, which had borrowed the term Scottewatre from the Middle English language. Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton...


In this period, little of Scotland was governed by the crown. Instead, most Scots lay under the intermediate control of Gaelic and increasingly after the twelfth century, French-speaking Mormaers/Earls and Lords. Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Economy

The Scottish economy of this period was dominated by agriculture and by short-distance, local trade. There was an increasing amount of foreign trade in the period, as well as exchange gained by means of military plunder. By the end of this period, coins were replacing barter goods, but for most of this period most exchange was done without the use of metal currency.[34] The Economy of Scotland in the High Middle Ages for the purposes of this article pertains to the economic situation in Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Barter is a type of trade in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services; no money is involved in the transaction. ...

Enlarge
Burghs established in Scotland before the accession of Máel Coluim; these were essentially Scotland-proper's first towns

Most of Scotland's agricultural wealth in this period came from pastoralism, rather than arable farming. Arable farming grew significantly in the "Norman period", but with geographical differences, low-lying areas being subject to more arable farming than high-lying areas such as the Highlands, Galloway and the Southern Uplands. Galloway, in the words of G.W.S. Barrow, "already famous for its cattle, was so overwhelmingly pastoral, that there is little evidence in that region of land under any permanent cultivation, save along the Solway coast."[35] The average amount of land used by a husbandman in Scotland might have been around 26 acres.[36] There is a lot of evidence that the native Scots favoured pastoralism, in that Gaelic lords were happier to give away more land to French and Middle English-speaking settlers, whilst holding on tenaciously to more high-lying regions, perhaps contributing to the Highland/Galloway-Lowland division that emerged in Scotland in the later Middle Ages.[37] The main unit of land measurement in Scotland was the davoch (i.e. "vat"), called the arachor in Lennox. This unit is also known as the "Scottish ploughgate." In English-speaking Lothian, it was simply ploughgate.[38] It may have measured about 104 acres,[39] divided into 4 raths.[40] Cattle, pigs and cheeses were among the most produced foodstuffs,[41] but of course a vast range of foodstuffs were produced, from sheep and fish, rye and barley, to bee wax and honey. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x1111, 97 KB)Map of burghs probably founded before the death of David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x1111, 97 KB)Map of burghs probably founded before the death of David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim). ... Image of the young Máel Coluim IV, called Cenn Mór in the Gaelic annals of Ireland. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... It has been suggested that Pastoralist be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Highland or Highlands has these meanings:- The term highland is used in geography for any elevated mountainous plateau. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... The Southern Uplands is the southernmost of Scotlands three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Belt and the Highlands). ... Pastoralists are people whose main source of livelihood is livestock with which they move seasonally in search of fresh pasture and water. ... An acre is an English unit of area, which is also frequently used in the United States and some Commonwealth countries. ... Lennox may refer to: District of Lennox, Scotland Lennox, California Lennox, South Dakota Lennox County, Ontario Picton, Lennox and Nueva, Chile Any person who has held the title of Duke of Lennox Lennox, a fictional Duke of Lennox in Macbeth Annie Lennox, a popular 80s music artist This is... A ploughgate was a Scottish land measurement, used in the south and the east of the country. ...


Pre-Davidian Scotland had no towns. The closest thing to towns were the larger than average population concentrations around large monasteries, such as Dunkeld and St Andrews, and regionally significant fortifications. Scotland, outside Lothian at least, was populated by scattered hamlets, and outside that area, lacked the continental style nucleated village. David I established the first burghs in Scotland, initially only in English-speaking Lothian. David I copied the burgher charters and Leges Burgorum (rules governing virtually every aspect of life and work in a burgh) almost verbatim from the English customs of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne.[42] Early burgesses were usually Flemish, English, French and German, rather than Gaelic Scots. The burgh’s vocabulary was composed totally of either Germanic and French terms. [43] The councils which ran individual burghs were individually known as lie doussane, meaning the dozen.[44] Dunkeld (Dùn Chailleann in Scottish Gaelic) is a small town in Strathtay, Perth and Kinross, Scotland, approximately 15 miles north of Perth on the A9 road into the Scottish Highlands and on the opposite (north) side of the River Tay from the Victorian village of Birnam. ... Named after Saint Andrew the Apostle, the Royal Burgh of St Andrews (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a town on the east coast of Fife, Scotland, and the home of golf. ... Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... The English are an ethnic group or nation primarily associated with England and the English language. ...


Demographics

Linguistic division in early twelfth century Scotland. By the end of the period, Gaelic displaced Norse in much of the Norse-Gaelic region, but itself lost ground to English in much of the region between Scotland-proper and Galloway.

The population of Scotland in this period is unknown. Not until 1755 do we get reliable information about the population of Scotland, when it was 1,265,380. However, best estimates put the Scottish population in this period between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people, growing from a low point to a high point.[45] This population was much more evenly spread than today. We can estimate that between 60 and 80% of people lived north of the Forth river, with the remainder being divided between Galloway, Strathclyde and Lothian. Bishopric and Justiciar distribution suggests a relatively even divide between these three zones. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (827x1500, 1476 KB) Summary Based on various maps and studdies , including those of Driscoll, Alba: The Gaelic Kingdom of Scotland, AD 800-1124; Nicolaisen, Scottish Place Names; Barrow, Growth and Structure of the Border in Kingdom of the Scots (2003; Ingileston... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (827x1500, 1476 KB) Summary Based on various maps and studdies , including those of Driscoll, Alba: The Gaelic Kingdom of Scotland, AD 800-1124; Nicolaisen, Scottish Place Names; Barrow, Growth and Structure of the Border in Kingdom of the Scots (2003; Ingileston... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ...


Linguistically, the vast majority of people within Scotland throughout this period spoke the Gaelic language, then simply called Scottish, or in Latin, lingua Scotica.[46] Other languages spoken throughout this period were Norse and English, with the Cumbric language disappearing somewhere between 900 and 1100. Pictish may have survived into this period, but there is little evidence for this. After the accession of David I, or perhaps before, Gaelic ceased to be the main language of the royal court. From his reign until the end of the period, the Scottish monarchs probably favoured the French language, as evidenced by reports from contemporary chronicles, literature and translations of administrative documents into the French language. English, with French and Flemish, became the main language of Scottish towns (burghs), which were created for the first time under David I. However, burghs were, in Barrow's words, “scarcely more than villages … numbered in hundreds rather than thousands”,[47] and Norman knights were a similarly tiny in number when compared with the Gaelic population of Scotland outside of Lothian. Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in Cumbria, and the southern Lowland Scotland . ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ...


Society

Medieval Scottish society was stratified. We know more about status in early Gaelic society than perhaps any other early medieval European society, owing primarily to the large body of legal texts and tracts on status which are extant.[48] The legal tract that has come down to us as the Laws of Brets and Scots, lists five grades of man: King, mormaer/earl, toísech/thane, ócthigern and serf.[49] For pre-twelfth century Scotland, we should add slave to this category. The standard differentiation in medieval European society between the bellatores ("those who fight", i.e. aristocrats), the oratores ("those who pray", i.e. clergy) and the laboratores ("those who work", i.e. peasants) was useless for understanding Scottish society in the earlier period, but becomes more useful in the post-Davidian period. Scottish Society in the High Middle Ages pertains to Scottish Society roughly between 900 and 1286, a period roughly corresponding to the general historical era known as the High Middle Ages. ... The title of mormaor or mormaer designated one of the rulers of the seven provinces of Celtic Scotland, i. ... An Earl or Jarl was an Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian title, meaning chieftain and it referred especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a kings stead. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Most of the territory subject to the King of Scots north of the Forth was directly under a lord who in medieval Scottish was called a Mormaer. The term was translated into Latin as comes, and is misleadingly translated into modern English as Earl. These secular lords exercised secular power and religious patronage like kings in miniature. They kept their own warbands and followers, issued charters and supervised law and internal order within their provinces. When actually under the power of the Scottish king, they were responsible for rendering to the king cain, a tribute paid several times a year, usually in cattle and other barter goods. They also had to provide for the king conveth, a kind of hospitality payment, paid by putting-up the lord on a visit with food and accommodation, or with barter payments in lieu of this. In the Norman era, they provided the servitum Scoticanum ("Gaelic service", "Scottish service" or simply forinsec) and led the exercitus Scoticanus , the Gaelic part of the king's army that made up the vast majority almost any national hosting (slógad) in the period. Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... The title of mormaor or mormaer designated one of the rulers of the seven provinces of Celtic Scotland, i. ... An Earl or Jarl was an Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian title, meaning chieftain and it referred especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a kings stead. ...

This is a rough model of early Gaelic society gained from early Gaelic legal texts. The structure is applicable to pre-Norman Gaelic Scotland, although the terminology very different in Scottish Latin sources.

A toísech ("chieftain") was like a mormaer, providing for his lord the same services that a mormaer provided for the king. The Latin word usually used is thanus, which is why the office-bearers are often called "thanes" in English. The formalization of this institution was largely confined to eastern Scotland north of the Forth, and only two of the seventy-one known thanages existed south of that river.[50] Behind the offices of toísech and mormaer were kinship groups. Sometimes these offices were formalized, but mostly they are informal. The head of the kinship group was called capitalis in Latin and cenn in medieval Gaelic. In the Mormaerdom of Fife, the primary kinship group was known then as Clann MacDuib ("Children of MacDuff"). Others include the Cennedig (from Carrick), Morggain (from Buchan), and the MacDowalls (from Galloway). There were probably hundreds in total, mostly unrecorded. Image File history File links GaelicSociety. ... Image File history File links GaelicSociety. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Norman conquests in red. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Fife refers to the Gaelic lordship of Fife which existed in Scotland until 1371, and continued as a non-Gaelic Earldom/County thereafter. ... Clan MacDuff Crest: Deus juvat (God assists) The Clan MacDuff (Gaelic, MacDhuibh) is an Armigerous Scottish clan descended from the early 11th century Scottish king, Cináed mac Duib, hence Mac Duib (anglicized: MacDuff). ... The ex-comital district of Carrick today forms part of South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Buchan comprises a traditional area and earldom of north-eastern Scotland. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ...


The highest non-noble rank was, according to the Laws of Brets and Scots, called the ócthigern (literally, little or young lord), a term the text does not bother to translate into French. The Anglo-Saxon equivalent was perhaps the sokeman. Other known ranks include the scoloc, perhaps equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon gerseman.[51] In the earlier period, the Scots kept slaves, and many of these were foreigners (English or Scandinavian) captured during warfare. Large-scale Scottish slave-raids are particularly well documented in the eleventh century. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Law and government

The Royal Standard of Scotland, first adopted by king William I, (1143–1214).
The Royal Standard of Scotland, first adopted by king William I, (1143–1214).

Early Gaelic law tracts, first written down in the ninth century, reveal a society highly concerned with kinship, status, honour and the regulation of blood feuds. Scottish common law began to take shape at the end of the period, assimilating Gaelic and Celtic law with practices from Anglo-Norman England and the Continent.[52] In the twelfth century, and certainly in the thirteenth, strong continental legal influences began to have more effect, such as Canon law and various Anglo-Norman practices. Pre-fourteenth century law amongst the native Scots is not always well attested. However, our extensive knowledge of early Gaelic Law gives some basis for reconstructing pre-fourteenth century Scottish law. In the earliest extant Scottish legal manuscript, there is a document called Leges inter Brettos et Scottos. The document survives in Old French, and is almost certainly a French translation of an earlier Gaelic document. The document retained untranslated a vast number of Gaelic legal terms.[53]. Later medieval legal documents, written both in Latin and Middle English, contain more Gaelic legal terms, examples including slains (Old Irish slán or sláinte; exemption) and cumherba (Old Irish comarba; ecclesiastic heir). [54] Scottish legal institutions in the High Middle Ages are, for the purposes of this article, the informal and formal systems which governed and helped to manage Scottish society between the years 900 and 1288, a period roughly corresponding with the general European era usually called the High Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links Scottish_Royal_Banner. ... Image File history File links Scottish_Royal_Banner. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Weighing scales represent the way law balances peoples interests For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic), a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton...


A Judex (pl. judices) represents a post-Norman continuity with the ancient Gaelic orders of lawmen called in English today Brehons. Bearers of the office almost always have Gaelic names north of the Forth or in the south-west. Judices were often royal officials who supervised baronial, abbatial and other lower-ranking "courts". [55] However, the main official of law in the post-Davidian Kingdom of the Scots was the Justiciar. The institution has Anglo-Norman origins, but in Scotland north of the Forth it probably represented some form of continuity with an older office. For instance, Mormaer Causantín of Fife is styled judex magnus (i.e. great Brehon), and it seems that the Justiciarship of Scotia was just a further Latinisation/Normanisation of that position. The formalized office of the Justiciar held responsibility for supervising the activity and behaviour of royal sheriffs and sergeants, held courts and reported on these things to the king personally. Normally, there were two Justiciarships, organized by linguistic boundaries: the Justiciar of Scotia and the Justiciar of Lothian. Sometimes Galloway had its own Justiciar too.[56] Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... In the medieval England and Scotland, a justiciar was an important legal and political figure. ... Mormaer Causantín of Fife is the first man we know for certain to have been Mormaer of Fife. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ...


The office of Justiciar and Judex were just two ways that Scottish society was governed. In the earlier period, the king "delegated" power to hereditary native "officers" such as the Mormaers/Earls and Toísechs/Thanes. It was a government of gift-giving and bardic lawmen. There were also popular courts, the comhdhail, testament to which are dozens of placenames throughout eastern Scotland.[57] In the Norman period, sheriffdoms and sherrifs and, to a lesser extent, bishops (see below) became increasingly important. The former enabled the King to effectively administer royal demesne land. During David I's reign, royal sheriffs had been established in the king's core personal territories; namely, in rough chronological order, at Roxburgh, Scone, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Stirling and Perth.[58] By the reign of William I, there may have been about 30 royal sheriffdoms, including ones at Ayr and Dumfries, key locations on the borders of Galloway-Carrick.[59] As the distribution and number of sheriffdoms expanded, so did royal control. By the end of the thirteenth century, sheriffdoms had been established in westerly locations as far-flung as Wigtown, Kintyre, Skye and Lorne.[citation needed] Through these, the thirteenth century Scottish king exercised more control over Scotland than any of his later medieval successors. The king himself was itinerant and had no "capital"; but if there was such a thing, it was Scone. By ritual tradition, all Scottish kings in this period had to be crowned there, and crowned there by the Mormaers of Strathearn and, especially, Fife.[60] Although King David I tried to build up Roxburgh as a capital,[60] in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, more charters were issued at Scone than any other location. Other popular locations were nearby Perth, Stirling, Dunfermline and Edinburgh (especially popular during the reign of Alexander II), as well as all other royal burghs.[61] In the earliest part of this era, Forres and Dunkeld seem to have been the chief royal residences.[62] Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Broad St at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area called Top of the Town by locals on a rare snowy day Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... The Royal Burgh of Ayr (Scottish Gaelic, Inbhir Àir) in the south-west of Scotland is a burgh situated on the Firth of Clyde. ... The Buccleuch St Bridge Devorgilla Bridge Overlooking Dumfries The Old Bridge House Dumfries ((IPA: ) pronounced dum-freece, not dum-fries) (Dùn Phris in Scottish Gaelic) is a Royal Burgh and town with a population of around 31,146 (37,846 including the Locharbriggs and Cargenbridge areas). ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... The ex-comital district of Carrick today forms part of South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Map sources for Wigtown at grid reference NX434553 The Royal Burgh of Wigtown is a burgh in the Machars of Galloway in the south west of Scotland , south of Newton Stewart and east of Stranraer. ... Kintyre shown within Argyll Kintyre is a peninsula in western Scotland in the south-west of Argyll. ... Looking towards Quiraing, Skye. ... Lorne has many meanings. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Strathearn was the most important Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots after the Mormaerdom of Fife. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Fife refers to the Gaelic lordship of Fife which existed in Scotland until 1371, and continued as a non-Gaelic Earldom/County thereafter. ... The Royal Burgh of Dunfermline (in Gaelic, Dùn Phàrlain) is a former city in Fife, Scotland. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... A Royal Burgh is a type of Scottish burgh (town or city), used today for ceremonial purposes only. ... Suenos Stone in Forres The Royal Burgh of Forres (Gaelic: Farrais), an ancient burgh, is situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast. ... Dunkeld (Dùn Chailleann in Scottish Gaelic) is a small town in Strathtay, Perth and Kinross, Scotland, approximately 15 miles north of Perth on the A9 road into the Scottish Highlands and on the opposite (north) side of the River Tay from the Victorian village of Birnam. ...


Military

Enlarge
Medieval Gaelic warrior, as depicted on a later medieval grave-slab from Finlaggan. This warrior is Hebridean, but as such is closely related to the warrior of the high medieval Exercitus Scoticanus

After the "Norman Conquest" of David I, the warriors of Scotland can be classed as of two types. Firstly, the native exercitus Scoticanus (i.e. "Gaelic army"); and, secondly, the exercitus militaris (i.e. "feudal army"). The Gaelic army formed the larger part of all pre-Stewart Scottish armies, but in the wider world of European (i.e. French) chivalry the feudal section was the more prestigious. The native Scots, like all early medieval Europeans, practiced organized slave-raiding. Presumably, they did so with each other. However, our main record of it comes from when they practised it against their Norman and post-Conquest Anglo-Saxon neighbour. John Gillingham argues that this was one of the things which made the Scots (and other Celts) particularly barbarous in the eyes of their "Frankish" neighbours, because the French had largely abandoned this form of warfare.[63] The Scottish army of the High Middle Ages for the purposes of this article pertains to the fighting men and military systems that existed in Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286, which fell before and indirectly led to the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x2282, 2652 KB) Summary Uploaders own photograph. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x2282, 2652 KB) Summary Uploaders own photograph. ... The Hebrides The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of Scotland, and in geological terms are composed of the oldest rocks in the British Isles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Jousting was a staple entertainment for medieval Frankish aristocrats. Many Scottish kings took part in tournaments, a fact remembered by Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzifal, where the exotic Scottish king is a celebrated jouster.
Jousting was a staple entertainment for medieval Frankish aristocrats. Many Scottish kings took part in tournaments, a fact remembered by Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzifal, where the exotic Scottish king is a celebrated jouster.

As with so many changes in this period, the introduction of the feudal army can be traced primarily to the reign of David I, although French and English knights were used in moderation by his older brothers. The tension which these knights produced is well recorded in contemporary sources. At the Battle of the Standard, the Gaels oppose the positioning of the French soldiers in the van of the king's army. Ailred of Rievaulx attributes this opposition to the Galwegians, but we know it was the Scottish Gaels in general, as the native spokesman is given as Máel Ísu , then the Mormaer of Strathearn and highest ranking noble in the army.[64] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2163x1203, 601 KB)Jousting at the Golden Gate Renaissance fair, San Francisco, California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2163x1203, 601 KB)Jousting at the Golden Gate Renaissance fair, San Francisco, California. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... The monument on the battlefield at Grid reference SE360977 The Battle of the Standard took place on 22 August 1138 near Northallerton in Yorkshire. ... Aelred of Hexham, Abbot of Rievaulx, hence also known as Ailred of Rievaulx (b. ... Mormaer Máel Ísu I (also Maol Íosa, Máel Íosa, Mallus or Mallisse or Malise, tonsured devotee of Jesus), (fl. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Strathearn was the most important Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots after the Mormaerdom of Fife. ...


The advantage French military culture possessed was manifold. French knights used expensive suits of armour, whereas the Scots were "naked" (of armour, rather than dress). They possessed heavy cavalry, and other weapons such as crossbows and siege engines, as well as fortification techniques far more effective and advanced than anything possessed by the native Scots. Moreover, their culture, particularly their feudal ideology, made them reliable vassals, who because they were foreign, were even more dependent on the king. Over time, the Scots themselves became more like the French warriors, and the French warriors adopted many of the Gaelic military practices, so that by the end of the period, a syncretic military culture existed in the kingdom. When the feudal army was destroyed at the Battle of Dunbar (1296), the Scots were dependent once again on the Gaelic army. However, owing to two centuries of adaptation and the leadership of the Gaelic-speaking Scoto-Norman Robert Bruce, this army was able to defeat the attempted takeover by the English-crown. Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Richard Siward John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey Strength Approx. ... The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that were of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish origin, but came to be associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... Robert I, the Bruce, in a conjectural drawing Robert I, (Roibert a Briuis in medieval Gaelic, Raibeart Bruis in modern Scottish Gaelic and Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys in Norman French), usually known in modern English today as Robert the Bruce (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), was...


Christianity & the Church

We can be sure that at least all of northern Britain, except the Scandinavian far north and west was Christian by the tenth century. The most important factors for the conversion of Scotland were the Roman province of Britannia to the south, and later the so-called Gaelic or Columban church, an interlinked system of monasteries and aristocratic networks which combined to spread both Christianity and the Gaelic language amongst the Picts. The crozier of Saint Finan, an early medieval staff-head used by Gaelic clergymen. ... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be, more or less, fully reconstructed from extant sources. ...


Saints

The crozier of Saint Finan, and early medieval staff-head used by Gaelic clergymen. Now in Museum of Scotland.
The Monymusk Reliquary. This is often thought to be the Brecbennoch, which purportedly enclosed bones of Columba, the most popular saint in medieval Scotland. It was carried by the Scots into the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. The actual Monymusk reliquary dates from c. 750.
The Monymusk Reliquary. This is often thought to be the Brecbennoch, which purportedly enclosed bones of Columba, the most popular saint in medieval Scotland. It was carried by the Scots into the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. The actual Monymusk reliquary dates from c. 750.

Like every other Christian country, one of the main features of Scottish Christianity is the Cult of Saints. Saints were the middle men between the ordinary worshipper and God. In Scotland north of the Forth, local saints were either Pictish or Gaelic. The national saint of the Scottish Gaels was Colum Cille or Columba (in Latin, lit. dove), in Strathclyde it was St Kentigern (in Gaelic, lit. Chief of the Lord), in Lothian, St Cuthbert. Later, owing to learned confusion between the Latin words Scotia and Scythia, the Scottish kings adopted St Andrew, a saint who had more appeal to incoming Normans and was attached to the ambitious bishopric that is now known by the saint's name, St Andrews. However, Columba's status was still supreme in the early fourteenth century, when King Robert I carried the brecbennoch (or Monymusk reliquary) into battle at Bannockburn. Around the same period, a cleric on Inchcolm wrote the following Latin poem: Image File history File links Financrozier. ... Image File history File links Financrozier. ... Crosiere of arcbishop Heinrich of Finstingen, 1260-1286 A crosier (crozier, pastoral staff) is the stylized staff of office carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and some Lutheran prelates. ... Finan of Lindisfarne (died February 17, 661), also known as Saint Finan, was Bishop of Lindisfarne from 651 until 661. ... The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Brecbennoch. ... Image File history File links Brecbennoch. ... The Monymusk Reliquary is an eighth century Scotish reliquary made of wood and metal characterised by a Hiberno-Saxon fusion of Gaelic and Pictish design and Anglo-Saxon metalworking, probably by Ionan monks. ... Saint Columba (7 December 521 - 9 June 597) is sometimes referred to as Columba of Iona, or, in Old Irish, as Saint Colm Cille or Columcille (meaning Dove of the church). He was the outstanding figure among the Gaelic missionary monks who reintroduced Christianity to Scotland during the Dark Ages. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II of England Strength about 8,000 20,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bannockburn (June 23, 1314 – June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... For the band Reliquary, click here. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are usually depicted as having halos. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Saint Columba (7 December 521 - 9 June 597) is sometimes referred to as Columba of Iona, or, in Old Irish, as Saint Colm Cille or Columcille (meaning Dove of the church). He was the outstanding figure among the Gaelic missionary monks who reintroduced Christianity to Scotland during the Dark Ages. ... Saint Mungo, also known as Saint Kentigern, traditional apostle to Strathclyde and patron saint and alleged founder of the city of Glasgow. ... Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (c. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Robert I, the Bruce, in a conjectural drawing Robert I, (Roibert a Briuis in medieval Gaelic, Raibeart Bruis in modern Scottish Gaelic and Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys in Norman French), usually known in modern English today as Robert the Bruce (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), was... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II of England Strength about 8,000 20,000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bannockburn (June 23, 1314 – June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Inchcolm (Scottish Gaelic: Innis Choluim - Island of Columba) is an island in the Firth of Forth, east of the Forth Bridge, south of Aberdour, Fife, and north of the City of Edinburgh in Scotland. ...

Latin English
Os mutorum,

lux cecorum,
pes clausorum,
porrige
lapsis manum,
Firma vanum
et insanum
corrige
O Columba spes Scottorum
nos tuorum meritorum
interventu beatorum
fac consortes angelorum
Alleluia

Mouth of the dumb people,

light of the blind people
foot of the lame people
to the fallen [people]
Stretch out thy hand
strengthen the vain people
and the insane [people]
Invigorate!
O Columba Hope of the Scots/Gaels
by thy standing
by mediation
make us the companions of the beautiful Angels
Halleluia.[65]

The poem illustrates both the role of saints, in this case as the representative of the Scottish (or perhaps just Gaelic) people in heaven, and the importance of Columba to the Scottish people.


Monasticism

The typical features of native Scottish Christianity are relaxed ideas of clerical celibacy, intense secularization of ecclesiastical institutions, and the lack of a dioscesan structure. Instead of bishops and archbishops, the most important offices of the native Scottish church were abbots (or coarbs). Scotland was untouched by continental forms of monasticism until the late eleventh century. Instead, monasticism was dominated by monks called Céli Dé (lit. "vassals of God"), anglicised as culdees. In most cases, these monks were not replaced by new continental monks in the Norman period, but usually survived, even gaining the patronage of Queen Margaret, a figure traditionally seen as hostile to Gaelic culture. At St Andrews, the Céli Dé establishment endured throughout the period, and even enjoyed rights over the election of its bishop. In fact, Gaelic monasticism was vibrant and expansionary for much of the period. For instance, dozens of monasteries, often called Schottenklöster, were founded by Gaelic monks on the continent, and many Scottish monks, such as St Cathróe of Metz, became local saints. Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... The Culdees formed an ancient monastic order with settlements in Ireland and Scotland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hiberno-Scottish mission. ...

Dundrennan Abbey, founded by Fergus of Galloway, was one of scores of new continental monasteries founded in the twelfth century.
Dundrennan Abbey, founded by Fergus of Galloway, was one of scores of new continental monasteries founded in the twelfth century.

The continental type of monasticism was first introduced to Scotland when King Máel Coluim III persuaded Lanfranc to provide a few monks from Canterbury for a new Benedictine abbey at Dunfermline (c. 1070). However, traditional Benedictine monasticism had little future in Scotland. Instead, the monastic establishments which followed were almost universally either Augustinians or of the Reformed Benedictine type, especially Cistercians, Tironensians, Premonstratensians and evens Valliscaulians. Image File history File links Dundrennan_Abbey. ... Image File history File links Dundrennan_Abbey. ... Dundrennan Abbey, in Dundrennan, Scotland, near to Kirkcudbright, was a Cistercian monastery, established in 1142 by Fergus of Galloway, King David I of Scotland, and monks from Rievaulx Abbey. ... Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... King Malcolm III of Scotland, (1031? - November 13, 1093) also known as Malcolm Canmore (Malcolm with the large head), was the eldest son of King Duncan I of Scotland and first king of the House of Dunkeld. ... Lanfranc (d. ... Statistics Population: 42,258 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TR145575 Administration District: City of Canterbury Shire county: Kent Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Kent Historic county: Kent Services Police force: Kent Police Ambulance service: South East Coast Post office and... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ... Dunfermline Abbey and Church - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Dunfermline Abbey is the remains of a great Benedictine abbey founded in 1070 by Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore and granddaughter of Edmund Ironside, King of England. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Tironensian monks, of the Order of Tiron, also spelled Thiron - apparently from Latin thironium, a high hill (Guillemin, 1999)- so called after the location of the mother abbey (established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron, Perche (some 35 miles west of Chartres, France). ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians and in England, as the White Canons (from the color of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ...


Ecclesia Scoticana

The Ecclesia Scoticana (lit. Scottish church) as a system has no known starting point, although Causantín II's alleged Scoticisation of the "Pictish" Church might be taken as one. Before the Norman period, Scotland had little dioscesan structure, being primarily monastic after the fashion of Ireland. After the Norman Conquest of England, the Archbishops of both Canterbury and York each claimed superiority over the Scottish church. The church in Scotland attained independent status after the Papal Bull of Celestine III (Cum universi, 1192) by which all Scottish bishoprics except Galloway were formally independent of York and Canterbury. However, unlike Ireland which had been granted four Archbishoprics in the same century, Scotland received no Archbishop and the whole Ecclesia Scoticana, with individual Scottish bishoprics (except Whithorn/Galloway), became the "special daughter of Rome". The following is a table of Bishoprics present in "Scotland-proper" in the thirteenth century: Constantine II (874?–952) was king of Scotland from 900 to 942 or 943. ... Gaelicization or Gaelicisation is the act or process of making something Gaelic. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England was the invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Celestine III, né Giacinto Bobone Orsini ( 1106 - January 8, 1198), was Pope from 1191 to 1198. ...

The ruins of St Andrews cathedral, the centre of the Ecclesia Scoticana in the Norman period.
The ruins of St Andrews cathedral, the centre of the Ecclesia Scoticana in the Norman period.

Outside of Scotland-proper, the bishopric of Glasgow managed to secure its existence in the twelfth century with a vibrant church community who gained the favour of the Scottish kings. The Bishopric of Whithorn (Galloway) was resurrected by Fergus, King of Galloway, and Thurstan, Archbishop of York. The bishopric of the isles, under the nominal jurisdiction of Trondheim (and sometimes York), had its Episcopal seat at Peel, Isle of Man, later moving to Iona. Lothian had no bishop, but was controlled by St Andrews, Dunkeld and Glasgow. Its natural overlord was the Bishopric of Durham, and that bishopric continued to be important in Lothian, especially through the cult of St Cuthbert. There was also a bishopric of Orkney, based at Kirkwall. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... St Andrews cathedral ruins. ... The Bishop of Dunkeld is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... The Bishop of St. ... The Bishop of Brechin is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. ... The Bishop of Dunblane or Bishop of Strathearn was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Dunblane/Strathearn, one of medieval Scotlands thirteen bishoprics. ... The Bishop of Aberdeen is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aberdeen in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... The ruins of Fortrose Cathedral on the Black Isle. ... Rosemarkie is a village on the Black Isle in the Scottish Highlands, lying a quarter of a mile east of the village of Fortrose. ... Fortrose is a burgh in the Scottish Highlands, located on the Moray Firth, approximately ten kilometres north east of Inverness. ... The Bishop of Moray or Bishop of Elgin was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Moray in northern Scotland, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... Elgin is a town in Moray the North of Scotland. ... The Bishop of Caithness was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Caithness, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... Location within the British Isles The Royal Burgh of Dornoch is a burgh and seaside resort in Sutherland, Highland, on the east coast of the Scottish Highlands, and the north shore of the Dornoch Firth. ... The Bishop of Argyll or Bishop of Lismore was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Argyll, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... Lismore (coloured red) shown within Argyll Lismore is an island in Loch Linnhe, in Argyll, on the west coast of Scotland. ... The Archbishop of Glasgow is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Glasgow. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Bishop of Galloway is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Galloway in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... Fergus is a popular Irish and Scots Gaelic name meaning man-strength or virility. Some people called Fergus include: Fergus of Galloway Fergus Lethderg (red-side or half-red), a son of Nemed who leads his people against the Fomorians in the Irish Mythological Cycle Fergus mac Róich, a... The Lords of Galloway ruled Galloway from about 1138 to 1234. ... Thurstan, or Turstin (d. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Bishop of the Isles or Bishop of Sodor was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Sodor, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... County Sør-Trøndelag District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... Peel is a town in the Isle of Man. ... Iona village viewed from a short distance offshore. ... Arms of the Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (c. ... The Romanesque interior of St. ...


Culture

Enlarge
Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy.

As a predominantly Gaelic society, most Scottish cultural practices throughout this period mirrored closely those of Ireland, or at least those of Ireland with some Pictish borrowings. After David I, the French-speaking kings introduced cultural practices popular in Anglo-Norman England, France and elsewhere. As in all pre-modern societies, storytelling was popular. In the words of D.D.R. Owen, a scholar who specialises in the literature of the era, writes that "Professional storytellers would ply their trade from court to court. Some of them would have been native Scots, no doubt offering legends from the ancient Celtic past performed ... in Gaelic when appropriate, but in French for most of the new nobility"[66] Almost all of these stories are lost, or come down only vaguely in Gaelic or Scots oral tradition. One form of oral culture extremely well accounted for in this period is genealogy. There are dozens of Scottish genealogies surviving from this era, covering everyone from the Mormaers of Lennox and Moray, to the Scottish king himself. Scotland's kings maintained an ollamh righe, a royal high poet who had a permanent place in all medieval Gaelic lordships, and whose purpose was to recite genealogies when needed, for occasions such as coronations.[67] Culture of Scotland in the High Middle Ages refers to the forms of cultural expression that come from Scotland in the High Medieval period which, for the purposes of this article, refers to the period between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Scots is an Anglic variety spoken in Scotland, where it is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides). ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Lennox was the long-lasting native Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ...

Book of Deer, Folio 5r contains the text of the Gospel of Matthew from 1:18 through 1:21. Note the Chi Rho monogram in the upper left corner. The margins contain Gaelic text.
Book of Deer, Folio 5r contains the text of the Gospel of Matthew from 1:18 through 1:21. Note the Chi Rho monogram in the upper left corner. The margins contain Gaelic text.

Before the reign of David I, the Scots possessed a flourishing literary elite who regularly produced texts in both Gaelic and Latin that were frequently transmitted to Ireland and elsewhere. Dauvit Broun has shown that a Gaelic literary elite survived in the eastern Scottish lowlands, in places such as Loch Leven and Brechin into the thirteenth century,[68] However, the records which have come down to us are predominantly written in Latin, and their authors would usually translate vernacular terms into Latin, so that historians are faced with a Gaelic society clothed in Latin terminology. Even names were translated into more common continental forms; for instance, Gilla Brigte became Gilbert, Áed became Hugh, etc. [69] As far as written literature is concerned, there may be more medieval Scottish Gaelic literature than is often thought. Almost all medieval Gaelic literature has survived because it was allowed to sustain in Ireland, not in Scotland. Thomas Owen Clancy has recently all but proven that the Lebor Bretnach, the so-called "Irish Nennius," was written in Scotland, and probably at the monastery in Abernethy. Yet this text survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland.[70] Other literary work which has survived include that of the prolific poet Gille Brighde Albanach. About 1218, Gille Brighde wrote a poem — Heading for Damietta — on his experiences of the Fifth Crusade. [71] In the thirteenth century, French flourished as a literary language, and produced the Roman de Fergus, the earliest piece of non-Celtic vernacular literature to survive from Scotland. There is no extant literature in the English language in this era. There is some Norse literature from Scandinavian parts, such as the Northern Isles and the Western Isles. The famous Orkneyinga Saga however, although it pertains to the Earldom of Orkney, was written in Iceland. Download high resolution version (531x705, 109 KB)Page from the Book of Deer. ... Download high resolution version (531x705, 109 KB)Page from the Book of Deer. ... Folio 29v contains a portrait of the Evangelist Luke. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Loch Leven, looking north from Vane Farm. ... The Royal Burgh of Brechin is a burgh in Angus, Scotland. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Gillebrìghde Albanach (fl. ... The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Muslim state in Egypt. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... Loch Trool, in what was then regarded as Galloway, a location that captures its wildness. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Middle English is the name given to an early form of the English language that was in common use from roughly the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to around the introduction of the printing press by William Caxton... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown... The Orkney Isles, along with the Shetland Isles to their immediate north, lie off the northernmost tip of Caithness Scotland. ...

The harp (or clarsach) was an instrument associated with medieval Scottish culture. This one, now in the Museum of Scotland, is a one of only three surviving medieval Gaelic harps.
The harp (or clarsach) was an instrument associated with medieval Scottish culture. This one, now in the Museum of Scotland, is a one of only three surviving medieval Gaelic harps.

In the Middle Ages, Scotland, perhaps more than any country in Europe, was renowned for its musical skill. Gerald of Wales tells us that: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2035 KB) A celtic harp Photo taken at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Harp ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2035 KB) A celtic harp Photo taken at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Harp ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ...

"Scotland, because of her affinity and intercourse [with Ireland], tries to imitate Ireland in music and strives in emulation. Ireland uses and delights in two instruments only, the harp namely, and the tympanum. Scotland uses three, the harp, the tympanum and the crowd. In the opinion, however, of many, Scotland has by now not only caught up on Ireland, her instructor, but already far outdistances her and excels her in musical skill. Therefore, [Irish] people now look to that country as the fountain of the art."[72]

The medieval Scots indeed took harping very seriously. We know that, even half a century after Gerald was writing, King Alexander III kept a royal harpist. Of the three mediaeval harps that survive, two come from Scotland (Perthshire), and one from Ireland. Singers also had a royal function. For instance, when the king of Scotland passed through the territory of Strathearn, it was the custom that he be greeted by seven female singers, who would sing to him. When Edward I approached the borders of Strathearn in the summer of 1296, he was met by these seven women, "who accompanied the King on the road between Gask and Ogilvie, singing to him, as was the custom in the time of the late Alexander kings of Scots". [73] People called Ogilvie include: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


Outsiders' view

The Irish thought of Scotland as a provincial place. Others thought of it as an outlandish or barbaric place. To the Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II, Scotland was associated with having many lakes; to the Arabs, it was an uninhabited peninsula to the north of England. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ...


"Who would deny that the Scots are barbarians?" was a rhetorical question posed by the author of the De expugnatione Lyxbonensi (i.e. "On the Conquest of Lisbon").[74] A century later St Louis of France was reported to have said to his son “I would prefer that a Scot should come from Scotland and govern the people well and faithfully, than that you, my son, should be seen to govern badly”.[75] To their English-speaking and French-speaking neighbours, the Scots, especially the Galwegians, became the barbarians par excellence. After David I this ceased to be applied to their rulers, but the term barbarus was used to describe the Scots, as well as a large number of other European peoples, throughout the High Middle Ages. This characterisation of the Scots was often politically motivated, and many of the most hostile writers were based in areas frequently subjected to Scottish raids. English and French accounts of the Battle of the Standard contain many accounts of Scottish atrocities. For instance, Henry of Huntingdon tells us that the Scots: The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect, spoken by the Lords of Galloway in their time, and by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. ... The monument on the battlefield at Grid reference SE360977 The Battle of the Standard took place on 22 August 1138 near Northallerton in Yorkshire. ... For Earl Henry, father of two Scottish kings, see Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon Henry of Huntingdon (c. ...

"cleft open pregnant women, and took out the unborn babes; they tossed children upon the spear-points, and beheaded priests on altars: they cut the head of crucifixes, and placed them on the trunks of the slain; and placed the heads of the dead upon the crucifixes. Thus wherever the Scots arrived, all was full of horror and full of savagery".[76],

A less hostile view was given by Guibert of Nogent in the First Crusade, who encountered Scots and who wrote that: An angel blows a trumpet into Guiberts ear, declaring moral truths. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the stated goal of capturing the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims. ...

“You might have seen a crowd of Scots, a people savage at home but unwarlike elsewhere, descend from their marshy lands, with bare legs, shaggy cloaks, their purse hanging from their shoulders; their copious arms seemed ridiculous to us, but they offered their faith and devotion as aid”[77]

In many ways, these accounts tell us merely that in the Frankish cultural milieu, the Scots were seen as outsiders. Moreover, the fact that outlandishness did not apply to the new feudal elite meant that by the end of the period, the Scottish aristocrat was seen as little different from his English or French equivalent.


There was a general belief that Scotland-proper was an island, or at least a peninsula, known as Scotia, Alba(nia), or, in the map of Matthew Paris, called Scotia ultra marina. In fact, it was in this manner that the land was drawn in the mid-thirteenth century by the aforementioned Matthew Paris.[78] A later medieval Italian map applies this geographical conceptualization to all of Scotland.[79] The Arab geographer al-Idrisi, shared this view. He tells us that Scotland: Peninsula A peninsula (from Latin paene insula, almost island) is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body, surrounded by water on three sides. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from a manuscript of his chronicle (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Al-Idrisis world map from 1154. ...

"adjoins the island of England and is a long peninsula to the north of the larger island. it is uninhabited and has neither town nor village. Its length is 150 miles" [80]

Such an observation encapsulates how Scotland, on the edge of the world as it was, was being imagined in the High Medieval western Eurasian world.


National identity

In this period, the word Scot was not the word used by vast majority of Scots to describe themselves. This was in fact only the word they used to describe themselves to foreigners, amongst whom it was the most common word. The Scots called themselves Albanach or simply Gaidel. As with Scot, in the latter word, they used an ethnic term which connected them to the majority of the inhabitants of Ireland. As the author of De Situ Albanie tells us at the beginning of the thirteenth century: De Situ Albanie (dSA) is the name given to the first of seven Scottish documents found in the so-called Poppleton Manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...

"The name Arregathel [=Argyll] means margin of the Scots or Irish, because all Scots and Irish are generally called "Gattheli"" [81]

Likewise, the inhabitants of English and Norse-speaking parts were ethnically linked with other regions of Europe. At Melrose, people could recite religious literature in the English language.[82] In the later part of the twelfth century, the Lothian writer Adam of Dryburgh, tells us that Lothian was “the Land of the English in the Kingdom of the Scots”. [83] Melrose(Am Maol Ros in Gaelic) is a small, historic town in the Scottish Borders. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


However, if Scotland possessed large ethnic differences, then it also possessed a unity which transcended Gaelic, French and Germanic ethnic differences. By the end of our period, the Latin, French and English word Scot could be used for any subject of the Scottish King. Scotland's multilingual Scoto-Norman monarchs and mixed Gaelic and Scoto-Norman aristocracy all became part of what many scholars call the "Community of the Realm", in which these ethnic differences were largely irrelevant. The term Scoto-Norman (also Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to described people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that were of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish origin, but came to be associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. ...


Notes

  1. ^ , e.g. Oram, The Lordship of Galloway, (2000); Boardman & Ross (eds.) The Exercise of Power in Medieval Scotland, (2003); Neville, Native Lordship (2005).
  2. ^ , Heather, "State Formation", (1994), 47–63
  3. ^ , Dumville, "St Cathróe of Metz", pp. 172–176; text translated on A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, pp. 431–443
  4. ^ , for text and commentary, see Bannerman, Studies (1974) & Dumville "Ireland and North Britain", (2002).
  5. ^ , M. Anderson, Kings and Kingship (1973), p. 79, n. 11; for text, "Irish" Nennius at CELT.
  6. ^ , Pittock, Celtic Identity, (1999), p. 18.
  7. ^ , e.g. Dauvit Broun, "Dunkeld and the Origins of Scottish Identity" (1999); Dauvit Broun, "Kenneth mac Alpin", (2001), p. 359; Alex Woolf, "Ungus (Onuist), son of Uurgust", (2001), p. 604; Katherine Forsyth, "Scotland to 1100" (2005) pp. 28–31. Compare older accounts, such as in Alfred Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men, (Edinburgh, 1984), pp. 175–189
  8. ^ , See Clancy, "Philosopher-King: Nechtan mac Der-Ilei".
  9. ^ , Clancy (ed.), The Triumph Tree, p. 115; ibid. pp. 15–16 for suggestion as contemporary praise poetry.
  10. ^ , Foster, Sally, Picts, Gaels and Scots (1996).
  11. ^ , Nicolaisen Scottish Place-names (1976/2001), pp. 165–191 ; Simon Taylor, "Place-names", (1996), pp. 93–103.
  12. ^ a b , AU, s.a. 900; A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, p. 395
  13. ^ , Chronicle of the Kings of Alba; A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, p.445.
  14. ^ , Woolf, "Geography of the Picts", (forthcoming).
  15. ^ , Kelly, Early Irish Law, (1998), p.92.
  16. ^ , e.g. BBC documentary In Search of Scotland, ep. 2.
  17. ^ , A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, p. 452
  18. ^ , Hudson, Celtic Kings, (1994), p. 89
  19. ^ , ibid. pp. 95–96
  20. ^ , Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 124
  21. ^ , A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. ii, p. 23, & n. 1.
  22. ^ , Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MS. E, s.a. 1093; A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, (1908), p. 118
  23. ^ , Annals of Inisfallen, s.a. 1105–1107/7, available here;
  24. ^ , Bartlett, The Making of Europe (1993).
  25. ^ a b , as Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
  26. ^ , Memoriale Fratris Walteri de Coventria, ed. W. Stubbs, (Rolls Series, no. 58), ii. 206.
  27. ^ , William of Newburgh, Historia Rerum Anglicarum, in R. Howlett (ed.) Chronicles of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, (Rolls Series, no. 82), Vol. I, pp 186–187.
  28. ^ , Walter Bower, Scottichronicon, VIII. 22., 30–40.
  29. ^ , Normanists tend to sideline or downplay opposition amongst the native Scots to Canmore authority, but much work has been done on the topic recently, especially R. Andrew McDonald, , Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058–1266, (East Linton, 2003)
  30. ^ , Chronicle of Lanercost, 40–41, quoted in McDonald, Outlaws, p. 46.
  31. ^ , For Findláech, ri Alban, Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1020; Anderson, Early Sources, Vol. I, p. 551. For Máel Coluim, Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1029; Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, p. 571. The Annals of Tigernach though styles Findláech merely Mormaer.
  32. ^ , Oram, Lordship, (2000), p. 62
  33. ^ , text here, and in A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, v.i, pp. cxv–cxix
  34. ^ , Stringer, "Emergence of a Nation State", pp. 66–69
  35. ^ , Barrow, Kingship and Unity, (1981), p. 12
  36. ^ , ibid., p. 18
  37. ^ , e.g. for Galloway, Oram, Lordship, pp. 212–213; for Strathearn and Lennox, see. Neville, Native Lordship, pp. 79–130
  38. ^ , Barrow, Kingship and Unity, p. 12–15
  39. ^ , ibid. p. 15
  40. ^ , Neville, Native Lordship, p. 96
  41. ^ , Driscoll, Alba, (2002), p. 53
  42. ^ , Barrow, Kingship and unity, p. 98
  43. ^ , Murison, "Linguistic Relations", (1974), p. 74
  44. ^ , ibid., p. 102
  45. ^ , R.E. Tyson, "Population Patterns", (2001), p. 487–488
  46. ^ , e.g. Barrow, 'Kingship and Unity, p. 14; Barron, War of Independence, (1934), pp. 212–213; etc.
  47. ^ , Kingship and Unity', pp. 93–94
  48. ^ , Kelly, Early Irish Law.
  49. ^ , Grant, "Thanes and Thanages", (1993), p. 42
  50. ^ , Grant, "Thanes and Thanages", pp. 43–44.
  51. ^ Barrow, Kingship and Unity, pp. 16–17)
  52. ^ , D.H.S. Sellar, "Gaelic Laws and Institutions", (2001), pp. 381–382
  53. ^ , MacQueen, "Laws and Languages", (2002).
  54. ^ , Kelly, Early Irish Law, esp. pp. 324–325.
  55. ^ , Barrow, Kingdom of the Scots, (2003), pp. 69–82.
  56. ^ , See Barrow, "The Justiciar", ibid., pp. 68–109.
  57. ^ , McNeill & MacQueen, Atlas of Scottish History, (1996), p. 191
  58. ^ , ibid., p. 193
  59. ^ , ibid., p. 193
  60. ^ a b , Bannerman, "Macduff", pp. 22–23
  61. ^ , McNeill & MacQueen, Atlas of Scottish History, pp. 159–163
  62. ^ , these were, the chief places for the 10th and early 11th centuries. See locations mentioned in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
  63. ^ , Gillingham, The English, (2000).
  64. ^ , A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals. , pp. 192–200.
  65. ^ Broun & Clancy, Spes Scottorum, (1999), p. 1.
  66. ^ , Owen, William the Lion, (1997), p. 21.
  67. ^ , Bannerman, “The Kings Poet”, (1989).
  68. ^ , Broun “Gaelic Literacy", (1998), pp. 183–201.
  69. ^ , Broun, Dauvit, The Charters, (1995).
  70. ^ , Clancy, "Nennian recension", (2000), pp. 87–107.
  71. ^ , For the works of (Muireadhach Albanach and) Gille Brighde Albanach, see Clancy (ed.), Triumph Tree,ibid. pp. 247–283.
  72. ^ , Gerald of Wales, Topographia Hibernica, III.XI; tr. O'Meary, p. 94.
  73. ^ , Calendar of documents relating to Scotland preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office, ed. J. Bain (4 vols, Edinburgh, 1881), vol. iv, p. 475; in Neville, Native Lordship, p. 79; and Barrow, Robert Bruce, p. 5.
  74. ^ , MacQuarrie, "Crusades", (2001), p. 115.
  75. ^ , ibid..
  76. ^ , Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, in A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 179.
  77. ^ , MacQuarrie, "Crusades", p. 115
  78. ^ , See Map
  79. ^ , See Here.
  80. ^ , al-Idrisi, Opus Geographicum, quoted in Bernard Lewis, The Muslim Discovery of Europe, (New York, 1982), p. 147.
  81. ^ , De Situ Albanie, in, for instance, A.O.. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i. p.cxviii.
  82. ^ , Bartlett, England, (2000), p. 77.
  83. ^ , see Keith J. Stringer, “Reform Monasticism", (2000), p. 133.

The Annals of Ulster are a chronicle of medieval Ireland. ... The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, or Scottish Chronicle, is a short written chronicle of the Kings of Alba, covering the period from the time of King Cináed I mac Ailpín (d. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Great Britain. ... The Annals of Inisfallen are a chronicle of the medieval history of Ireland. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Findláech of Moray, or Findláech mac Ruaidrí, was the King or Mormaer of Moray, ruling from some point before 1014 until his death in 1020. ... Máel Coluim of Moray, or Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti was King or Mormaer of Moray (1020-1029), and, as his name suggests, the son of a Máel Brigte. ... De Situ Albanie (dSA) is the name given to the first of seven Scottish documents found in the so-called Poppleton Manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. ... The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, or Scottish Chronicle, is a short written chronicle of the Kings of Alba, covering the period from the time of King Cináed I mac Ailpín (d. ... Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ... De Situ Albanie (dSA) is the name given to the first of seven Scottish documents found in the so-called Poppleton Manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. ...

References

These references are purely those used for the article, and do not on their own constitute an attempt to provide an exhaustive reading list on the topics.

Primary sources

  • Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286, 2 Vols, (Edinburgh, 1922).
  • Anderson, Alan Orr, Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers: AD 500–1286, (London, 1908), republished, Marjorie Anderson (ed.) (Stamford, 1991).
  • Gerald of Wales, The History and Topography of Ireland, tr. John O’ Meary, (London, 1982).
  • Guillaume le Clerc, Fergus of Galloway, tr. D.D.R. Owen, (London, 1991).
  • Skene, William F. (ed.), Chronicles of the Picts and Scots: And Other Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867).

Secondary sources

  • Anderson, Marjorie O., Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1973).
  • Bannerman, John, "MacDuff of Fife," in A. Grant & K.Stringer (eds.) Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community, Essays Presented to G.W.S. Barrow, (Edinburgh, 1993), pp.20–38.
  • Bannerman, John, “The Kings Poet”, in The Scottish Historical Review, V. LXVIII, (1989).
  • Bannerman, John, Studies in the History of Dalriada, (Edinburgh, 1974).
  • Barron, Evan MacLeod, The Scottish War of Independence: A Critical Study, 2nd Edition, (Inverness, 1934).
  • Barrow, G.W.S., The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History, (Oxford, 1980).
  • Barrow, G.W.S., Feudal Britain, (London, 1956).
  • Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots, (Edinburgh, 2003).
  • Barrow, G.W.S., Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1000–1306, (Edinburgh. 1981).
  • Barrow, G.W.S., “The Reign of William the Lion”, in Scotland and Its Neighbours In the Middle Ages, (London, 1992), pp. 67–89.
  • Barrow, G.W.S., Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1988).
  • Bartlett, Robert, England under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225, (Oxford, 2000).
  • Bartlett, Robert, The Making of Europe, Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change: 950–1350, (London, 1993).
  • Broun, Dauvit, The Charters of Gaelic Scotland and Ireland in the Early and Central Middle Ages, Quiggin Pamphlet no.2., (Cambridge. 1995).
  • Broun, Dauvit “Defining Scotland and the Scots Before the Wars of Independence,” in Image and Identity: the Making and Remaking of Scotland through the Ages, in. D. Broun, R. Finlay & M. Lynch (eds.), (Edinburgh 1998), pp. 4–17.
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Dunkeld and the origin of Scottish identity", in Innes Review 48 (1997), pp. 112–124, reprinted in Spes Scotorum: Hope of Scots, eds. Broun and Clancy (1999), pp. 95–111.
  • Broun, Dauvit, “Gaelic Literacy in Eastern Scotland between 1124 and 1249” in Huw Pryce (ed.), Literacy in Medieval Celtic Societies, (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 183–201.
  • Broun, Dauvit, The Irish Identity of the Kingdom of the Scots in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, (Woodbridge 1999).
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Kenneth mac Alpin", in M. Lynch (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (New York, 2001), p.359.
  • Broun, Dauvit, “The Seven Kingdoms in De Situ Albanie: A Record of Pictish political geography or imaginary Map of ancient Alba”, in E.J. Cowan & R. Andrew McDonald (eds.), Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, (Edinburgh, 2000, rev. 2005).
  • Broun, Dauvit & Clancy, Thomas Owen (eds.),Spes Scottorum: Hope of the Scots, (Edinburgh, 1999).
  • Broun, D., "The Welsh identity of the kingdom of Strathclyde, ca. 900–ca. 1200", in Innes Review 55 (2004), pp. 111–180.
  • Brown, Michael, "Earldom and Kindred: The Lennox and Its Earls, 1200–1458" in Steve Boardman and Alasdair Ross (eds.) The Exercise of Power in Medieval Scotland, c.1200–1500, (Dublin/Portland, 2003), pp. 201–224.
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "Philosopher-King: Nechtan mac Der-Ilei", in the Scottish Historical Review, 83, 2004, pp. 125–149.
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "The real St Ninian", in The Innes Review, 52 (2001).
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, “Scotland, the ‘Nennian’ recension of the Historia Brittonum, and the Lebor Bretnach”, in Simon Taylor (ed.) Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297, (Dublin/Portland, 2000), pp. 87–107.
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen (ed.), The Triumph Tree: Scotland's Earliest Poetry, 550–1350, (Edinburgh, 1998).
  • Davies, R.R., The First English Empire: Power and Identity in the British Isles 1093–1343, (Oxford, 2000).
  • Davies, R.R., “Peoples of Britain and Ireland: 1100–1400:1.Identities” in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, IV, 1994.
  • Driscoll, Steven, Alba: The Gaelic Kingdom of Scotland AD 800–1124, (Edinburgh, 1996).
  • Dumville, David N., “Ireland and North Britain in the Earlier Middle Ages: Contexts for the Míniugud Senchasa Fher nAlban”, in Colm Ó Baoill & Nancy R. McGuire (eds.) Rannsachadh Na Gáidhlig, (Aberdeen, 2002).
  • Dumville, David N., "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism," in Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars, ed. John Carey et al. (Dublin, 2001), pp. 172–176.
  • Ferguson, William, The Identity of the Scottish Nation: An Historic Enquiry, (Edinburgh, 1998)
  • Foster, Sally, Picts, Gaels and Scots: Early Historic Scotland, (London, 1996)
  • Forsyth, Katherine, Language in Pictland, (Utrecht 1997)
  • Forsyth, Katherine, "Scotland to 1100" in J. Wormald (ed.) Scotland: A History, (Oxford, 2005), pp. 1–39.
  • Gillingham, John, The Angevin Empire, (London, 1984).
  • Gillingham, John, The English in the Twelfth Century: Imperialism, National Identity and Political Values, (Woodbridge, 2000).
  • Grant, Alexander, "The Province of Ross and the Kingdom of Alba" in E.J. Cowan and R.Andrew McDonald (eds.) Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, (Edinburgh, 2000).
  • Grant, Alexander, "Thanes and Thanages, from the eleventh to the Fourteenth Centuries" in A. Grant & K.Stringer (eds.) Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community, Essays Presented to G.W.S. Barrow, (Edinburgh, 1993), pp. 39–81.
  • Heather, Peter, "State Formation in Europe in the First Millennium A.D.", in Barbara Crawford (ed.) Scotland in Dark Ages Europe, (Aberdeen, 1994), pp. 47–70.
  • Jackson, Kenneth H. (ed), The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer (The Osborn Bergin Memorial Lecture 1970), (Cambridge (1972).
  • Jackson, Kenneth H. "The Pictish language", in F.T. Wainwright (ed.), The Problem of the Picts, (Edinburgh, 1955), pp. 129–166.
  • Hudson, Benjamin T., Kings of Celtic Scotland, (Westport, 1994).
  • Kelly, Fergus, Early Irish Law, (Dublin, 1998).
  • Lewis, Bernard, The Muslim Discovery of Europe, (New York, 1982).
  • Lynch, Michael, Scotland: A New History, (Edinburgh, 1992).
  • McDonald, R. Andrew, "Old and new in the far North: Ferchar Maccintsacairt and the early earls of Ross" in Steve Boardman and Alasdair Ross (eds.) The Exercise of Power in Medieval Scotland, c.1200–1500, (Dublin/Portland, 2003).
  • McDonald, R. Andrew, Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058–1266, (East Linton, 2003).
  • MacLeod, W., Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland: c.1200–1650, (Oxford, 2004).
  • McNeill, Peter G.B. & MacQueen, Hector L. (eds), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996).
  • MacQueen, Hector, "Laws and Languages: Some Historical Notes from Scotland", vol 6.2 Electronic Journal of Comparative Law, (July 2002) *.
  • MacQuarrie, Alan, "Crusades", in M. Lynch (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (New York, 2001), pp. 115–116.
  • Murison, David D., “Linguistic Relations in Medieval Scotland,” in G.W.S. Barrow (ed.), The Scottish Tradition: Essays in Honour of Ronald Gordon Cant, (Edinburgh, 1974).
  • Neville, Cynthia J., Native Lorship in Medieval Scotland: The Earldoms of Strathearn and Lennox, c. 1140–1365, (Portland/Dublin, 2005).
  • Nicolaisen, W.F.H., Scottish Place-Names, (Edinburgh, 1976), 2nd ed. (2001)
  • Oram, Richard D., "The Earls and Earldom of Mar, c1150–1300," Steve Boardman and Alasdair Ross (eds.) The Exercise of Power in Medieval Scotland, c.1200–1500, (Dublin/Portland, 2003). pp. 46–66.
  • Oram, Richard, David: The King Who Made Scotland, (Gloucestershire, 2004) .
  • Oram, Richard, The Lordship of Galloway, (Edinburgh, 2000).
  • Owen, D.D.R., The Reign of William the Lion: Kingship and Culture, 1143–1214, (East Linton, 1997).
  • Pittock, Murray G.H., Celtic Identity and the British Image, (Manchester, 1999)
  • Roberts, John L., Lost Kingdoms: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages, (Edinburgh, 1997)
  • Sellar, D.H.S. "Gaelic Laws and Institutions", (2001), in M. Lynch (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (New York, 2001), pp. 381–382.
  • Smyth, Alfred, Warlords and Holy Men, (Edinburgh, 1984).
  • Snyder, Edward D., “The Wild Irish: A study of Some English Satires Against the Irish, Scots and Welsh,” in Modern Philology, Vol. 17, No. 12, (Apr., 1920), p. 687–725.
  • Stringer, Keith J., "The Emergence of a Nation-State, 1100–1300", in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History, (Oxford, 2005), pp. 38–76.
  • Stringer, Keith J., “Reform Monasticism and Celtic Scotland,” in Edward J. Cowan & R. Andrew McDonald (eds.), Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages, (East Lothian, 2000), pp. 127–165.
  • Taylor, Simon, "Place-names and the Early Church in Eastern Scotland", in Barbara Crawford (ed.), Scotland in Dark Age Britain, (Aberdeen, 1996), pp. 93–110.
  • Taylor, Simon, "Place-names and the Early Church in Eastern Scotland", in Barbara Crawford (ed.), Scotland in Dark Age Britain, (Aberdeen, 1996), pp. 93–110.
  • Tyson, R.E., "Population Patterns", in M. Lynch (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (New York, 2001), pp. 487–489.
  • Watson, W.J., The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1926) reprinted, with an Introduction, full Watson bibliography and corrigenda by Simon Taylor (Edinburgh, 2004).
  • Woolf, Alex, "Dun Nechtain, Fortriu and the Geography of the Picts", in Scottish Historical Review, (forthcoming).
  • Woolf, Alex, "Ungus (Onuist), son of Uurgust", in M. Lynch (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (New York, 2001), p. 604.
  • Young, Alan, "Buchan in the 13th century" in Alexander Grant & Keith J. Stringer (eds.) Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community Essays Presented to G.W.S Barrow, (Edinburgh, 1993).

Alan Orr Anderson (1879-1958) was a Scottish historian and compiler. ... Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ... Picture of Fergus in a MS of the Roman van Ferguut, a Middle Dutch derivative text based on the Roman, from the Netherlands. ... William Forbes Skene (1809–1892), Scottish historian and antiquary, was the second son of Sir Walter Scotts friend, James Skene (1775–1864), of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, and was born on June 7 1809. ... Geoffrey W.S. Barrow is a Scottish historian and academic. ... Captain Robert Bartlett Captain Robert Bartlett Captain Robert Abram Bartlett was a notable ice navigator and Arctic explorer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Dauvit Broun (David Brown) is a Scottish historian based at the University of Glasgow, and one of the most prominent and influential scholars in the field of medieval Scottish or Celtic studies. ... Dr. Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland. ... Sir Robert Rees Davies (August 6, 1938 - May 16, 2005), was a noted Welsh historian. ... Professor David Norman Dumville (b. ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson was a linguist and phonologist and a translator who specialized in the Brythonic languages. ... Cynthia J Neville, Chair, Department of History, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ... Professor William J. Watson, 1865-1948, was the first Gaelic speaking scholar to place the study of Scottish place names on a firm linguistic basis. ... Alex Woolf is a British medievalist based at the University of St Andrews, and one of the most pioneering scholars in British medieval studies. ...

External links

Primary sources

  • Annals of Tigernach
  • Annals of Ulster
  • Chronicon Scotorum
  • Gaelic Notes on the Book of Deer
  • Genelaig Albanensium in the Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502
  • Text of the Lebor Bretnach and the Duan Albanach

Secondary sources

  • MacQueen "Laws and Languages"


Middle Ages by region
Medieval Britain | Byzantine Empire | Medieval Czech lands | Medieval France | Medieval Germany
Medieval Italy | Kievan Rus' | Medieval Poland | Medieval Romania | Medieval Scotland | Medieval Spain

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Motto: (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper: Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! The culture of Scotland is the national culture of Scotland. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relatives throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the heraldry and Coat... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year in the Scottish manner. ... John Logie Baird, the Scottish inventor of television. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... Scotland is a Celtic-Germanic country, located to the north of England on the island of Great Britain. ... Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... A burgh (pronounced burruh) is the Scots language equivalent of the English language borough. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils. They have been in use since April 1, 1996, under the provisions of the Local Government etc. ... List of Scottish companies is an incomplete list of companies incorporated in Scotland, organised by industry sector. ... Headquarters on The Mound, Edinburgh The Bank of Scotland is a commercial bank in Scotland (and to a lesser extent the rest of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland). ... The Royal Bank of Scotland Group PLC is one of Scotlands three national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter. ... North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... A bottle of an independent bottling of Royal Brackla Single Malt Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination, with tourism generally being responsible for sustaining 200,000 jobs mainly in the service sector, with tourist spending averaging at £4bn per year [1]. Domestic tourists (those from the United Kingdom) make up the bulk of visitors to Scotland. ... All Harris Tweed items are hand woven on the islands off the Northern coast of Scotland (outer Hebrides). ... Scotland has an incomparable variety of geology for an area of its size. ... Scotland is the most mountainous region of the United Kingdom. ... Freshwater Lochs Loch Arkaig Loch Awe, the third largest loch by surface area, also the longest Loch Dochfour Loch Ericht Loch Katrine, an important water reservoir Loch Leven, site of Loch Leven Castle Loch Lochy Loch Lomond, the largest by surface area Loch Lubnaig, Loch Maree, the fourth largest by... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh Government Monarchy Head of State King of Scots Parliament Parliament of Scotland Currency Pound Scots This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707). ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... The Reformation in Scotland was arguably the most important event in Scottish history. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Lowland Clearances in Scotland were one of the results of the Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... Scots law (or Scottish law) is the law of Scotland. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The Lord Justice General of Scotland is head of the High Court of Justiciary, Lord President of the Court of Session and head of the judiciary in Scotland. ... The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is a government department in Scotland that is responsible for the public prosecution of alleged criminals. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for Scotland (Àrd-neach-lagha a Chrùin an Alba) is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Lord Advocate, whose duty is to advise the Crown and the Scottish Executive on Scots Law. ... The procurator fiscal is the local public prosecutor in Scotland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scots is an Anglic variety spoken in Scotland, where it is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides). ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... List of Scots is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... List of Scottish scientists is a list of Scottish scientists. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Parties represented in the Scottish Parliament (in order of number of representatives): Labour Party - Centre-left, unionist - 50 MSPs Scottish National Party (SNP) - Centre-left, pro-independence- 27 MSPs Conservative and Unionist Party - Centre-right, unionist - 18 MSPs Liberal Democrats - Centre, federalist - 17 MSPs Scottish Green Party - Environmentalist, pro-independence... Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils. ... The Scottish Parliaments logo in English and Gaelic. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The First Minister (First Meinister in Scots; Prìomh Mhinistear in Scots Gaelic) is the leader of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the reconvened Scottish Parliament. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... The Scotland Office (Oifis na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for reserved Scottish affairs. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 // The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


 
 

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