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Encyclopedia > Scorched earth

A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. Although apparently a translation of the Chinese phrase jiao tu (土 jiāotǔ), referring to the practice of burning crops to deny the enemy food sources, in its modern usage the term is not limited to food stocks, and can include the destruction of shelter, transportation, communications and industrial resources. The practice may be carried out by an army in enemy territory, or its own home territory. It is often confused with the term "slash-and-burn", which not a military tactic but rather an agricultural technique. It may overlap with, but is not the same as, punitive destruction of an enemy's resources, which is done for strategic rather than tactical reasons. Scorched Earth was a popular shareware computer game from the PC-DOS era, originally written by Wendell Hicken (using Borland C++ and Turbo Assembler),[1] in which tanks do turn-based battle in two-dimensional terrain, with each player adjusting the angle and power of his or her tank turret... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... A crop is any plant that is grown in significant quantities to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or for another economic purpose. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...

Contents

Ancient times

The Scythians used scorched earth tactics against King Darius the Great of Persia. Nomadic herders, the Scythians retreated into the depths of the Steppes, destroying food supplies and poisoning wells. As a result, Darius the Great was forced to concede defeat. A large number of his troops died from starvation and dehydration. The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The Greek general Xenophon records in his Anabasis that the Armenians burned their crops and food supplies as they withdrew before the advance of the Ten Thousand. Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. ... The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401 BC-399 BC) was recorded by...


Roman era

The system of punitive destruction of property and subjugation of peoples when accompanying a military campaign was known as vastatio. Two of the first uses of scorched earth recorded both happened in the Gallic Wars. The first was used when the Celtic Helvetii were forced to evacuate their homes in Southern Germany and Switzerland due to incursions of unfriendly Germanic tribes. To add incentive to the march, the Helvetii destroyed everything they could not bring. After the Helvetii were defeated by a combined Roman-Gallic force, the Helvetii were forced to rebuild themselves on the shattered German and Swiss plains they themselves destroyed. Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... This article is about the European people. ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ...


The second case shows actual military value: during the "Great Gallic War" the Gauls under Vercingetorix planned to lure the Roman armies into Gaul and then trap and obliterate them. To this end, they ravaged the countryside of what are now the Benelux countries and France. This did cause immense problems for the Romans, but Roman military triumphs over the Gallic alliance showed that this alone was not enough to save Gaul from subjugation by Rome. Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...


During the Second Punic War in 218-202 BC, the Carthaginians used this tactic while storming through Italy. After the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC, the Roman Senate also elected to use this tactic to destroy permanently the Carthaginian capital city, Carthage (near modern-day Tunis). The buildings were torn down, their stones scattered so not even rubble remained, and the fields were burned. The story that they salted the earth so nothing would grow again is apocryphal.[1] Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... May 16 - Elagabalus is declared Roman Emperor. ... Events Roman law bans female gladiators Deaths Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (martyred) Perpetua (martyred) Felicitas (martyred) Yuan Shao, Chinese warlord Categories: 202 ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... Events Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births April 11 - Septimius Severus, Roman emperor Deaths Han Zhidi, emperor of Chinese Han Dynasty, poisoned Categories: 146 ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ...


Early Modern Era

Robert the Bruce counselled using these tactics to hold off the English King Edward’s forces when the English invaded Scotland, according to an anonymous 14th-century poem[2]: Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ...

...in strait places gar keep all store,
And byrnen ye plainland them before,
That they shall pass away in haist
What that they find na thing but waist.
...This is the counsel and intent
Of gud King Robert's testiment.

Vlad Ţepes also used such tactics to great effect in 1462 during the Turks' invasion of Wallachia.[citation needed] Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


British use of scorched earth policies in war was seen as early as the sixteenth century in Ireland where it was used by English commanders such as Walter Devereux and Richard Bingham. Its most infamous use was by Humphrey Gilbert during the wars against the native Irish in Munster in the 1560s and 1570s, actions which earned the praise of the poet Edmund Spenser in his A View of the Present State of Ireland in 1596. Persians also used scorched earth tactics against the invading Turks during the long Ottoman-Iran wars between 1578-90.[citation needed] Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex (1541 - 1576), an English nobleman, was the eldest son of Sir Richard Devereux. ... Richard Bingham (1528 - 19 January 1599) was an English soldier and naval commander, who served in Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I during the reconquest of the country and was appointed governor of Connacht. ... Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries...


19th Century

During the Napoleonic Wars, scorched earth policies were successfully employed in both Spain and Portugal (see Peninsular War) and Russia (see Napoleon's invasion of Russia). Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ...


As commanded by Brigham Young, the Mormons used a scorched earth tactic during the Utah War in 1858. Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. ... Combatants United States Mormon settlers Commanders Albert Sidney Johnston Brigham Young John D. Lee Lot Smith Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Utah War was a dispute between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the American Civil War, General Sherman utilized this policy during his March to the Sea. It was also used by the confederates to destroy any items that could have been used by Sherman's advancing army, this may have contributed to the burning of Columbia. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... This article is about the historical event. ...


In the Argentina war of independence, the Jujuy Exodus, led by Manuel Belgrano, also used a scorched earth tactic. The Jujuy Exodus (in Spanish, Éxodo Jujeño) was an episode of the Argentine War of Independence. ... Manuel Belgrano (June 3, 1770 – June 20, 1820) was an Argentine lawyer, politician, and military leader, born in Buenos Aires. ...


In 1868, Tūhoe sheltered the Māori leader Te Kooti, and for this were subjected to a scorched earth policy, in which their crops and buildings were destroyed and their people of fighting age were captured. Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ngāi TÅ«hoe (pronounced too-hoy) is a Māori iwi (tribe) of New Zealand. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki (c. ...


Indian wars (America)

During the wars with Native American tribes of the American West, under Carleton's direction, Kit Carson instituted a scorched earth policy, burning Navajo fields and homes, and stealing or killing their livestock. He was aided by other Indian tribes with long-standing enmity toward the Navajos, chiefly the Utes. The Navajo were forced to surrender due to the destruction of their livestock and food supplies. In the spring of 1864, 8,000 Navajo men, women and children were forced to march 300 miles to Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Navajos call this “The Long Walk.” Many died along the way or during the next four years of imprisonment. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Kit Carson Christopher Houston Kit Carson (December 24, 1809 – May 23, 1868) was an American frontiersman. ... The Navajo (also Navaho) people of the southwestern United States call themselves the Diné (pronounced ), which roughly means the people. They speak the Navajo language, and many are members of the Navajo Nation, an independent government structure which manages the Navajo reservation in the Four Cs area of the United... The Utes (; yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Fort Sumner was a military fort in De Baca County in southeastern New Mexico charged with the internment of Navajo and Mescalero Apache populations from 1863-1868 at nearby Bosque Redondo. ... The Long Walk The Long Walk of the Navajo, also called the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo, was a 20 day or more foot walk many Navajos made in 1864 to a reservation in southeastern New Mexico. ...

Boer civilians watching British soldiers burn down their house: Boers were given 10 minutes to gather belongings
Boer civilians watching British soldiers burn down their house: Boers were given 10 minutes to gather belongings

Image File history File links VerskroeideAarde1. ... Image File history File links VerskroeideAarde1. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ...

Boer War

Lord Kitchener applied this policy during the later part of the Second Boer War (1899-1902) when the British failed to get the better of the Boers on the battlefield. This took the form of the destruction of farms in order to prevent the fighting Boers from obtaining food and supplies, and to demoralise them by leaving their women and children homeless and starving in the open. When this proved unsuccessful, they herded the Boer women and children into concentration camps where conditions were appalling and disease and death was rife. The Earl Kitchener The Right Honourable Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850–5 June 1916) was a British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


20th Century

Efraín Ríos Montt utilized this tactic in the Guatemalan highlands in 1982-3, resulting in the death of approximately 10,000 indigenous peoples, and causing 100,000 to leave their homes. José Efraín Ríos Montt (born June 16, 1926) is a former dictator of Guatemala, army general, and former president of Congress. ...


Indonesia and pro-Indonesia militias used this tactic in their Timor-Leste Scorched Earth campaign around the time of East Timor's referendum for independence in 1999. The Sudanese government has used scorched earth tactics as a military strategy in Darfur. Also used by the Ethiopia government against Ethnic Somalis civilians in the Somali Ogaden region. Pro-Indonesia militias (also pro-Indonesian militias) were East Timorese paramilitary militia groups that formed to show loyalty to the Indonesian government during the movement for East Timorese independence in the late 1990s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of East Timor. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical area. ...


Sino-Japanese War

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese soldiers destroyed dams and levees in an attempt to flood the land to slow down the advancement of Japanese soldiers. This policy resulted in the 1938 Huang He flood. The Japanese also adopted a scorched-earth policy in China during the war, known as "Three Alls Policy". Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... In June 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Nationalist troops under Chiang Kai-Shek broke the levees holding back the Yellow River in order to stop the advancing Japanese troops. ... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more...


World War II

When Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, Joseph Stalin ordered both soldiers and civilians to initiate a scorched earth policy to deny the invaders basic supplies as they moved eastward. The process was repeated later in the war (Ger. verbrannte Erde), when retreating German forces burned or destroyed farms, buildings, weapons, and food to deprive Soviet forces of their use.


At the close of the World War II, Finland, which had made a separate peace with the Allies, was required to evict the German forces which had been fighting against the Soviets alongside the Finnish troops in the Northern part of the country. Finnish forces, under the leadership of general Hjalmar Siilasvuo, struck aggressively in August 1944 by making a landfall at Tornio. This accelerated the German retreat, and by November 1944 the Germans had left most of northern Finland. The German forces, forced to retreat due to overall strategic situation, covered retreat towards Norway by devastating large areas of northern Finland using scorched earth tactics. More than one-third of the dwellings in the area were destroyed, and the provincial capital Rovaniemi was burned to the ground. All but two bridges in Lapland were blown up and roads mined[3]. In Northern Norway which was at the same time invaded by Finnish forces in pursuit of the retreating German army in 1944, the Germans also undertook a scorched earth policy, destroying every building that could offer shelter, thus interposing a belt of "scorched earth" between themselves and the allies[4]. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hjalmar Fridolf Siilasvuo (1892 - 1947) was a Finnish general who led troops in the Winter War, Continuation War and Lapland War. ... The town of Rovaniemi destroyed by the Germans The Battle of Rovaniemi was an event during the Lapland War. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1945, Adolf Hitler, desperately attempting to save Nazi Germany from the Allies and the Soviet Union, ordered Albert Speer, his armaments minister, to carry out the nationwide scorched earth policy, in what was termed the Nero Order. Speer refused the order and left Berlin. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... By March 1945, Allied forces had penetrated deep within Germany and were poised to launch their final assault on the Third Reich. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


The Australian government had a scorched earth policy as a worst case scenario during 1942. Due to the very real threat of invasion from Japan, the Australian government considered what land could be burnt and surrendered to possible Japanese invading forces.


Vietnam War

Throughout the 60s, the US employed herbicides (chiefly Agent Orange), as a part of its herbicidal warfare program Trail Dust to destroy crops and foliage in order to expose possible enemy hideouts and to deny food to the enemy. Napalm was also extensively used for such purposes. For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... U.S. Military planes cropdusting in Vietnam during Operation Ranch Hand Operation Ranch Hand was a U.S. Military operation during part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ...


Gulf War

During the Gulf War in 1990 when Iraqi forces were driven out of Kuwait they set oil wells on fire. This was done in the hope that it would "blind" allied aircraft and prevent them from bombing.[citation needed] However, most allied aircraft were equipped with all-weather and night-attack capabilities such as FLIR, and the smoke posed little or no impediment. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Kuwaiti oil wells on fire. ... A forward looking infrared (FLIR) system is a television camera that takes pictures in infrared. ...


In Business

The scorched-earth defense is a form of risk arbitrage and anti-takeover strategy. When a target firm implements this provision, it will make an effort to make it unattractive to the hostile bidder. For example, a company may agree to liquidate or destroy all valuable assets, also called "crown jewels", or schedule debt repayment to be due immediately following a hostile takeover. In some cases, a scorched-earth defense may develop into an extreme anti-takeover defense called a "suicide pill". Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Risk arbitrage is an investment or trading strategy often associated with hedge funds. ... A takeover in business refers to one company (the acquirer, or bidder) purchasing another (the target). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... “Selling the crown jewels” is a form of risk arbitrage and anti-takeover strategy. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A suicide pill (also known as an L-pill or lethal pill) is a pill, capsule, ampoule or tablet containing a fatally poisonous substance that a person ingests deliberately in order to quickly cause their own death. ...

See also

This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... {{subst:wfd}} Introduction The Soviet Winter was instrumental in three campaigns, all of which resulted in the defeat of the opponent of Russia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A chevauchée (French for promenade or horse charge, depending on context) was a method in medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, focusing mainly on wreaking havoc, burning and pillaging enemy territory, in order to reduce the productivity of a region; as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest. ...

References

  1. ^ Ridley, R.T., "To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The Destruction of Carthage," Classical Philology vol. 81, no. 2 (1986).
  2. ^ Quoted in The Steel Bonnets by George MacDonald Fraser.
  3. ^ See Lapland War
  4. ^ Derry, T.K. (1972). A History of Modern Norway: 1814—1972. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-822503-2. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scorched earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1243 words)
A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area.
British use of scorched earth policies in war was seen as early as the sixteenth century in Ireland where it was used by English commanders such as Walter Devereux and Richard Bingham.
During the Napoleonic Wars, scorched earth policies were successfully employed in both Spain (see Peninsular War) and Russia (see Napoleon's invasion of Russia).
ClassicGaming.com - Game of the Week (751 words)
Comparing Scorched Earth to chess is pretty much ridiculous, but they do share the common similarity of being incredibly easy to learn and hard to master.
Scorched Earth is a simple, yet exciting artillery combat game, based on an auspicous history of artillery games.
While Scorched Earth may not be "The Mother of All Games" as it proclaims on its web page, because there's a lot of games out there and I'm sure Scorched Earth does not lead a promiscuous lifestyle, it's still a really great game that every gamer should check out.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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