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Encyclopedia > Scotland
Scotland  (English / Scots)
Alba  (Gaelic)
Flag of Scotland Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland
Flag Royal Coat of Arms
MottoIn My Defens God Me Defend (Scots) (Often shown abbreviated as IN DEFENS)
AnthemFlower Of Scotland (de facto)
Location of Scotland
Location of  Scotland  (orange)

in the United Kingdom  (camel) Scotland is the name of a country in northwest Europe. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, a white saltire with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... There is no official national anthem of Scotland[1]. However, there is a complex and on-going social and political dispute amongst many contenders for the title of the nations de jure song, which has polarised much of the public. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

Capital Edinburgh
55°57′N 3°12′W / 55.95, -3.2
Largest city Glasgow
Official languages English (de facto)
Recognised regional languages Gaelic, Scots[1]
Demonym Scottish [2]
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  First Minister
(of Scotland)
Alex Salmond MP MSP
 -  Prime Minister
(of the UK)
Gordon Brown MP
Legislature Scottish Parliament
Establishment Early Middle Ages; exact date of establishment unclear or disputed; traditional 843, by King Kenneth MacAlpin[3] 
Area
 -  Total 78,772 km² 
30,414 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.9
Population
 -  2006 estimate 5,116,900 
 -  2001 census 5,062,011 
 -  Density 65/km² 
168.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total US$194 billion 
 -  Per capita US$39,680 
HDI (2003) 0.939 (high
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk³
Calling code +44
Patron saint St. Andrew[4]
1 Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are officially recognised as autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages;[5] the Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked, under the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland, commanding "equal respect" with English.[6]
2 Historically, the use of "Scotch" as an adjective comparable to "Scottish" was commonplace, particularly outwith Scotland. However, the modern use of the term describes only products of Scotland, usually food or drink related.
3 Also .eu, as part of the European Union. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

Scotland (Gaelic: Alba) is a country[7][8] that occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It is part of the United Kingdom,[7] and shares a land border to the south with England. It is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland consists of over 790 islands[9] including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond, known as Alex Salmond (born December 31, 1954, Linlithgow), is a Scottish politician, and the current First Minister of Scotland, heading a minority government. ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... This is a list of Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) or, in Gaelic, Buill Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPnA) elected to the third Scottish Parliament at the 2007 election. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Establishment is a slang term (chiefly in British and Commonwealth English) for a traditional conservative ruling class and its institutions. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... The Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey, 1855. ... A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nations past. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800 – 13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This is a trivia section. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... An autochthonous language is an indigenous language, one resident for a considerable length of time in a territory or region spoken by an autochthonous group. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Bòrd na Gàidhlig /borst na ga:lIk/ is the Scottish government appointed agency with responsibility for Scottish Gaelic. ... The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 2005 is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Scotch is an obsolescent adjective meaning of Scotland. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots in Britain but Scotch is still in contemporary use outside of England and Scotland. ... ISO 3166-1, as part of the ISO 3166 standard, provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... .gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about a name for Scotland. ... The Anglo-Scottish border runs for 96 kilometres (60 miles) between the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The North Channel is the stretch of water which separates Ireland from Scotland. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ...


Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centres.[10] It was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which saw Scotland become one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Scotland's largest city is Glasgow, which was once one of the world's leading industrial metropolises, and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation which dominates the Scottish Lowlands. Scottish waters consist of a large sector[11] of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Greater Glasgow is the conurbation that includes and surrounds the city of Glasgow in the west of Scotland. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... The Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 is a statutory instrument of the parliament of the United Kingdom, defining the boundaries between waters which are to be treated as internal waters or territorial sea of the United Kingdom adjacent to Scotland and those which are not. It was introduced in... Peak Oil Depletion Scenarios Graph which depicts cumulative published depletion studies by ASPO and other depletion analysts to illustrate that though the Hubbert Peak of conventional oil passed in the Spring of 2004, there are several decades of high production ahead. ...


The Kingdom of Scotland was an independent state until 1 May 1707 when it joined in a political union with the Kingdom of England to create a united Kingdom of Great Britain.[12][13] This union was the result of the Treaty of Union agreed earlier and put into effect by the Acts of Union that were passed by the Parliaments of both countries despite widespread protest across Scotland.[14][15] Scotland's legal system continues to be separate from those of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; Scotland still constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and in private law.[16] The continued independence of Scots law, the Scottish education system, and the Church of Scotland have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and Scottish national identity since the Union.[17] Though Scotland is no longer a separate sovereign state, the constitutional future of Scotland continues to give rise to debate. Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Northern Ireland law concerns the legal system in Northern Ireland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Private International Law, International Private Law, or Conflict of Laws is that branch of law regulating all lawsuits involving a foreign law element where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... Education in Scotland has a long history of universal provision of public education, and comes under a different system from that elsewhere in the United Kingdom. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Addressing the haggis during Burns supper : Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! Scottish culture is the national culture of Scotland. ... Modern formal Highland black tie, including kilt and Prince Charlie jacket. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Etymology of Scotland

Scotland is from the Latin Scoti, the term applied to Gaels. The Late Latin word Scotia (land of the Gaels) was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, both derived from the Gaelic Alba.[18] The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.[12] The founders of Scotland of late medieval legend, Scota with Goídel Glas, voyaging from Egypt, as depicted in a 15th century manuscript of the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Scoti or Scotti (Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... This article is about a name for Scotland. ... The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. ...


History

The founders of Scotland of late medieval legend, Scota with Goídel Glas, voyaging from Egypt, as depicted in a 15th century manuscript of the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower.
The founders of Scotland of late medieval legend, Scota with Goídel Glas, voyaging from Egypt, as depicted in a 15th century manuscript of the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower.
Main article: History of Scotland

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Scota, in Irish mythology and pseudohistory, was an Egyptian princess to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry, explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders. ... In Irish and Scottish Medieval myth, Goídel Glas (Latinised as Gathelus) is the creator of the Goidelic languages and the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels. ... Walter Bower or Bowmaker (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at Haddington, East Lothian. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ...

Early history

Main article: Prehistoric Scotland

Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land-mass of modern Scotland, have destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period. It is believed that the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.[19][20] Groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the Mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation, burial and ritual sites are particularly common and well-preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone [21] Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ... The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ...


Roman influence

Skara Brae, a neolithic settlement, located in the Bay of Skaill, Orkney.
Skara Brae, a neolithic settlement, located in the Bay of Skaill, Orkney.

The written protohistory of Scotland began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in southern and central Great Britain, when the Romans occupied what is now England and Wales, administering it as a province called Britannia. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland were a series of brief interludes. In 83–4 AD the general Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the battle of Mons Graupius, and Roman forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line (none are known to have been constructed beyond that line). Three years after the battle the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands.[22] They erected Hadrian's Wall to control tribes on both sides of the wall,[23] and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the empire, although the army held the Antonine Wall in the Central Lowlands for two short periods—the last of these during the time of Emperor Septimius Severus from 208 until 210.[24] The extent of Roman military occupation of any significant part of Scotland was limited to a total of about 40 years, although their influence on the southern section of the country occupied by Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini and Damnonii would still have been considerable.[23] For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Bay of Skaill seen from Skara Brae site The Bay of Skaill is a small bay on the west coast of the Orkney Mainland, Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Protohistory refers to a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Gnaeus Julius Agricola (July 13, 40 - August 23, 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. ... // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ... The Battle of Mons Graupius took place in AD 83 or 84. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The Gask Ridge is the modern name given to an early series of fortifications, built by the Romans in mid-Scotland. ... The Highland Boundary Fault traverses Scotland from Arran to Stonehaven. ... The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... The Southern Uplands is the southernmost of Scotlands three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Belt and the Highlands). ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ... The Central Lowlands are a broad area of low-lying and heavily populated land in central Scotland. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... The Votadini (the WotādÄ«nÄ«, or VotādÄ«nÄ«) were a people of the Iron Age in Great Britain, and their territory was briefly part of the Roman province Britannia. ... The Damnonii were a Brythonic tribe in the area around modern Glasgow and Strathclyde in west central Scotland, whose territory included the modern district of Dumbarton and who had a major stronghold at Dumbarton Castle. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (941x1767, 324 KB) Summary Users photograph. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (941x1767, 324 KB) Summary Users photograph. ... Pictish stones are to be found all over Scotland and are the most visible remaining evidence of their makers, the Picts. ... The landward-facing, secular side of the cross-slab on location in Easter Ross. ...

Medieval period

The Kingdom of the Picts (based in Fortriu by the 6th century) was the state which eventually became known as "Alba" or "Scotland". The development of "Pictland", according to the historical model developed by Peter Heather, was a natural response to Roman imperialism.[25] Another view places emphasis on the Battle of Dunnichen, and the reign of Bridei m. Beli (671–693), with another period of consolidation in the reign of Óengus mac Fergusa (732–761).[26] The Kingdom of the Picts as it was in the early 8th century, when Bede was writing, was largely the same as the kingdom of the Scots in the reign of Alexander (1107–1124). However, by the tenth century, the Pictish kingdom was dominated by what we can recognise as Gaelic culture, and had developed an Irish conquest myth around the ancestor of the contemporary royal dynasty, Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin).[27][3][28] A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. ... The term Picts refers to a group of pre-Celtic tribes that Mediterranean classical-era writers said lived in Caledonia, which is now part of Scotland. ... Fortriu or the the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. ... Combatants Picts Northumbrians Commanders Bridei III Ecgfrith Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Dunnichen (known to the English as Nechtansmere, and to the Welsh Linn garan) was fought between the Picts and Northumbrians on May 20, 685, near Forfar, Angus. ... King Bridei III (or Bridei map Beli; O.Ir. ... This is the royal figure on the St Andrews sarcophagus. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ...


From a base of territory in eastern Scotland north of the River Forth and south of the River Oykel, the kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the north and south. By the 12th century, the kings of Alba had added to their territories the Anglic-speaking land in the south-east and attained overlordship of Gaelic-speaking Galloway and Norse-speaking Caithness; by the end of the 13th century, the kingdom had assumed approximately its modern borders. However, processes of cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured Scotland looked very different in the later Middle Ages. The stimulus for this was the reign of King David I and the Davidian Revolution. Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally defined towns (called burghs) began in this period. These institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights and churchmen facilitated a process of cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and language of the low-lying and coastal parts of the kingdom's original territory in the east became, like the newly-acquired south-east, English-speaking, while the rest of the country retained the Gaelic language, apart from the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland, which remained under Norse rule until 1468.[29][30][31] The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... The River Oykel in Sutherland, in northern Scotland, rises on the southern side of Ben More Assynt and drains into the Dornoch Firth. ... The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... The Anglo-Scottish border runs for 96 kilometres (60 miles) between the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. ... Linguistic division in early twelfth century Scotland. ... Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ...


The death of Alexander III in March 1286, followed by the death of his granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, broke the succession line of Scotland's kings. This led to the intervention of Edward I of England, who manipulated this period of confusion to have himself recognised as feudal overlord of Scotland. Edward organised a process to identify the person with the best claim to the vacant crown, which became known as the Great Cause, and this resulted in the enthronement of John Balliol as king. The Scots were resentful of Edward's meddling in their affairs and this relationship quickly broke down. War ensued and King John was deposed by his overlord, who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray and William Wallace initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in what became known as the Wars of Scottish Independence. The nature of the struggle changed dramatically when Robert de Brus, Earl of Carrick, became king (as Robert I). War with England continued for several decades, and a civil war between the Bruce dynasty and their long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals, the flashpoint of which could be traced to the slaying in a Dumfries church of John 'the Red' Comyn of Badenoch by Bruce and his supporters, lasted until the middle of the 14th century. Although the Bruce dynasty was successful, David II's lack of an heir allowed his nephew Robert II to come to the throne and establish the Stewart Dynasty.[32][30] The Stewarts ruled Scotland for the remainder of the Middle Ages. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation. This was despite continual warfare with England, the increasing division between Highlands and Lowlands, and a large number of royal minorities.[32][33] Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... Margaret (9 April 1283– 26 September 1290), usually known as the Maid of Norway (Norwegian: , literally The Virgin of Norway), sometimes known as Margaret of Scotland (Margrete av Skottland), was a Norwegian–Scottish princess who is widely considered to have been Queen of Scots from 1286 until her death, although... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... In 1290, after the death of Margaret I of Scotland, the Crown of Scotland was without an immediate heir; however, there existed many distant heirs. ... King John, his crown and sceptre symbolically broken as depicted in the 1562 Forman Armorial, produced for Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Andrew Moray (La: Andreas de Moravia), (d. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... Robert I, King of Scots (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329) usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; ) was King of the Scots from 1306 until his death. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... Robert the warrior and knight: the reverse side of Robert IIs Great Seal, enhanced as a 19th century steel engraving. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart. ... The Scottish version of modernism, the Scottish literary renaissance was begun by Hugh MacDiarmid in the 1920s when he abandoned his English language poetry and began to write in Lallans. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due...


Modern history

David Morier's painting on the "Battle of Culloden".
David Morier's painting on the "Battle of Culloden".

In 1603, James VI King of Scots inherited the throne of the Kingdom of England, and became King James I of England, and left Edinburgh for London.[34] With the exception of a short period under the Protectorate, Scotland remained a separate state, but there was considerable conflict between the crown and the Covenanters over the form of church government. After the Glorious Revolution, the abolition of episcopacy and the overthrow of the Roman Catholic James VII by William and Mary, Scotland briefly threatened to select a different Protestant monarch from England.[35] On July 22, 1706, the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England and the following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from May 1st, 1707.[13] Battle of Culloden, by David Morier. ... Battle of Culloden, by David Morier. ... Belligerents Great Britain Jacobites Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength 8,000 ca. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Episcopacy is the regime of church government by bishops (Lat. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... James VII and II (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...


The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non-Presbyterians. However, two major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain's last pitched battle. This defeat paved the way for large-scale removals of the indigenous populations of the Highlands and Islands, known as the Highland Clearances.[13] Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Belligerents Great Britain Jacobites Commanders William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender Strength 8,000 ca. ... A pitched battle is a battle where both sides choose to fight at a chosen location and time and where either side has the option to disengage either before the battle starts, or shortly after the first armed exchanges. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ...


The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution made Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse.[citation needed] After World War II, Scotland experienced an industrial decline which was particularly severe.[36] Only in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors which have contributed to this recovery include a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing, (see Silicon Glen),[37] and the North Sea oil and gas industry.[38] The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Silicon Glen is a nickname for the high tech sector of Scotland. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ...


Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998 [39] was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament to establish a devolved Scottish Parliament. The Scottish referendum of 1997 was a pre-legislative referendum held in Scotland only, over whether there was support for the creation of a parliament for Scotland and whether there was support for a parliament with tax varying powers. ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ...


Government and politics

Further information: Scottish Parliament general election, 2007

As part of the United Kingdom, the head of state in Scotland is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth (since 1952). The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ... Scottish Parliament general election, 2007 concerns the third general election to the Scottish Parliament, which will be held on May 3, 2007. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Scottish Parliment

Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh. The United Kingdom Parliament retains power over a set list of areas explicitly specified in the Scotland Act 1998 as reserved matters, including, for example, levels of UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.[40] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1202 KB) Summary Own photo, taken 29 April 2006 (see filename of course) from halfway up Salisbury Crags, just below the Radical Road. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1202 KB) Summary Own photo, taken 29 April 2006 (see filename of course) from halfway up Salisbury Crags, just below the Radical Road. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ... Holyrood is an area in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... // Overview Taxation in the United Kingdom may involve payments to at least two different levels of government: local government and central government ( HM Revenue & Customs ). Local government is financed by grants from central government funds, business rates and council tax. ... The Department for Work and Pensions is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom, created on June 8, 2001 from the merger of the Employment part of the Department for Education and Employment and the Department of Social Security. ... British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) conducting diplomacy, hosted by the President of the United States, George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003. ... The United Kingdom has a diverse range of different types of media. ...


The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland, as well as limited power to vary income tax, a power it has yet to exercise. The Scottish Parliament can refer devolved matters back to Westminster by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered to be more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom. For instance, the costs of a university education, and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places.[41] A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Scottish Parliament has the power to vary income tax by +/- 3p in every pound. ... A Legislative Consent Motion (formerly known as a Sewel motion) is a parliamentary motion passed by the Scottish Parliament, in which it agrees that the Parliament of the United Kingdom may pass legislation on a devolved issue extending to Scotland, over which the Scottish Parliament has regular legislative authority. ... Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...

The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament Building
The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament Building

The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature comprising 129 Members, 73 of whom represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first past the post system; 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system, serving for a four year period. The Queen appoints one Member of the Scottish Parliament, (MSP), on the nomination of the Parliament, to be First Minister. Other Ministers are also appointed by the Queen on the nomination of the Parliament and together with the First Minister they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of government.[42] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1587x1161, 381 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scotland Scottish independence Scottish Parliament Building Portal:Architecture Portal:Architecture/Did you know User:Pschemp/Gallery... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1587x1161, 381 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scotland Scottish independence Scottish Parliament Building Portal:Architecture Portal:Architecture/Did you know User:Pschemp/Gallery... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Ballot for electoral district 252, Würzburg, for the 2005 German federal election. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ...

07 Election

In the 2007 election, the Scottish National Party (SNP), which campaigns for Scottish independence, won the largest number of seats of any single party and the leader of the SNP, Alex Salmond, was elected First Minister on 16 May 2007 as head of a minority government. The Labour Party became the largest opposition party, with the Conservative Party, the Liberal Democrats, and the Green Party are also represented in the Parliament. Margo MacDonald is the only independent MSP sitting in Parliament.[43] The composition of the Scottish Parliament following the 2007 election. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left, Social democratic political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Scottish independence is a political ambition of a number of political parties, pressure groups and individuals within and outside of Scotland. ... Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond, known as Alex Salmond (born December 31, 1954, Linlithgow), is a Scottish politician, and the current First Minister of Scotland, heading a minority government. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ... This article is about the Scottish Labour Party founded in 1976. ... The Scottish Conservative Party (officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party), often referred to as the Scottish Tories (see Tory), is the part of the British Conservative Party that operates in Scotland. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the Green party of Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... Margo MacDonald was born in 1945 in Hamilton, Scotland and educated at Hamilton Academy, she trained as a teacher of physical education. ...


Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.[44] The Scotland office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, the current incumbent being Des Browne.[40] Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This is a list of Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons by Scottish constituencies for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom (2005 to present). ... As a result of the Fifth Periodical Review of the Boundary Commission for Scotland, Scotland is covered by 59 constituencies of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament - 19 Burgh constituencies and 40 County constituencies. ... The Scotland Office (Oifis na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for reserved Scottish affairs. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rt. ...


Administrative subdivisions

Glasgow City Chambers viewed from George Square
Glasgow City Chambers viewed from George Square

Historical subdivisions of Scotland include the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts. The names of these areas are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas of Scotland which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils which have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 (as chosen by Na h-Eileanan an Iar) of being known... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 417 KB) Summary Glasgow City Chambers - picture taken by User:Erath on October 20, 2005 and released to public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 417 KB) Summary Glasgow City Chambers - picture taken by User:Erath on October 20, 2005 and released to public domain. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... The title of Mormaer designates a regional or provincial ruler in the medieval Kingdom of the Scots. ... List of Constituencies in the Parliament of Scotland at the time of the Union is a list of the constituencies of the Parliament of Scotland (the Estates of Scotland) during the period shortly before the Union between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England. ... An Earl as a member of the British peerage ranks below a Marquess and above a Viscount. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The local government regions and districts of Scotland were established under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 as a two-tier system of local government in Scotland. ...

Modern Scotland

Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. For local government, there have been 32 council areas since 1996,[45] whose councils are unitary authorities responsible for the provision of all local government services. Community councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a council area. The local government of Scotland is organised into 32 unitary authorities covering the mainland and islands of Scotland. ... The 32 council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ... A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ... Community councils (CCs) are the most local official representative bodies in Scotland and Wales. ...


Scottish Parliament

For the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom there are 59 constituencies. The Scottish fire brigades and police forces are still based on the system of regions introduced in 1975. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ... Scotland is divided into 59 constituencies of the United Kingdom Parliament - 19 Burgh constituencies and 40 County constituencies. ...


City Status

City status in the United Kingdom is determined by letters patent.[46] There are six cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow and more recently Inverness, and Stirling.[47] Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Scotland. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ...


Scotland within the UK

A policy of devolution had been advocated by all three GB-wide parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history and Labour leader John Smith described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".[48] The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. In 2007, the Scottish Government established a National Conversation on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the latter option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament have proposed a separate Constitutional Commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.[49] Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... John Smith QC (September 13, 1938 – May 12, 1994) was a British politician who served as leader of the Labour Party from July 1992 until his sudden and unexpected death from a heart attack on 12 May 1994. ... The National Conversation is the name given to the Scottish Executives public consultation exercise regarding possible future increases in its powers, up to full independence. ... This article is about federal states. ... Scottish independence is a political ambition of a number of political parties, pressure groups and individuals within and outside of Scotland. ...


Law

Main article: Scots law
Parliament House, in Edinburgh, is the home of the Supreme Courts of Scotland.
Parliament House, in Edinburgh, is the home of the Supreme Courts of Scotland.

Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law,[50] combining features of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis, and common law with medieval sources. The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.[51] Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law. Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.[52] Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 711 KB) Parliament House in Edinburgh Image taken by Maccoinnich April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Kingdom of Scotland User:Maccoinnich Parliament House, Edinburgh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 711 KB) Parliament House in Edinburgh Image taken by Maccoinnich April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Kingdom of Scotland User:Maccoinnich Parliament House, Edinburgh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Robert Reid designed facade to Parliament Square Parliament House in Edinburgh, Scotland was home to the Scottish Parliament, and is now used by the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session. ... The College of Justice is a term used to describe the Supreme Courts of Scotland, and its associated bodies. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Scottish legal institutions in the High Middle Ages are, for the purposes of this article, the informal and formal systems which governed and helped to manage Scottish society between the years 900 and 1288, a period roughly corresponding with the general European era usually called the High Middle Ages. ... Udal law is a near-defunct Norse derived legal system, which was formerly found in the Shetland islands and Orkney. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Celtic Law The social structure of Iron Age Celtic society was highly developed. ... The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the House of Lords. The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court. Both courts are housed at Parliament House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.[53] District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences. The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry. The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... The Law of Arms or laws of heraldry, governs the bearing of arms, that is, the possession, use or display of arms, also called coats of arms, coat armour or armorial bearings. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... The Robert Reid designed facade to Parliament Square Parliament House in Edinburgh, Scotland was home to the Scottish Parliament, and is now used by the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Sheriff Courts are the local Court system in Scotland. ... District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations. ... The Court of the Lord Lyon, also know as Lyon Court, is the institution which regulates heraldry in Scotland. ...


Scots law is also unique in that it allows three verdicts in criminal cases including the controversial 'not proven' verdict.[54][55] Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland. ...


Geography and natural history

Map of Scotland
Map of Scotland
Main article: Geography of Scotland

The main land of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the northwest coast of Continental Europe. The total area is 78,772 km² (30,414 sq mi).[56] Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (20 mi) from the southwestern peninsula of Kintyre;[57] Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north. Map of Scotland Although Scotland is a relatively small country, with a land area of 78 772 km², its geography is highly varied, from the rural lowlands, to the barren highlands, and from large cities to uninhabited islands. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ... Map of Solway Firth. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Kintyre shown within Argyll Kintyre is a peninsula in western Scotland in the south-west of Argyll. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ...


territorial extent of Scotland

The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and England[58] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.[13] Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472;[56] and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482. Treaty of York 1237 Signed between Henry III and Alexander II, king of Scots (1214-1249), this treaty secured Englands northern border. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


Centre Of Scotland

The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch.[59] Rising to 1,344 metres (4,406 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 km (120 miles).[60][61] There is some debate as to the location of the geographical centre of Scotland. ... Newtonmore is a village in the Highlands of Scotland with a population of about 1000. ... Badenoch, a district of south-east Inverness-shire in Scotland, bounded on the north by the Monadhliath mountains, on the east by the Cairngorms and Braemar, on the south by Atholl and the Grampians, and on the west by Lochaber. ... Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in Great Britain. ... Lochaber (Scottish Gaelic, Loch Abar) refers to a large area of the central and western Scottish Highlands. ... The Tay is a river starting in the Highlands and flowing down into the centre of Scotland through Perth and Dundee. ...


Geology and geomorphology

Main article: Geology of Scotland
Relief map of Scotland
Relief map of Scotland

The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective the country has three main sub-divisions. The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins. A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands, divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair, a low lying dune pasture land. Scotland has an incomparable variety of geology for an area of its size. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (455 × 759 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (455 × 759 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Highlands and Islands is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament which were created in 1999. ... The Highland Boundary Fault traverses Scotland from Arran to Stonehaven. ... The Isle of Arran (Scots Gaelic: Eilean Arainn) is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde with an area of 430 km² (167 square miles). ... Market Square, Stonehaven Stonehaven (Steenhive in the Doric dialect of Scots) and Cala na Creige in Gaelic is a town with around fourteen thousand inhabitants (9,577 in 2001 (census)) on the North-East coast of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... The Caledonian orogeny is a hypothetical series of events in geologic history explaining a group of highland formations that are very similar in composition, stratigraphy and fossils: the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... The Cairngorms: Ben Macdhui seen from Carn aMhaim This article is about the Scottish mountain range. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Sgurr nan Gillean and the Pinnacle Ridge from Basteir gorge This article is about the Cuillin of Skye. ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ... The Moray Firth is a roughly triangular area of the North Sea, north and east of Inverness. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Hebrides (Inner Hebrides in red) The Inner Hebrides are a group of islands off the west coast of Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ... Fresh water redirects here. ... For other uses, see Loch Lomond (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Loch Ness (disambiguation). ... The machair on Berneray, Outer Hebrides The Scottish Gaelic word machair or machar refers to a fertile low-lying raised beach found on the coasts of Ireland and Scotland, in particular the Outer Hebrides. ...


The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are to be found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur’s Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view. The Central Lowlands are a broad area of low-lying and heavily populated land in central Scotland. ... African Rift Valley. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Arthurs Seat on a summer evening Arthurs Seat is the main peak of the group of hills which form most of Holyrood Park, a remarkably wild piece of highland landscape in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, about a mile to the east of Edinburgh Castle. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Ochil Hills viewed from South-West of Tillicoultry The Ochil Hills [1](from the Celtic uchil - the high ground) are a range of hills in Scotland north of the Forth valley bordered by the towns of Stirling, Alloa, Kinross and Perth. ... The Campsie Fells are a range of hills in central Scotland, United Kingdom, stretching east to west, from south Stirlingshire to East Dunbartonshire. ...


The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (125 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of a second fault line (the Southern Uplands fault) that runs from the Rhinns of Galloway to Dunbar.[62] The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago. The high point of the Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft).[12][63][64][65] The Southern Uplands is the southernmost of Scotlands three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Belt and the Highlands). ... The Rhinns of Galloway is a hammer-head peninsula in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Merrick is the highest mountain in the Southern Uplands of southern Scotland. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Scotland
Ben Nevis, the highest peak in the British Isles
Ben Nevis, the highest peak in the British Isles

The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, and as such has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, for example Copenhagen, Moscow, or the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of -27.2 °C (-16.96 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895.[66] Winter maximums average 6 °C (42.8 °F) in the lowlands, with summer maximums averaging 18 °C (64.4 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.22 °F) at Greycrook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003.[67] Rain at Glasgow Necropolis The climate of Scotland is temperate (Koppen climate classification Cfb), and tends to be very changeable, but rarely extreme. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 431 KB) Ben Nevis, Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 431 KB) Ben Nevis, Scotland. ... Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in Great Britain. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Braemar (Scottish Gaelic, Baile a Chaisteil Bhràigh Mhàrr) is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around 58 miles west of Aberdeen in the Highlands. ... The Grampian Mountains or Grampians are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Greycrook is a place in the Scottish Borders. ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In general, the west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had 300 days of sunshine in 1975. Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest place, with annual rainfall exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in).[67] In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than 800 mm (31 in) annually.[67] Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar experiences an average of 59 snow days per year,[68] while coastal areas have an average of fewer than 10 days.[67] An ocean current is any more or less permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Looking West to Balephuil Bay, across the famous Hebridean Machair. ... The Hebrides (Inner Hebrides in red) The Inner Hebrides are a group of islands off the west coast of Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Braemar (Scottish Gaelic, Baile a Chaisteil Bhràigh Mhàrr) is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around 58 miles west of Aberdeen in the Highlands. ...


Fauna

Main article: Fauna of Scotland

Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the Lynx, Brown Bear, Wolf, Elk and Walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as Gannets.[69] The Golden Eagle is something of a national icon. The Fauna of Scotland is generally typical of that of the north west European part of the Palearctic ecozone, although several of the larger mammals were hunted to extinction in historic times. ... Image File history File links Red_deer. ... Image File history File links Red_deer. ... This article is about the species of deer. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian lynx range The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus lupus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian wolf range The Eurasian Wolf (Canis lupus lupus), also known as the Common Wolf, European Wolf, Carpathian Wolf, Steppes Wolf, Tibetan Wolf and Chinese Wolf is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Walrus (disambiguation). ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Binomial name Morus bassanus Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Gannet range The Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus, formerly Sula bassana) is a large seabird of the gannet family, Sulidae. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ...


On the high mountain tops species including Ptarmigan, Mountain Hare and Stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.[70] Remnants of native Scots Pine forest exist[71] and within these areas the Scottish Crossbill, Britain's only endemic bird, can be found alongside Capercaillie, Wildcat, Red Squirrel and Pine Marten.[72][73] Binomial name Lagopus mutus (Montin, 1781) The Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) is a small (31-35 cm) bird in the grouse family. ... Binomial name Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) is a hare, which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats. ... Ermine redirects here. ... Binomial name L. Distribution The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Great Britain and Spain east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as Lapland. ... Binomial name Loxia scotica Hartert,, 1904 The Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the Wood Grouse or more specifically Western Capercaillie is the largest member of the grouse family, reaching over 100 cm in length and 4 kg in weight. ... Binomial name Felis silvestris Schreber, 1775 subspecies See text The Wildcat (Felis silvestris), sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small predator native to Europe, the western part of Asia, and Africa. ... For the North American red squirrel, see American Red Squirrel. ... Binomial name Martes martes (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the European Pine Marten. ...


Flora

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.[74] The Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe.[75] For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... In the field of ecology, an indigenous species is an organism which is native to a region or ecosystem. ... Fortingall Yew, an ancient yew (Taxus baccata) stands in a churchyard in the Perthshire village of Fortingall in Scotland. ...


Economy and infrastructure

Main article: Economy of Scotland
A drilling rig located in the North Sea
A drilling rig located in the North Sea

Scotland has a western style open mixed economy which is closely linked with that of the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by the shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. The headquarters of the Bank of Scotland, located on the Mound in Edinburgh. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1704 pixel, file size: 850 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1704 pixel, file size: 850 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Drilling Rig, Reverse circulation in Western Australia A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes (usually called boreholes) and/or shafts in the ground. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... An open economy is an economy in which people, including businesses, can trade in goods and services with other people and businesses in the international community at large. ... A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ...

Pacific Quay on the River Clyde, an example of the regeneration of Glasgow and the diversifying Scottish economy
Pacific Quay on the River Clyde, an example of the regeneration of Glasgow and the diversifying Scottish economy

Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north east of Scotland. De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more services orientated economy. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland and the sixth largest financial centre in Europe in terms of funds under management, behind London, Paris, Frankfurt, Zurich and Amsterdam,[76] with many large finance firms based there, including: the Royal Bank of Scotland (the second largest bank in Europe); HBOS (owners of the Bank of Scotland); and Standard Life. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 368 KB)Personal photograph liecenced to Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Glasgow Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 368 KB)Personal photograph liecenced to Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Glasgow Categories: GFDL images ... For other rivers, see Clyde River (disambiguation) , The River Clyde (Gaelic: Abhainn Chluaidh, pronounced ) is a major river in Scotland. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... The Royal Bank of Scotland Plc (Scottish Gaelic: [1]) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, which together with NatWest, provides branch banking facilities in the United Kingdom. ... HBOS plc is the holding company of the HBOS Group, formed on the 10 September 2001 by, and named after, the principals involved in the merger of Halifax plc, the former Halifax Building Society, with the Bank of Scotland. ... Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and clearing bank, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Standard Life (LSE: SLET) is a major employer in Edinburgh, with 8,500 UK employees [2] and over 12,000 worldwide. ...


In 2005, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were provisionally estimated to be £17.5 billion, of which 70% (£12.2 billion) were attributable to manufacturing.[77] Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United States, The Netherlands, Germany, France and Spain constitute the country's major export markets.[77] In 2006, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Scotland was just over £86 billion, giving a per capita GDP of £16,900.[78][79] Economics In economics, an export is any good or commodity, shipped or otherwise transported out of a country, province, town to another part of the world, typically for use in trade or sale. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... GDP redirects here. ...


Tourism is widely recognised as a key contributor to the Scottish economy. A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre, (SPICe), for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee, stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment.[80]


As of November 2007 the unemployment rate in Scotland stood at 4.9%—lower than the UK average and that of the majority of EU countries.[81] CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...


The most recent government figures suggest that Scotland would be in budget surplus to the tune of more than £800m if it received its geographical share of North Sea revenues.[82]. The net fiscal balance, which is the budget balance plus capital investment, reported a deficit of £2.7 billion including Scotland's full geographical share of North Sea revenue, or a £10.2bn deficit if the North Sea share is excluded.[83]


Currency

Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks still issue their own Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The current value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation is £1.5 billion.[84] Sterling banknotes are the banknotes of the United Kingdom and British Islands, denominated in pounds sterling (GBP). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a transaction is made until it is finally settled (see settlement). ... GBP redirects here. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and clearing bank, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Royal Bank of Scotland Plc (Scottish Gaelic: [1]) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, which together with NatWest, provides branch banking facilities in the United Kingdom. ... The Clydesdale Bank PLC (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a commercial bank in the United Kingdom, a subsidiary of the nab Group. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Scotland
A Loganair Twin Otter at Barra Airport, the world's only airport using a beach runway for scheduled services.
A Loganair Twin Otter at Barra Airport, the world's only airport using a beach runway for scheduled services.

Scotland has five main international airports (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness) which together serve 150 international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights.[85] BAA operates three airports, (Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen), and Highland and Islands Airports operates 11 regional airports, (including Inverness), which serve the more remote locations of Scotland.[86] Infratil operates Glasgow Prestwick. The transport system in Scotland is generally well-developed. ... ImageMetadata File history File links A Logan Air Twin Otter (in BA colours) lands at Barra Airport - the only airport in the world where the arrival of scheduled flights varies with the tide as planes land on the beach. ... ImageMetadata File history File links A Logan Air Twin Otter (in BA colours) lands at Barra Airport - the only airport in the world where the arrival of scheduled flights varies with the tide as planes land on the beach. ... Loganair is an airline based at Glasgow International Airport (GLA) in Scotland. ... The DHC-6 Twin Otter is the most successful aircraft program in Canadas history. ... ... Glasgow Airport redirects here. ... Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2007, handling 9,037,200 passengers. ... For the airport in Aberdeen, South Dakota, see Aberdeen Regional Airport. ... Glasgow Prestwick Airport from the air Glasgow Prestwick Airport (Scottish Gaelic: ) (IATA: PIK, ICAO: EGPK) is an international airport serving Glasgow, situated north of the town of Prestwick in South Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Inverness Airport (IATA: INV, ICAO: EGPE) is situated at Dalcross, 9 miles (15 km) east of the city of Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. ... A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ... BAA Limited is the owner and operator of seven British airports and the operator of several other airports worldwide, making the company one of the largest transport companies in the world. ... Corporate Logo Highlands and Islands Airports Limited (HIAL) is the company that owns and operates 10 airports in the Scottish Highlands, the Northern Isles and the Western Isles. ... Infratil is a New Zealand-based infrastructure investment company. ...

Roads

The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. The rest of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas. Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... A trunk road or strategic road is a major road, usually connecting one or more cities, ports, airports etc, which is the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic. ... Transport Scotland was created on January 1, 2006 as the national transport agency of Scotland. ... The 32 council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ...


Shipping

Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and island communities. These services are mostly run by Caledonian MacBrayne, but some are operated by local councils. Other ferry routes, served by multiple companies, connect to Northern Ireland, Belgium, Norway, the Faroe Islands and also Iceland. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... MV Juno (Iùno in Scottish Gaelic) arriving at Gourock on the Dunoon service The Caledonian MacBrayne headquarters building at Gourock pierhead and a visit from MV Caledonian Isles and MV Isle of Mull. ... This article is about the constituent country. ...


Rail

Network Rail Infrastructure Limited owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government maintains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.[87] Network Rail is a British not for dividend company limited by guarantee whose principal asset is Network Rail Infrastructure Limited, a company limited by shares. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ...


Bridges

Scotland's rail network is managed by Transport Scotland.[88] The East Coast and West Coast Main Railway lines and the Cross Country Line connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by First Scotrail. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 631 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 631 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the nearby road bridge, see Forth Road Bridge. ... Transport Scotland was created on January 1, 2006 as the national transport agency of Scotland. ... The East Coast Main Line viaduct at Durham. ... The WCML running alongside the M1 motorway at Watford Gap in Northamptonshire A Virgin Pendolino and freight train on the WCML The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... First ScotRail is the brand under which FirstGroup PLC runs its railway franchise to operate all domestic passenger services within Scotland, as well as the cross-border Caledonian Sleeper service to London. ...


The East Coast Main Line includes that section of the network which crosses the Firth of Forth via the Forth Bridge. Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark".[89] The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... For the nearby road bridge, see Forth Road Bridge. ... For the dentistry term, see Bridge (dentistry). ...


Castles

Main article: Castles of Scotland
Dean Castle Kilmarnock
Dean Castle Kilmarnock

Castles in Scotland is a link page for any castle in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Kilmarnock (disambiguation). ...

Demography

See also: Language in Scotland and Religion in Scotland
Although on the rise again, Scotland's population has declined from its peak in the mid-1970s.
Although on the rise again, Scotland's population has declined from its peak in the mid-1970s.

The population of Scotland in the 2001 census was 5,062,011. This has risen to 5,116,900 according to June 2006 estimates.[90] This would make Scotland the 112th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland it is not the largest city. With a population of just over 600,000 this honour falls to Glasgow. Indeed, the Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of over 1.1 million, is home to over a fifth of Scotland's population.[91][92] Scotland covers an area of 78,782km² or 30,341mi², giving it a population density of 64 people/km². Around 70% of the countrys population live in the Central Lowlands - a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including... Scotland is a land of diverse linguistic and cultural heritage. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 784 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Glasgow Buchanan Street Wikipedia:List of images/Places/Europe/United Kingdom/Cities/Glasgow ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 784 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Glasgow Buchanan Street Wikipedia:List of images/Places/Europe/United Kingdom/Cities/Glasgow ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Greater Glasgow is the conurbation that includes and surrounds the city of Glasgow in the west of Scotland. ...

Lowlands

The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located. Glasgow is to the west whilst the other three main cities of Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee lie on the east coast. The Highlands are sparsely populated, although the city of Inverness has experienced rapid growth in recent years. In general only the more accessible and larger islands retain human populations and fewer than 90 are currently inhabited. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry.[93][94] Because of housing problems in Glasgow and Edinburgh, five new towns were created between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Livingston, Cumbernauld, and Irvine.[95] The Central Lowlands are a broad area of low-lying and heavily populated land in central Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Scotland. ... See New Town for places with that name. ... East Kilbride (Cille Bhrìghde an Ear in Scottish Gaelic) is a large town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glenrothes (disambiguation). ... , Livingston is the fourth post-war new town to be built in Scotland, designated in 1962. ... , Cumbernauld (Gaelic: Comar nan Allt) is a new town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland, created in 1956 as a population overflow for Glasgow. ... , For the river of the same name see River Irvine. ...


After WWII

Due to immigration since World War II, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee have small Asian communities.[96] Since the recent Enlargement of the European Union there has been an increased number of people from Central and Eastern Europe moving to Scotland, and it is estimated that between 40,000 and 50,000 Poles are now living in the country.[97] As of 2001, there are 16,310 ethnic Chinese residents in Scotland.[98] The ethnic groups within Scotland are as follows: White - 97.99%,South Asian - 1.09%, Black - 0.16%, Mixed - 0.25%, Chinese - 0.32% and Other - 0.19%. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots and Scottish Gaelic. Almost all Scots speak Scottish Standard English, and in 1996 the General Register Office for Scotland estimated that 30% of the population are fluent in Scots.[99] Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a majority of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population.[100] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scottish English (also known as Scottish Standard English) is the form of the English language used in Scotland. ... Logo of the General Register Office General Register Office for Scotland is a government agency, accountable to Scottish ministers, that administers the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces and adoptions, and is responsible for the statutes relating to the formalities of marriage and conduct of civil marriage. ... Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Scotland

The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from education in the rest of United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.[101] Scotland was the first country since Sparta in classical Greece to implement a system of general public education.[102] Schooling was made compulsory for the first time in Scotland with the Education Act of 1496, then, in 1561, the Church of Scotland set out a national programme for spiritual reform, including a school in every parish. Education continued to be a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act of 1872.[103] Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Government Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary language(s) English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739,0003... Image File history File links College-1. ... Image File history File links College-1. ... Marschal College viewed from Upper Kirkgate Marischal College was founded in 1593 in Aberdeen by George Keith, 5th Earl Marischal of Scotland. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... The term liberal education has its origins in the medieval concept of the liberal arts , but now tends to be mainly associated with the application of Enlightenment liberalism. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... The Education Act of 1496 was passed by the Scottish Parliament in that year at the behest of James IV. It made schooling compulsory for the first time in Scotland since it forced all nobles and freeholders to educate their eldest sons in Latin, followed by the Arts, and Scots... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


All 3 and 4 year old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place with "a curriculum framework for children 3–5"[104] providing the curricular guidelines. Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); The "5–14 guidelines" provides the curricular framework.[105] Today, children in Scotland sit Standard Grade exams at approximately 15 or 16. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher exams. A small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs instead of Standard Grades, and towards A and AS-Levels instead of Higher Grade and Advanced Higher exams.[106]; Child picking up book. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees in Scotland. ... The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees in Scotland. ... Higher Grade is the level of examination normally taken by students in Scotland at age about 16-17 years. ... The Advanced Higher is a non-compulsory qualification which forms part of the Scottish secondary education system. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying, for all of its funding, upon private sources, so almost invariably charging school fees. ... Education in England is the responsibility of Department for Education and Skills at national level and, in the case of publicly funded compulsory education, of Local Education Authorities. ... GCSE is an acronym that can refer to: General Certificate of Secondary Education global common subexpression elimination - an optimisation technique used by some compilers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13 (usually ages 16-18), commonly called the Sixth Form except for Scotland), or at... The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13 (usually ages 16-18), commonly called the Sixth Form except for Scotland), or at...


There are 14 Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world.[107][108] The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for nine per cent of Scotland's service sector exports.[109][110] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map of medieval European universities This is a list of the oldest extant universities in the world. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Scotland
Iona Abbey arguably the birthplace of Scottish Christianity
Iona Abbey arguably the birthplace of Scottish Christianity

Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the Church of Scotland, also known as The Kirk, has been Scotland's national church. The Church is Protestant and Reformed with a Presbyterian system of church government, and enjoys independence from the state.[12] About 12% of the population are currently members of the Church of Scotland. The Church operates a territorial parish structure, with every community in Scotland having a local congregation. Scotland also has a significant Roman Catholic population, particularly in the west. After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism continued on in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist and Barra, and was strengthened, during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland, various other Presbyterian offshoots, and the Scottish Episcopal Church. Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around 40,000, which is less than 0.9% of the population),[111] and there are also significant Jewish, Hindu and Sikh communities, especially in Glasgow.[111] The Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, includes the largest Buddhist temple in western Europe.[112] In the 2001 census, 28% of the population professed 'no religion' whatsoever. Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ... Image File history File links Iona_Abbey. ... Image File history File links Iona_Abbey. ... One of the oldest and most important religious centers in western Europe. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Kirk can mean church in general or the Church of Scotland in particular. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Reformed theology is a branch of Protestant Christian theology based primarily on the theology of Jesus. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... The Uists are the central group of islands in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. ... Castlebay, Barra Traigh Eaig beach This article is about the island of Barra in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The contemporary Free Church of Scotland is that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside of the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. ... Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... Hinduism in Scotland is of relatively recent provenance, with the bulk of Scottish Hindus having settled there in the second half of the 20th century. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The main temple building at Samye Ling. ... Eskdalemuir (moor of the valley of the River Esk) is a rural district and small village in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ...

Military

Main article: Military of Scotland
Soldiers of the five regular battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland
Soldiers of the five regular battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland

Although Scotland has a long military tradition that predates the Treaty of Union with England, its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces, with the notable exception of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army. In 2006, the infantry regiments of the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. Other distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots Guards and Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. The Thin Red Line of 1854. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Royal Regiment of Scotland is the senior and only Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army Infantry. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... The Atholl Highlanders is a Scottish regiment. ... A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... The Scottish Division is a British Army Infantry command, training and administrative apparatus designated for all Scottish infantry units. ... The Royal Regiment of Scotland is the senior and only Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army Infantry. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ... The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys) (SCOTS DG) is the senior Scottish regiment of the British Army and Scotlands only cavalry regiment. ...


Due to their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments, with mixed public feelings.[113][114][115] Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the U.S. fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines.[116] Today, Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde, 25 miles (40 km) west of Glasgow, is the base for the four Trident-armed Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines that comprise the UK's nuclear deterrent. For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... The Holy Loch seen across the Firth of Clyde with Dunoon on the left The Holy Loch is a body of water in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian R-29 or the American/British Trident. ... This is a list of fleet bases of the Royal Navy. ... Location of Faslane and RNAD Coulport Faslane Naval Base, HMNB Clyde Her Majestys Naval Base (HMNB) Clyde (HMS Neptune), is one of three operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth). ... The Trident missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it an SLBM. There are 14 active US Ohio class submarines and 4 UK Vanguard class submarines equipped with the two variants of Trident: the initial Trident-I... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian R-29 or the American/British Trident. ... The United Kingdom was the third country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in October 1952. ...


Three frontline Royal Air Force bases are also located in Scotland. These are RAF Lossiemouth, RAF Kinloss and RAF Leuchars, the last of which is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom. RAF redirects here. ... RAF Lossiemouth (IATA: LMO, ICAO: EGQS) is a Royal Air Force station to the west of the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, Scotland. ... RAF Kinloss is an Royal Air Force station on the Moray Firth in the north of Scotland. ... RAF Leuchars is the most northerly air defence station in the United Kingdom. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ...


The only open-air live depleted uranium weapons test range in the British Isles is located near Dundrennan.[117] As a result, over 7000 radioactive munitions lie on the seabed of the Solway Firth.[118] Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Dundrennan Range, on the Solway Firth, in South West Scotland, is used for the testing of ammunition. ... Map of Solway Firth. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Scotland
See also: Music in Scotland, Scottish literature, Media in Scotland, and Cuisine of Scotland
A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe.
A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe.

Addressing the haggis during Burns supper: Fair fa your honest, sonsie face, Great chieftain o the puddin-race! The culture of Scotland is the national culture of Scotland. ... The Tannahill Weavers Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... Scottish media has a long and distinct history. ... Scottish cuisine shares much with that of other parts of the British Isles but has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, thanks to foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. ... Download high resolution version (400x964, 87 KB)Bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... Download high resolution version (400x964, 87 KB)Bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ...

Music

Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. An example of a traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland Bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. The clàrsach, fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. Today, there are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles.[119] Scotland is a Celtic-Germanic country, located to the north of England on the island of Great Britain. ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... A clàrsach, now in the Museum of Scotland. ... // Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ... Scottish country dancing at the 2005 Skagit Valley Highland Games in Mount Vernon, Washington Scottish country dancing, SCD or reeling is a form of social dance involving groups of mixed couples of dancers tracing progressive patterns according to a predetermined choreography. ...


Literature

Scottish literature includes text written in English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French, and Latin. The poet and songwriter Robert Burns wrote in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and in a "light" Scots dialect which is more accessible to a wider audience. Similarly, the writings of Sir Walter Scott and Arthur Conan Doyle were internationally successful during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.[120] J. M. Barrie introduced the movement known as the "Kailyard school" at the end of the 19th century, which brought elements of fantasy and folklore back into fashion.[121] This tradition has been viewed as a major stumbling block for Scottish literature, as it focused on an idealised, pastoral picture of Scottish culture.[121] Some modern novelists, such as Irvine Welsh (of Trainspotting fame), write in a distinctly Scottish English that reflects the harsher realities of contemporary life.[122] More recently, author J.K. Rowling has become one of the most popular authors in the world (and one of the wealthiest) through her Harry Potter series, which were originally written from a coffee-shop in Edinburgh. Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other persons named Robert Burns, see Robert Burns (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, OM (9 May 1860 – 19 June 1937), more commonly known as J. M. Barrie, was a Scottish novelist and dramatist. ... The Kailyard school of Scottish fiction came into being at the end of the nineteenth century as a reaction against what was seen as increasingly coarse writing representing Scottish life complete with all its blemishes. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Irvine Welsh (born Leith, Edinburgh, September 27, 1958) is an acclaimed contemporary Scottish novelist, most famous for his novel Trainspotting. ... Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ...


TV

The national broadcaster is BBC Scotland (BBC Alba in Gaelic), a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly-funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs two national television stations and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gaidheal, amongst others. The main Scottish commercial television stations are STV and Border Television. National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, and The Scotsman are all produced in Scotland.[123] Important regional dailies include The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north.[123] BBC Scotland (BBC Alba in Gaelic) is a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly-funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. ... BBC Alba is the Gaelic name for Scotlands national television broadcaster, BBC Scotland Television. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Scotland has five public terrestrial television stations. ... BBC Radio Scotland is BBC Scotlands national radio network, broadcasting since 1976 on 92-95 FM and 810 medium wave. ... BBC Radio nan Gaidheal is the BBCs Gaelic language broadcaster for Scotland. ... This article is about the Scottish television network. ... ITV Border Ltd (formerly and more commonly known as Border Television, or simply Border) is the ITV franchisee for the border region between England and Scotland (including the south of Scotland, much of Cumbria and, until December 2006, the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed), and also the Crown dependency of... Daily Record building at Central Quay, Glasgow The Daily Record is a combination of a comic for the mentally sub-normal and substitute tiolet paper, based in Glasgow. ... Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building, now The Lighthouse The Herald is a national broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland, with an audited circulation of 71,000, making it the best-selling national Scottish broadsheet newspaper. ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... The Courier & Advertiser is a broadsheet newspaper published by DC Thomson in Dundee in six daily editions: the Early edition, and regional editions for Fife, NE Fife, Perth, Angus and Dundee. ... The Press and Journal is a daily regional newspaper serving the northern areas of Scotland including the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in Scotland

Sport is an important element in Scottish culture, with the country hosting many of its own national sporting competitions, and enjoying independent representation at many international sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup, the Cricket World Cup and the Commonwealth Games (although not the Olympic Games). Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world)[124] and the Scottish Rugby Union. Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries with the earliest reference dating back to 1424.[125] Association football is now the national sport and the Scottish Cup is the world's oldest national trophy.[126] Scottish clubs have been successful in European competitions with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and Aberdeen winning the Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 and 1983 respectively, and Aberdeen also winning the European Supercup in 1983. The Fife town of St. Andrews is known internationally as the Home of Golf[127]and to many golfers the Old Course, an ancient links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.[128] There are many other famous golf courses in Scotland, including Carnoustie, Gleneagles, Muirfield and Royal Troon. Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. Scotland played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and will do so again in 2014. The Old Course at St Andrews. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 18th_Green_and_Clubhouse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 18th_Green_and_Clubhouse. ... The 18th green and clubhouse of the R&A. Looking up the 18th fairway towards the clubhouse with the famous bridge over the Swilken Burn in the middle distance. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the... The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of mens One Day International (ODI) cricket. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A sport governing body comes in several forms. ... The Scottish Football Association (SFA) is the governing body for the sport of football in Scotland. ... Logo of Scottish Rugby Union The Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) is the governing body of rugby union in Scotland. ... Football is the most popular sport in Scotland and is the countrys national sport. ... A National sport is a sport which has been declared to be the sport of a nation by its government such as Lacrosse and ice hockey in Canada. ... The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup[1], usually known as the Scottish Cup, is the national cup knockout competition in Scottish football. ... Celtic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow, which currently plays in the Scottish Premier League. ... Champions League Logo The UEFA Champions League is an annual international inter-club football competition between Europes most successful clubs, regarded as the most prestigious club trophy in the sport. ... For other uses, see Rangers F.C. (disambiguation). ... Aberdeen Football Club is a football team from Scotland, who compete in the Scottish Premier League. ... The Cup Winners Cup was a football club competition between the winners of the European domestic cup competitions. ... Aberdeen Football Club is a football team from Scotland, who compete in the Scottish Premier League. ... The European Super Cup is at stake in an annual football game between the reigning champions of the UEFA Cup and UEFA Champions League. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... See St Andrews, New South Wales for St Andrews, Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the game. ... The 18th green and clubhouse of the R&A. Looking up the 18th fairway towards the clubhouse with the famous bridge over the Swilken Burn in the middle distance. ... A links golf course, sometimes referred to as a seaside links is the oldest style of golf course, first developed in Scotland. ... The Championship course. ... Gleneagles (Scottish Gaelic: Gleann na h-Eaglais/Gleann Eagas) is a glen in the Ochil Hills of Perthshire in Scotland. ... Muirfield is a golf course in Scotland which is one of the rotation of courses used for The Open Championship. ... Royal Troon Golf Club is a golf course located in Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Opening ceremonies of 2004 Canmore Highland games Highland games are events held throughout the year in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture and heritage, especially that of the Scottish Highlands. ... For other uses, see Curling (disambiguation). ... // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... The 1970 British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh Scotland. ... Participating countries The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland for the second time. ... The 20th Commonwealth Games in 2014 will be held in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. ...


National symbols

Main article: National symbols of Scotland
The Saltire
The Saltire

The Flag of Scotland, known as the Saltire or St. Andrew's Cross, dates (at least in legend) from the 9th century, and is thus the oldest national flag still in use. The Saltire now also forms part of the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem, the 6 April, 1320 statement of political independence the Declaration of Arbroath, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan, and the Lion Rampant flag.[129][130][131] The National symbols of Scotland include a diversity of official and unofficial images and other symbols. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, a white saltire with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Union Jack redirects here. ... Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ... A national emblem symbolically represents a nation. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... For the artificial athletic track surface, see tartan track. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms. ...

Anthems & Logo

Flower of Scotland is popularly held to be the National Anthem of Scotland, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Scotland national team. Scotland the Brave is used for the Scottish team at the Commonwealth Games. However, since devolution, more serious discussion of the issue has led to the use of Flower of Scotland being disputed. Other candidates include Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man's A Man for A' That.[132] The Scotland rugby team lines up for the national anthem Flower of Scotland (Flùr na h-Alba in Gaelic) is an unofficial national anthem of Scotland, a role for which it competes against the older Scotland the Brave. ... There is no official national anthem of Scotland[1]. However, there is a complex and on-going social and political dispute amongst many contenders for the title of the nations de jure song, which has polarised much of the public. ... Scotland the Brave (Scottish Gaelic: Alba an Aigh) is a patriotic song and one of the main contenders to be considered as a national anthem of Scotland. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... Highland Cathedral is a popular bagpipe tune from Scotland. ... Scots Wha Hae (a calque on the English Scots Who Have; the traditional Scots idiom would be Scots That Haes; Scottish Gaelic: Brosnachadh Bhruis) is a patriotic song of Scotland which served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country, but has lately been largely supplanted... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Mans a Man for A That The Scots song Is There For Honest Poverty, by Robert Burns, is more commonly known as A Mans A Man For A That, and famous for its expression of egalitarian ideas of society...


Saint

St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed. Tartan Day is a recent innovation from Canada. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day to be an official bank holiday.[133] Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ... A Burns Supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns, author of the version of the Scots song Auld Lang Syne, which is generally sung at Hogmanay and other New Year celebrations around the English-speaking world. ... Sean Connery at a Tartan Day celebration in Washington D.C. with members of the USAF Reserve Pipes and Drums. ... The St Andrews Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament that officially designates St. ... For the Bank Holiday declared in the USA during the Great Depression, see Emergency Banking Act. ...

See also

Scotland Portal

The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... 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Rùm (a Scottish Gaelic name which is usually anglicised to Rum) is one of the Small Isles, in Lochaber, Highland, Scotland. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Charles W. J. Withers (born December 5, 1954) is professor of historical geography at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow DLitt FBA FRSE is a British historian and academic, born at Headingley in Leeds. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Sun Quan battles Huang Zu at Xiakou Births Liu Shan, last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu Deaths Guo Jia, brilliant military advisor to Cao Cao Ling Cao, a general under Sun Quan Categories: 207 ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Altnaharra (Ordnance Survey grid reference NC567352) is a small hamlet in Sutherland in the Highland region of northern Scotland. ... The Highland council area (Roinn na Gàidhealtachd[1] in Gaelic) is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands and the largest local government area in Scotland. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the international association football organization. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The clubhouse of the R&A. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is the one of the oldest golf clubs in the world, the oldest being the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers at Muirfield. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

Brown, Dauvit, (1999) "Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element in Scottish Identity", in Smith, Brendan (ed.), Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–53


Brown, Michael (2004) The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371, Edinburgh University Press., pp. 157–254


Devine, T.M [1999] (2000). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000 (New Ed. edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1


Dumville, David N. (2001). "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism", Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars. Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-1851824861. 


Herbert, Maire (2000). "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the ninth and tenth centuries", in Simon Taylor (ed.): Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297. Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 63–72. ISBN 1851825169. 


MacLeod, Wilson (2004) Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland: c.1200–1650. Oxford University Press. Sharp, L. W. The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland, (Cambridge University Ph.D. thesis, 1927), pp. 102–325;


External links

Find more about Scotland on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Scotland.org - the official online gateway to Scotland, managed by the Scottish Government
  • Scottish Government - official site of the Scottish Government
  • Scottish Parliament - official site of the Scottish Parliament
  • National Archives of Scotland - official site of the National Archives of Scotland
  • Maps and digital collections at the National Library of Scotland
  • Gazetteer for Scotland - Extensive guide to the places and people of Scotland, by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and University of Edinburgh
  • Scottish economic statistics 2005 (pdf) - from the Scottish Executive
  • Scottish Census Results On Line - official government site for Scotland's census results
  • Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics - Scottish Government's programme of small area statistics in Scotland
  • Visit Scotland - official site of Scotland's national tourist board
  • ScotlandsPeople - official government resource for Scottish genealogy
  • Scotland travel guide from Wikitravel

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Based in Edinburgh, the National Archives of Scotland (NAS) claims to have one of the most varied collection of archives in the British Isles. ... The building on George IV bridge The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland. ... The Royal Scottish Geographical Society is a learned society in Scotland, founded in 1884. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scotland: Gateway to Scotland (1655 words)
Scotland is one of four constituent nations which form the United Kingdom (the other three are England, Wales and Northern Ireland).
Scotland has given rise to many more famous people, notable in the arts, literature, the sciences and as inventors, philosophers, architects and so on, than would be expected for a country of such modest size and population.
Scotland was a wealthy country through until the beginning of the 14th Century, when Edward I of England (known as the "Hammer of the Scots") was determined to incorporate Scotland into the English crown.
Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6350 words)
Scotland's legal, educational and judicial systems continue to be seperate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and because of this it constitutes a discrete jurisdiction in public and in private international law.
The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.
The population of Scotland in the 2001 census was 5,062,011.
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