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This article forms part of a series on Scientology

Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics.[1] Hubbard later characterized Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy" and the basis for a new religion.[1] The body of beliefs and related techniques of Scientology not only encompasses a spiritual rehabilitation philosophy and techniques but it also covers topics such as morals, ethics, detoxification, education and management. The first Church of Scientology was founded in 1953.[2] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... This article is about inexpensive fiction magazines. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was an American pulp fiction writer,[2][3][4] creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard listing 21 moral precepts, and distributed by The Way to Happiness Foundation International, a Scientology-related non-profit organization founded in 1984. ... According to the Church of Scientology, Ethics may be defined as the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics. ... The Purification Rundown, known as The Purif within Scientology, is a program used by the Church of Scientology which, according to the church, results in detoxification, and was developed by Scientologys founder L. Ron Hubbard. ... World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is an organization that educates and assists businesses in the use of Scientology management techniques. ... Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Today the total body of beliefs and practices of Dianetics and Scientology are the sole property of the Church of Spiritual Technology that forms part of a network of churches and organizations that promote the use of Dianetics, Scientology and related techniques.[3] Other organizations that promote the use of Scientology’s related techniques are the World Institute of Scientology Enterprises and the Association for Better Living and Education. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is an organization that educates and assists businesses in the use of Scientology management techniques. ... The Association for Better Living and Education (A.B.L.E.) is a secular branch of the Church of Scientology. ...


Scientology and the organizations that promote it have remained highly controversial since their inception. This article examines controversial issues involving Scientology and its affiliated organizations. ...

Contents

Origin

See also: Timeline of Scientology

Scientology's doctrines were established by Hubbard over a period of about 34 years, beginning in 1952 and continuing until his death in January 1986. Most of the basic principles were set out during the 1950s and 1960s. Now described as an "applied religious philosophy," Scientology was at first secular; Hubbard began to characterize Scientology's beliefs and practices as a religion in 1953, and by 1960 he had redefined it as a "religion by its basic tenets."[4] Hubbard recorded his doctrine in 500,000 pages of writings, 6,500 reels of tape and 42 films that are carefully protected and guarded for posterity.[5] This is a timeline of Scientology, particularly its foundation and development by author L. Ron Hubbard. ...


Influences

The Church of Scientology presents Hubbard's work as completely original, reflected in the fact that Scientologists refer to Hubbard himself as "Source." Scientology recapitulates and builds on ideas Hubbard introduced in Dianetics, an earlier system of self-improvement techniques laid out in his 1950 book, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... Personal development (also known as self-development, self-improvement or personal growth) comprises the development of the self. ...


Hubbard recalls his first influence as that of Commander Joseph Cressman Thompson.[6] Commander Thompson was the first officer in the US Navy to study under Sigmund Freud.[7] Hubbard, the son of a navy officer, met Thompson at the age of 12 during a trip from Seattle to Washington D.C. via the Panama canal. Thompson introduced Hubbard to Freudian analysis.[7] Hubbard later gave his opinion on Sigmund Freud: “I think that was Freud’s great contribution, that something could be done about the mind... He was the first man that ever stood up and said: 'there is hope for it'... Now there was a great humanitarian.”[7] Joseph Cressman Snake Thompson, M. D., (1874-1943) was a career medical officer in the United States Navy and attained the rank of commander before retirement in 1929. ...


In 1945, Hubbard was for several months in contact with Aleister Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis chapter in Los Angeles, a group headed by John W. Parsons.[8] In a 1952 lecture series, Hubbard recommended a book of Crowley's and referred to him as "Mad Old Boy"[9][10] and as "my very good friend."[11] Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ...


Another influence acknowledged by Hubbard is the system of General Semantics developed by Alfred Korzybski in the 1930s, which was influential in the science-fiction subculture of the 1940s.[12] Scientology also reflects the influence of the Hindu concept of karma, as well as the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and William Sargant. General Semantics is a school of thought founded by Alfred Korzybski in about 1933 in response to his observations that most people had difficulty defining human and social discussions and problems and could almost never predictably resolve them into elements that were responsive to successful intervention or correction. ... Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski is a philosopher and scientist born on July 3, 1879 in Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire and died on March 1, 1950, in Lakeville, Connecticut, USA. He is probably best-remembered for developing the theory of general semantics. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... William Walters Sargant (24 April 1907 - August 27, 1988), psychiatrist, Founder and Director of the Department of Psychological Medicine at St Thomas Hospital in London, where he established a laboratory for mind control experiments. ...


Sociologist David G. Bromley of Virginia Commonwealth University characterizes Scientology as "a 'quasi-religious therapy' that resembles Freudian 'depth psychology' while also drawing upon Buddhism, Hinduism, and the ancient, heretical offshoot of Christianity known as gnosticism." In fact during The Phoenix Lectures Hubbard admitted that Scientology wouldn’t have been possible if he wouldn’t have known the Veda.[13] Hubbard called the Veda Scientology’s earliest ancestor: “And we find Scientology’s earliest, certainly known ancestor in the Veda.” [14] Hubbard also gave recognition to the Tao Te Ching, the Dharma and Gautama Buddha as forerunners to Scientology.[15] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Phoenix Lectures is a book about Scientology compiled in 1968 from lectures given by L. Ron Hubbard in Phoenix, Arizona during 1954. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...


Definition

The Church of Scientology defines Scientology as "'the study of truth.' It comes from the Latin word 'scio' meaning 'knowing in the fullest sense of the word' and the Greek word 'logos' meaning 'study of.'"[16] Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


"Scientology would be a study of knowledge," Hubbard stated in 1952.[17] In 1960 L. Ron Hubbard defined Scientology as: "a religion by its basic tenets, practice, historical background and by the definition of the word 'religion' itself."[18] In 1969 he wrote that "It is fundamentally an applied religious philosophy."[19]


In a lecture given on July 19, 1962 entitled "The E-meter," Hubbard said: is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

So Suzie and I went down to the library, and we started hauling books out and looking for words. And we finally found 'scio' and we find 'ology.' And there was the founding of that word. Now, that word had been used to some degree before. There had been some thought of this. Actually the earliest studies on these didn't have any name to them until a little bit along the line and then I called it anything you could think of. But we found that this word Scientology, you see—and it could have been any other word that had also been used—was the best-fitted word for exactly what we wanted.

Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard's work, the word "scientology" predates Hubbard's creation by several decades. Philologist Allen Upward used the word "scientology" in his 1901 book The New Word as a synonym for "pseudoscience,"[20] and this is sometimes cited as the first coining of the word.[21] In 1934, the Argentine-German writer Anastasius Nordenholz published a book using the word positively: Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens ("Scientology, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge").[22] Nordenholz's book is a study of consciousness, and its usage of the word is not greatly different from Hubbard's definition, "knowing how to know".[23] However, it is not clear to what extent Hubbard was aware of these earlier uses. The word itself is a pairing of the Latin word scientia ("knowledge," "skill"), which comes from the verb scire ("to know"), and the Greek λογος lógos ("reason" or "inward thought" or "logic" or "an account of"). Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ... Allen Upward (1863 - 1920) was a poet, lawyer, politician and teacher. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Texts and Lectures

Scientology is a body of beliefs and related techniques composed of 15 basic books[24], 15,000 pages of technical writing and over 3,000 lectures[25]. There isn’t a single Scientology book that is the equivalent of the Bible or the Quran but the study of Scientology is achieved through the chronological study of its basic books and lectures.[26] This is an incomplete bibliography of Scientology and Scientology-related books produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ...


Beliefs

Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, circa 1970
The Scientology Cross
The Scientology Symbol

Scientology describes itself as the "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, others and all of life." [27] Scientology philosophy encompasses all aspects of life from the point of view of the spirit; including a spiritual rehabilitation philosophy and techniques, morals, ethics, detoxification, education and management. [28] L. Ron Hubbard This work is copyrighted. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was an American pulp fiction writer,[2][3][4] creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Scientology cross The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard listing 21 moral precepts, and distributed by The Way to Happiness Foundation International, a Scientology-related non-profit organization founded in 1984. ... According to the Church of Scientology, Ethics may be defined as the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics. ... The Purification Rundown, known as The Purif within Scientology, is a program used by the Church of Scientology which, according to the church, results in detoxification, and was developed by Scientologys founder L. Ron Hubbard. ... World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is an organization that educates and assists businesses in the use of Scientology management techniques. ...


Prime among Scientology's beliefs is: "that man is a spiritual being whose existence spans more than one life and who is endowed with abilities well beyond those which he normally considers he possesses."[29]


Scientology believes man to be basically good and that his experiences have led him into evil. That he errs because he seeks to solve his problems by considering only his own point of view. And that man can improve to the degree he preserves his spiritual integrity and remains honest and decent.[30]


According to the Church, the ultimate goal is: "a civilization without insanity, without criminals and without war, where the able can prosper and honest beings can have rights, and where man is free to rise to greater heights.” [31]


The purpose of Scientology is "to know"; to achieve complete certainty of one’s spiritual existence and one’s relationship to the Supreme Being.[32] In Scientology no one is asked to accept anything as belief or on faith, the tenets of Scientology are expected to be tested and seen to either be true or not by Scientology practitioners. "That which is true for you is what you have observed to be true."[33]


Scientology says its practice provides exact and precise methods by which a person can achieve greater spiritual awareness.[33] Being "Auditing" and "Training" the primary practices of Scientology .[34] This article is in need of attention. ...


The exact nature of all of existence is said to be stated in Hubbard's Scientology and Dianetics Axioms.


Other beliefs of Scientology are:

  • A person is an immortal spiritual being (termed a thetan) who possesses a mind and a body.
  • The thetan has lived through many past lives and will continue to live beyond the death of the body.
  • Through the Scientology process of "auditing," people can free themselves of specific traumatic incidents, prior ethical transgressions and bad decisions, which are said to collectively restrict the person from reaching the state of "Clear," and after that, the state of "Operating Thetan." Each state is said to represent recovering the native spiritual abilities of the individual, and to confer dramatic mental and physical benefits.
  • A person is basically good, but becomes "aberrated" by moments of pain and unconsciousness in his or her life.
  • Psychiatry and psychology are destructive and abusive practices.[35]

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, Clear is defined as a state in which a person is free of unwanted influences of past memories, unwanted emotions, and mental and physical pain not existing in present time. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan is a spiritual state above Clear. ...

The Bridge to Total Freedom

Scientology practices (called "Technology" or "Tech" in Scientology terminology) are structured in sequential series or levels, reflecting Hubbard's belief that rehabilitation takes place on a step-by-step "gradient"; for example, that the negative effects of drugs must be addressed before other issues can be addressed. Scientologists follow a sequence of courses that culminate in the esoteric advanced strata of Scientology's teachings. This is described as a passage along "the Bridge to Total Freedom," or simply "the Bridge," in which each step of the Bridge promises a little more personal freedom in some particular area of life. Scientology terminology consists of a complex assortment of jargon used by Scientologists in conjunction with the practice of Scientology and in their everyday lives. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Principles

Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ...

The Parts of Man

Scientologists believe that man is composed of three distinguishable parts: Mind, Body and Spirit.[36]


The Spirit
The thetan (spirit) is described in Scientology as having no mass, no wavelength, no energy and no time or location in space except by consideration or postulate. The spirit then is not a thing. It is the creator of things.[37]

The spirit, is defined in the Scientology Axiom #1 as a true static. A true static does not have mass, motion, wavelength, location in space or in time. But it can perceive and postulate. [38] The spirit is the true form of man and the spirit can exist exterior to and/or independent from a body.[39] The spirit in Scientology is represented with the Greek letter 'Theta' (Ɵ) that means 'thought'.[40] An individual spiritial being in Scientology is called a Thetan.


The Mind
The mind is a communication and control system between the thetan and his environment.[37]

The mind in Scientology is described as a bank of mental image pictures.[41] These pictures give the spirit experience and knowledge, and stores the thetan’s postulates. In Scientology, the mind is subdivided in two distinguishable sections: [42]


The Analytical Mind

According to Scientology, the analytical mind is that part of the mind which is "totally accessible to the spirit. It is the portion of the mind one is aware of using."[43] This can be referred to as the conscious mind.


The Reactive mind
Main article: Reactive mind

Scientologists believe that the Reactive mind is "that part of the mind which is not accessible to the spirit and it unknowingly affects the spirit; it is mostly composed of moments of pain and unconscious. It is said to operate on an irrational, stimulus-response basis."[44] This could be likened to the unconscious or subconscious mind. In Dianetics and Scientology, the reactive mind is a concept created by L. Ron Hubbard, referring to a hypothetical portion of the human mind which Hubbard blamed for most mental and physical ailments. ...


The Body

The physical biological body of man; Scientology describes the body as a carbon-oxygen machine, the Thetan being the engineer of this machine. Illnesses and injuries to the body are said to be relieved through the use of "assists."


Dianetics

Dianetics is a substudy of Scientology that deals with the reactive mind, the "bank" of traumatic memories known as engrams which are said to inhibit one's success and happiness.[45] This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, the reactive mind is a concept created by L. Ron Hubbard, referring to a hypothetical portion of the human mind which Hubbard blamed for most mental and physical ailments. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, an engram is defined as an unconscious, painful memory. ...


ARC triangle

Main article: ARC (Scientology)

Another basic tenet of Scientology is the three related components that make up successful "livingness" and are the basis of understanding: affinity (emotional responses), reality (an agreement on what is real) and communication (the exchange of ideas). Hubbard called this the "ARC Triangle," noting that all three points are linked to each other. Scientologists utilize ARC as a central principle in their own lives, primarily based upon the belief that improving one aspect of the triangle increases the level of the other two. The ARC triangle is also the lower triangle represented in the Scientology symbol.[46] ARC is a fundamental concept in Scientology methodology, and is a term particular to Scientology coined by founder L. Ron Hubbard. ...


KRC triangle

Main article: KRC (Scientology)

Analogous to the ARC Triangle is a second triangle called the KRC Triangle. KRC stands for Knowledge, Responsibility and Control. Scientologists believe that an area can be made to go more and more right by increasing Knowledge, Responsibility and Control within that area. Many auditing processes and auditor training routines are aimed at increasing an individual's willingness and ability to non-compulsively gain Knowledge of, take Responsibility for and effectively exert Control over elements of his or her environment. This triangle is the upper triangle found in the Scientology symbol.[46] KRC: Knowledge, Responsibility and Control In Scientology beliefs and practices, KRC stands for Knowledge, Responsibility and Control. ...


Tone scale

Main article: Tone scale

The tone scale is a characterization of human mood and behavior by various positions on a scale. The expanded scale ranges from −40 ("Total Failure") to +40 ("Serenity of Being"). Positions on the tone scale are usually designated by an emotion, but Hubbard also described many other things that can be indicated by the tone scale levels, such as aspects of a human's health, mating behavior, survival potential, or ability to deal with truth. The tone scale is frequently used by Scientologists to evaluate humans. According to Scientology, the lower the individual is on the tone scale, the more complex and convoluted one's problems tend to be, and the more care and judgment should be exercised regarding communication and interaction with that individual. In Scientology, the tone scale or emotional tone scale is a characterization of human behavior and bodily appearance. ...


Past lives

In Dianetics, Hubbard proposed that the cause of "aberrations" in a human mind was an accumulation of pain and unconscious memories of traumatic incidents, some of which predated the life of the human. He extended this view further in Scientology, declaring that thetans have existed for tens of trillions of years (several orders of magnitude greater than what mainstream science generally estimates the age of the universe to be). During that time, Hubbard explains, they have been exposed to a vast number of traumatic incidents, and have made a great many decisions that influence their present state. Hubbard's 1958 book Have You Lived Before This Life contains descriptions of past lives given by individual Scientologists during auditing sessions. According to an early lecture of Hubbard's, it is, as a practical matter, both impossible and undesirable to recall each and every such event from such vast stretches of time.[47] As a result, Hubbard's three decade development of Scientology focused on streamlining the process to address only key factors. Hubbard stated that Scientology materials as described in books, tapes, and research notes include a record of everything that was found in the course of his research.[citation needed] This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... The age of the universe, in Big Bang cosmology, refers to the time elapsed between the Big Bang and the present day. ... Have You Lived Before This Life is a Scientology / Dianetics book published by L. Ron Hubbard in 1960. ...


According to Hubbard, some of the past traumas may have been deliberately inflicted in the form of "implants" used by extraterrestrial dictatorships such as Helatrobus to brainwash and control the population. Hubbard's lectures and writings include a wide variety of accounts of complex extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in earthly events, collectively described by Hubbard as "space opera." There is a huge Church of Spiritual Technology symbol carved into the ground at Scientology's Trementina Base that is visible from passing aircraft or from satellite photography.[48] Washington Post reporter Richard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard’s teachings on reincarnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know where they can find the founder’s works when they travel here in the future from other places in the universe."[49] In Church of Scientology doctrine, Helatrobus was an interplanetary nation, now extinct, which existed trillions of years ago. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Church of Scientology (CST) maintains a large base on the outskirts of Trementina, New Mexico. ...


The upper secret levels of Scientology

See also: Operating Thetan and Space opera in Scientology doctrine

Scientologists who have achieved the State of Clear may continue onto the Upper or OT (Operating Thetan) Levels. These levels are available by Church invitation only after a review of the candidate's character, ethics and contribution to the Aims of Scientology.[50] The contents of these advanced courses are held in strict confidence within the Church and individuals who have read these materials may neither discuss nor disclose what they contain without jeopardizing their standing in the Church.[50] Presently, there are eight such levels, OT I to VIII.[51] Church management has promised to release a ninth OT level once certain expansion goals are met.[52] The highest level released to date, OT VIII, is only granted at sea, on the Scientology ship, the Freewinds, which was established to provide a "safe, aesthetic, distraction-free environment" where this OT level could be delivered.[53] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan is a spiritual state above Clear. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan is a spiritual state above Clear. ... Freewinds is a cruise ship operated by the Church of Scientology. ...


Despite their confidentiality within the Church, excerpts and descriptions of these materials were published online by a former member in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media.[50] This occurred after the confidential teachings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology thus becoming a matter of public record.[54][55] In the confidential OT levels, Hubbard describes a variety of traumas commonly experienced in past lives, experiences that extend many millions of years into the past.[54] He also explains how to reverse the effects of such traumas.[54]


Xenu and Body Thetans

Among these advanced teachings, one episode revealed to those who reach OT level III is the story of Xenu and his Galactic Confederacy. For other uses, see Xenu (disambiguation). ... In higher levels of Scientology doctrine, The Galactic Confederacy refers to the political unit formerly ruled by the alien tyrant Xenu. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy In Scientology, a thetan is the term roughly corresponding to ones soul, and a Body Thetan is an alien thetan who is stuck in, on or near a human meat body, and all human bodies are said to be covered in... For other uses, see Xenu (disambiguation). ... In higher levels of Scientology doctrine, The Galactic Confederacy refers to the political unit formerly ruled by the alien tyrant Xenu. ...


Scientologists have argued that the published accounts of the Xenu story and other teachings are distortions of their practice, presented out of context for the purpose of ridiculing their religion.[50]


Xenu (sometimes Xemu) is introduced as an alien ruler of the "Galactic Confederacy" who, 75 million years ago, brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and blew them up with hydrogen bombs. Their souls then clustered together and stuck to the bodies of the living. Scientologists believe the alien souls continue to do this today, causing a variety of physical ill-effects in modern-day humans. Hubbard called these clustered spirits "Body Thetans", and the advanced levels place considerable emphasis on isolating them and neutralizing their ill effects.[56] The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... In Scientology doctrine, body thetans or BTs are the ghosts of the victims of a genocide perpetrated 75 million years ago by Xenu. ...


Practices

Auditing

Scientology recruiter introduces the E-meter to a potential convert. Such introductory demonstrations are typically presented as "free stress tests."
Scientology recruiter introduces the E-meter to a potential convert. Such introductory demonstrations are typically presented as "free stress tests."

The central practice of Scientology is "auditing", which is a one-on-one communication with a trained Scientology counselor or "auditor." Most auditing uses an E-meter, a device that measures very small changes in electrical resistance through the human body when a person is holding onto metal cans and a small current is passed through them.[57] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 517 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (978 × 1135 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 517 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (978 × 1135 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mark Super VII Quantum E-meter An E-meter is an electronic device manufactured by the Church of Scientology at their Gold Base production facility. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Mark Super VII Quantum E-meter An E-meter is an electronic device manufactured by the Church of Scientology at their Gold Base production facility. ... Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ...


The auditing process is intended to help the practitioner (referred to as a preclear or PC) to unburden himself or herself of specific traumatic incidents, prior ethical transgressions and bad decisions, which are said to collectively restrict the preclear from achieving his or her goals and lead to the development of a "reactive mind." In one form of auditing, the auditor asks the preclear to respond to a list of questions which are designed for specific purposes and given to the preclear in a strictly regulated way. Auditing requires that the preclear be a willing and interested participant who understands the questions, and the process goes more smoothly when he or she understands what is going on. Rule #19 of the Auditors' Code demands that an auditor makes sure that the practitioner fully understands the question.[58] Per the same Church policy, auditors are trained not to "evaluate for" their preclears; i.e., they are forbidden from suggesting, interpreting, degrading or invalidating the preclear's answers. The E-meter is used to help locate an area of concern. Auditing is not to be mixed with other practices.[59]


Scientologists have said that they received benefits from auditing including improved IQ, improved ability to communicate, and enhanced memory. They have also said that they are generally happier after auditing.[60] “IQ” redirects here. ...


During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from the person being audited. Auditing records are referred to within Scientology as "PC (preclear) folders" and are said to be stored securely when not being added to during auditing sessions.[61] The Auditors' Code states that an auditor promises never to use the secrets of a preclear divulged in session for punishment or personal gain.[58]


Scientology Zero to Five

The uses of Scientology can be divided into six distinct levels from "Scientology Zero" and "Scientology One" up to "Scientology Five." (These are not to be confused with the levels of gradation shown on the Church of Scientology's Bridge to Total Freedom chart.) They are: Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Bridge to Total Freedom, or simply The Bridge for short, is the fundamental Church of Scientology concept by which a person charts their progress towards higher goals. ...

  • Scientology Zero deals with the Scientologist's immediate surroundings, the world and society, for the general public. Addresses dangerous environments and applying Standard Tech to them.
  • Scientology One deals with "essential data about living and life, applicable to anyone". This is the point at which many people are at among those who could be considered a Scientologist in the broadest sense of the word - those who simply have read some Hubbard books, and have used and applied things learned in them.
  • Scientology Two is obtaining and applying Scientology training and course materials in an Org.
  • Scientology Four deals with OT levels and Saint Hill Special Briefing Course (SHSBC) materials.
  • Scientology Five is the use of Scientology tech applied to the highest global sociopolitical echelons.[62] [63]

In Scientology, Standard Tech refers to uncompromising application of the Dianetic and Scientology techniques prescribed by L. Ron Hubbard. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, Clear is defined as a state in which a person is free of unwanted influences of past memories, unwanted emotions, and mental and physical pain not existing in present time. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan is a spiritual state above Clear. ...

Silent birth and infant care

Main article: Silent birth

Hubbard stated that the delivery room should be as silent as possible during birth.[64] This stems from his belief that birth is a trauma that may induce engrams into the baby. Hubbard asserted that words in particular should be avoided because any words used during birth might be reassociated by an adult later on in life with their earlier traumatic birth experience. Silent birth, sometimes known as quiet birth, is a birthing procedure advised by L. Ron Hubbard and advocated by Scientologists in which everyone attending the birth should refrain from spoken words as much as possible and where ... chatty doctors and nurses, shouts to PUSH, PUSH and loud or laughing remarks... In Dianetics and Scientology, an engram is defined as an unconscious, painful memory. ...


Hubbard also wrote that the mother should use "as little anesthetic as possible."[65] In the 1960s Hubbard gave certain dietary recommendations.[66] In the 1960s, Hubbard wrote that breastfeeding should be avoided if the mother is smoking or is lacking good nutrition herself.[67] Hubbard compared common replacement formulas which he described as "mixed milk powder, glucose and water, total carbohydrate," with what he considered the "skim breast milk from … overworked mother[s]" that "smoke and sometimes drink" and offered—as an alternative to commercial products—what he called the "Barley Formula" made from barley water, homogenized milk and corn syrup. Reports about adding honey to the formula have turned out to be inaccurate and are not part of the original recipe by Hubbard.[68] Hubbard claims that he "picked it up in Roman days"[69], referring to the use of barley[70]. Hubbard crafted the barley formula to, in his words, provide "a heavy percentage of protein"[69] and called it "the nearest approach to human milk that can be assembled easily."[71] The formula is still popular with many Scientologists, although health practitioners advise that it is an inappropriate replacement due to the absence of important nutrients like Vitamin C[72], the lack of which causes scurvy. An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Homogenization (or homogenisation) is a term used in many fields such as Chemistry, agricultural science, food technology, sociology and cell biology. ... Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn starch as a feedstock, and composed mainly of glucose. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ...


Church ceremonies

Scientology, as practiced by members of the Church of Scientology, includes the social ceremonies for marriage, birth, and death, that are a part of most religions. The ceremonies are performed in front of the congregation by an ordained Scientology minister.[73] Most, if not all, of the actual ceremonies used were written by L. Ron Hubbard and are collected in the book, Ceremonies of the Church of Scientology.[74][75]


Funeral service

At a Scientology funeral service, the minister speaks directly to the thetan (the individual as a spirit) and grants forgiveness for anything the deceased has done so he can begin life anew. Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy In Scientology, the concept of thetan (pronounced THAY-tan) is similar to the concept of spirit or soul found in other belief systems. ...

We do not contest your right to go away. Your debts are paid. This chapter of thy life is shut. Go now, dear [deceased], and live once more in happier time and place.[76]

Membership

The Church of Scientology claimed to have 10 million members as of 2006,[77] though national figures it has released indicate a far smaller total. Though the Church has an official membership system, the International Association of Scientologists, IAS membership is not what the Church means by 'member.' Estimates of Scientology adherents worldwide range from less than 100,000[78] to approximately 500,000.[79] According to a 2001 survey published by the City University of New York, 55,000 people in the United States would, if asked to identify their religion, have said Scientology.[80] A possible problem with such surveys may be that many Scientologists have cultural and social ties to other religious groups and when asked "what is your religion" answer with their traditional and more socially acceptable affiliation.[79] Religious scholar J. Gordon Melton has said that the church's estimates of its membership numbers are exaggerated.[81] The International Association of Scientologists (IAS) was formed in October 1984 by a group of selected Scientologists, who assembled at Saint Hill Manor in East Grinstead, Sussex, England. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: ), is the public university system of New York City. ... Dr. John Gordon Melton is the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion and is a research specialist with the Department of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ...

One of the main buildings of the FLAG Scientology complex in Clearwater, Florida
One of the main buildings of the FLAG Scientology complex in Clearwater, Florida
Church of Scientology of Tampa, Florida
Scientology mission in Plant City, Florida
Scientology mission in Plant City, Florida

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Clearwater is a city located in central Pinellas County, Florida, USA, nearly due west of Tampa. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Plant City is a city in Hillsborough County, Florida, approximately midway between Brandon and Lakeland along Interstate 4. ...

Organizations

Main article: Church of Scientology

Scientology is composed of a complex network of corporations, churches and organizations all geared towards promoting the use and dissemination of Scientology and related techniques. Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ...


Ownership

The Church of Spiritual Technology is a non-profit organization that owns the copyrights of Scientology. Representing the Church of Spiritual Technology is Religious Technology Center (RTC). RTC is the holder of the trademarks of Dianetics and Scientology.[82] All Scientology organizations must license the right to use Scientology and all related techniques from this organization. Its purpose is to maintain Scientology pure per the writings of L. Ron Hubbard.[83] RTC is headed by David Miscavige a man believed to be the most powerful person in Scientology.[84] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Religious Technology Center (RTC) is a non-profit corporation established in 1982 by the Church of Scientology to control and oversee the uses of all of the trademarks, symbols and texts of Scientology and Dianetics, including the copyrighted works of the religions founder, L. Ron Hubbard. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was an American pulp fiction writer,[2][3][4] creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ... David Miscavige (born April 30, 1960 in Philadelphia) is Chairman of the Board of Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that controls the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology, and is the ultimate ecclesiastical authority regarding the standard and pure application of L. Ron Hubbard’s religious technologies. ...


The Mother Church

The Church of Scientology International is the mother church of Scientology and provides management to all Scientology organizations world wide.[85] A Scientology Center on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, California. ...


The Churches of Scientology

Main article: Church of Scientology

The first Church of Scientology was incorporated in Camden, New Jersey as a non-profit organization in 1953. A Scientology Mission is considered a church when it has reached the size required to administer all courses and auditing required for delivering the state of clear.[86] Overall there are 142 Churches in 28 countries established world wide.[87] Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ...


Scientology Missions

Scientology Missions are small churches that deliver basic Dianetics and Scientology services.[88] The Scientology Missions directory reports over 300 missions in 50 countries world wide.[89]


Advanced Organizations

Scientology's Advanced Organizations are churches specialized in the delivering of Scientology's higher levels.[90] Those organizations are located in Los Angeles, Clearwater Florida,[91] United Kingdom, Sydney Australia, Copenhagen Denmark, and the cruise ship Freewinds.[92]


Other Scientology Related Organizations

World Institute of Scientology Enterprises

World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is an organization which licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses. World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is an organization that educates and assists businesses in the use of Scientology management techniques. ...


Association for Better Living and Education

The Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) is a secular, non-profit organization with the stated purpose of reversing social decay by promoting the application of L. Ron Hubbard's social betterment programs; including drug rehabilitation, criminal rehabilitation, education and morals.[93] The Association for Better Living and Education (A.B.L.E.) is a secular branch of the Church of Scientology. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...

  • Narconon is sub division of ABLE that promotes and delivers L. Ron Hubbard's drug rehabilitation programs and manages a number of drug treatment centers world wide. It was founded by William Benitez in 1966.[94] Benitez was an inmate of Arizona State Prison who found a book by Hubbard in the prison library and used it to get himself and others inmates off drugs.[95]
  • Criminon is sub division of ABLE that promotes and delivers L Ron Hubbard's criminal rehabilitation program and manages drug rehabilitation programs for inmates.
  • Applied Scholastics is sub division of ABLE that promotes the use of Hubbard's educational methods.

Narconon is not associated with Narcotics Anonymous, which is sometimes abbreviated Narcanon. Scientologys Narconon is an in-patient rehabilitation program for drug abusers in several dozen treatment centers worldwide, chiefly in the United States and western Europe. ... Criminon is a secular non proft 501 C3 working with government departments and inmates to reduce recidivism and restore self respect to the inmate. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard listing 21 moral precepts, and distributed by The Way to Happiness Foundation International, a Scientology-related non-profit organization founded in 1984. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Applied Scholastics is a non-profit corporation founded in 1972 to promote the use of the study technology created by L. Ron Hubbard, a science fiction author and the founder of Scientology. ...

Activities

Scientology and Scientologists take part in a number of social reform and charitable activities:

  • Activities to reform the field of mental health (Citizens Commission on Human Rights);
  • A political action committee, (Citizens for Social Reform) to promote social programs with legislators at the US federal and state levels;
  • A campaign directed to implement the groups interpretation of the 1948 United Nations document "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (sometimes with particular emphasis on the religious freedom elements).[96]
  • Started in 1993, the Drug-Free Marshals is a youth drug-education and prevention program. They provide free literature and information about dangerous drugs. With their cowboy hats they “swear in” the youth as Drug-Free Marshals, pledging to remain drug-free and to encourage their peers to do the same. The church claims that 3.1 million people have been sworn in as Drug-Free Marshals.[97]
  • Another Scientology anti-drug campaign is the No to drugs - yes to life campaign. This campaign is geared toward educating the public at large whereas the Drug-Free Marshals campaign is geared towards educating the youth.[98]
  • Freedom Magazine is Scientology’s investigative news journal that is mailed to politicians and public figures. It addresses issues that concern the Church of Scientology.
  • The Scientology Volunteer Ministers is a league of Scientologists that dedicate their time to help in disaster relief efforts and other charitable causes. Over the weekend, Scientology churches set up tents in towns and cities in their area and Volunteer Ministers provide one-on-one attention to people who visit.

The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR; also sometimes known as the Citizens Committee on Human Rights) is an advocacy group established in 1969 by the Church of Scientology and Thomas Szasz. ... In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... Citizens for Social Reform (CSRPAC) is a political action committee founded in 2001 by Scientologists, directed to work with elected officials toward the goal of bringing about more humane and effective solutions to social ills like illiteracy, criminality, substance abuse and the general decay of moral character, mainly by promoting... Freedom Magazine is a magazine published by the Church of Scientology since 1968. ... –Jonnabuz (talk) 06:35, 12 May 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

Scientology splinter groups

Although "Scientology" is most often used as shorthand for the Church of Scientology, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the official Church. Some groups are breakaways from the original Church while others have started up independently. The Church takes an extremely hard line on any of these groups, labeling them "apostates" (or "squirrels" in Scientology jargon) and often subjecting them to considerable legal and social pressure. These groups avoid the name "Scientology" so as to keep from being sued, instead refer to themselves collectively as the Free Zone. Such groups include Ron's Org and the International Freezone Association among others. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Scientology and celebrities

See also: Scientology and celebrities and List of Scientologists
A Scientology Centre on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.

The Church of Scientology has consistently attracted artists and entertainers, particularly Hollywood celebrities. L. Ron Hubbard saw to the formation of a special Church of Scientology which would cater to artists, politicians, leaders of industry, sports figures and anyone with the power and vision "to create a better world".[99] There are eight of what are referred to as Celebrity Centers across the world, though Hollywood is the largest and most important. Recruitment and endorsements by Scientologist celebrities have always been very important to the Church of Scientology. ... A Scientologist is defined here as a follower of Scientology. ... Download high resolution version (531x800, 77 KB)One of several Scientology buildings in Los Angeles, California. ... Download high resolution version (531x800, 77 KB)One of several Scientology buildings in Los Angeles, California. ... Hollywood Boulevard as taken from the Kodak Theatre Hollywood Boulevard is an avenue in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, United States, beginning at Sunset Boulevard in the east and running northwest to Vermont Avenue, where it straightens out and runs due west to Laurel Canyon Boulevard. ... “Hollywood” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , State County Settled 1781 Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was an American pulp fiction writer,[2][3][4] creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Celebrity Centres are Church of Scientology centers that are open to the public but serve mostly artists and celebrities and other professionals, leaders and promising new-comers in the fields of the arts, sports, management and government. ...


Publicity has been generated by Scientologists in the entertainment industry. Among the most well-known of these figures are John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Catherine Bell, Beck, Jason Lee, Isaac Hayes, Tom Cruise, and Katie Holmes. Also James Packer, Australia's richest man, is a Scientologist.[100] John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer. ... Kirstie Louise Alley (born January 12, 1951 in Wichita, Kansas) is an American actress best known for her role in the TV show Cheers. ... For the Canadian politician, see Catherine J. Bell Catherine Lisa Bell (born August 14, 1968 in London, England) is a British-born Iranian-American actress best known as being David James Elliotts co-star as fiancee and best friend Lt. ... This article is about the musician. ... Jason Michael Lee (born April 25, 1970) is a Golden Globe Award-nominated American actor and professional skateboarder. ... For the American arctic explorer, see Isaac Israel Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes (born August 20, 1942, in Covington, Tennessee) is an American soul and funk singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, arranger, and actor best known as the voice of Chef on the Emmy-winning animated sitcom South Park. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... Kate Noelle Katie Holmes[1] (born December 18, 1978) is an American actress who first achieved fame for her role as Joey Potter on The WB television teen drama Dawsons Creek from 1998 to 2003. ... James Douglas Packer (born 8 September, 1967) is an Australian businessman and Australias richest man. ...


Former Scientologists say that celebrity practitioners get more attention and care than noncelebrity practitioners. For example, former Scientologist Maureen Bolstad has noted that a couple of dozen Scientologists including herself were put to work on a rainy night through dawn planting grass in order "to help Tom impress Nicole".[101][102]


Andre Tabayoyon, a former Scientologist and Sea Org staffer, testified in a 1994 affidavit that money from not-for-profit Scientology organizations and labor from those organizations (including the Rehabilitation Project Force) had gone to provide special facilities for Scientology celebrities, which were not available to other Scientologists."[citation needed] A Sea Org staffer … was taken along to do personal cooking for Tom Cruise and [David] Miscavige at the expense of Scientology not for profit religious organizations. This left only 3 cooks at [Gold Base] to cook for 800 people three times a day … apartment cottages were built for the use of John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Edgar Winter, Priscilla Presley and other Scientology celebrities who are carefully prevented from finding out the real truth about the Scientology organization … Miscavige decided to redo the meadow in beautiful flowers; Tens of thousands of dollars were spent on the project so that Cruise and [Nicole] Kidman could romp there. However, Miscavige inspected the project and didn't like it. So the whole meadow was plowed up, destroyed, replowed and sown with plain grass." [103] Andre Tabayoyon is an outspoken critic of the Church of Scientology. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Sea Organization or Sea Org is an association of Scientologists established in 1968 by L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology. ... The Rehabilitation Project Force, or RPF, is a system of work camps[1] set up by the Church of Scientology Sea Organization, intended to rehabilitate members who have not lived up to the Church expectations or have violated certain policies. ... David Miscavige (born April 30, 1960 in Philadelphia) is Chairman of the Board of Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that controls the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology, and is the ultimate ecclesiastical authority regarding the standard and pure application of L. Ron Hubbard’s religious technologies. ... , Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Gold Base is a 500 acre parcel and the headquarters of Golden Era Productions, the media division of the Church of Scientology, located at 19625 Highway 79, Gilman Hot Springs, California 92583, near Hemet. ... Nicole Mary Kidman AC (born June 20, 1967), is an Australian [1] actress. ...


Diana Canova, who experienced Scientology both before and during her period of TV stardom, expressed it in a September 1993 interview: "When I started, I wasn't in television yet. I was a nobody—I'd done some TV, but I was not one of the elite, not by a long shot—until I did Soap. Then it became…I mean, you really are treated like royalty."[104] Diana Canova (born Diana Rivero on June 1, 1953 in West Palm Beach, Florida) is an American actress. ... Soap was a successful American sitcom that ran on ABC from 1977 to 1981. ...


Controversy and criticism

Official German warning leaflets from the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior on (from left to right) Islamic extremism, Scientology, and organized crime.[105]

Of the many new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, the Church of Scientology has, from its inception, been one of the most controversial. The organization has come into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada[106] and Germany) numerous times over the years, though supporters note that many major world religions have found themselves in conflict with civil government in their early years. This article examines controversial issues involving Scientology and its affiliated organizations. ... Image File history File links Scientology_warning_leaflet. ... Image File history File links Scientology_warning_leaflet. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ...


Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members.[107][108] In some cases of US litigation against the Church, former Scientologists were paid as expert witnesses and have since stated that they submitted false and inflammatory declarations, intended to be carried in the media to incite prejudice against Scientology,[109] and deliberately harassed key Scientology executives, by knowingly advancing unfounded opinions, either to get a case dropped or to obtain a large settlement.[110]

Germany classes Scientology as a business, rather than a religious organization, and Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom have not recognized Scientology as a religion.[111] Scientology has also not been recognized as a religion in Israel or Mexico. A recent judicial investigation in Belgium is now in the process of prosecuting Scientology. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

The controversies involving the Church and its critics, some of them ongoing, include: The Church of Scientology has been involved in a number of court disputes throughout the world. ...

  • Scientology's disconnection policy, in which members are encouraged to cut off all contact with friends or family members considered "antagonistic."[112][113]
  • The death of Scientologist Lisa McPherson while in the care of the Church.
  • Criminal activities committed on behalf of the Church or directed by Church officials (Operation Snow White, Operation Freakout)
  • Fair Game policy that encouraged the abuse of critics.
  • Conflicting claims about L. Ron Hubbard's life, in particular accounts of Hubbard discussing his intent to start a religion for profit, and of his service in the military.[114]
  • Scientology's harassment and litigious actions against its critics and enemies.[114]
  • Attempts to legally force search engines such as Google and Yahoo to omit any webpages that are critical of Scientology from their search engines (and in Google's case, AdSense), or at least the first few search pages.[115]

Due to these allegations, a considerable amount of investigation has been aimed at the Church, by groups ranging from the media to governmental agencies.[107][116] Disconnection is a practice in Scientology, in which a Scientologist severs all ties between themselves and friends, colleagues, or family members who criticize Scientology practices. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Lisa McPherson (born Lisa Skonetski, February 10, 1959–December 5, 1995) was a Scientologist who died of a pulmonary embolism while under the care of the Flag Service Organization (FSO), a branch of the Church of Scientology. ... Operation Snow-White was the name given internally by the Church of Scientology to a program which included the largest incident of private domestic espionage in the history of the United States. ... Operation PC Freakout was the name given by the Church of Scientology to a covert plan undertaken by the Church in 1976, with the goal of harassing Paulette Cooper, author of a book critical of Scientology titled The Scandal of Scientology. The plan came to light when the FBI seized... Fair Game is a status assigned to those whom the Church of Scientology has officially declared to be Suppressive Persons or Suppressive Persons are those whose actions are deemed to suppress or damage Scientology or a Scientologist. ... AdSense is an ad serving program run by Google. ...


Although Scientologists are usually free to practice their beliefs, the organized church has often encountered opposition due to their strong-arm tactics, directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization. While a number of governments now view the Church as a religious organization entitled to the protections and tax relief that such status brings, others view it as a pseudoreligion or a cult.[117][118] Pseudoreligion (or pseudotheology) is a generally pejorative term applied to a non-mainstream belief system or philosophy which is functionally similar to religious practices, typically having a founder, principal text, liturgy and faith-based beliefs. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


One sociologist, Stephen A. Kent, [3][4]has expressed the following opinion: "I find it far more helpful to view it as a transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious."[119][120] A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ...


Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism.[121][122][123][124]


Auditing Confidentiality

The Church maintains that its auditing records are kept confidential, although in one instance (16 December 1969) a staff of the organization authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security."[125] Supporters of Scientology assert that no actual violation of the Auditors' Code has been documented[126] and such a violation is a high crime per Scientology justice codes.[127]. "The Court refers to GO 121669 for justification for abolishing the clergyman-penitent privilege. Yet nowhere does the program call for a) external dissemination of the preclear folder or b) use of information against anyone. To cause preclear folders or preclear folder information to be released from the care and control of authorized Church ministers is to cause the destruction of its parishioners' religious freedom and would be a severe violation of Church ecclesiastical policies." (Declaration of Reverend Ken Hoden)[128]


However, a California court ruling recorded that "The practice of culling supposedly confidential [counseling folders or files] to obtain information for purposes of intimidation and/or harassment is repugnant and outrageous.". The court found that former members of the church knew that their confidential data might be used by "the Church or its minions" for "intimidation or other physical or psychological abuse" and noted: "The record is replete with evidence of such abuse." [129]


Supporters of Scientology responded by stating: "Guardian's Office policy letter written by Mary Sue Hubbard which had allegedly authorized the practice of culling information from counseling folders. Any such directive is not part of the Scientology scriptures and was long ago canceled. the Guardian's Office was disbanded by current Church management when it was found to have veered wildly off Church policies as laid down by Mr. Hubbard."[130]


Scientology and other religions

Main article: Scientology and other religions

Scientology states that it is fully compatible with all existing major world religions and that it does not conflict with those religions or their religious practices. However, due to major differences in the beliefs and practices between Scientology and especially the major monotheistic religions a simultaneous membership in Scientology is seen as not compatible with the major world religions. In fact, Scientology only allows a passive formal membership in a second religion. Parishioners are not allowed to engage in other religious activities or ceremonies.[131] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ...


Scientology as a state-recognized religion

Main article: Scientology as a state-recognized religion

The Church pursues an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a bona fide religion and cites numerous scholarly sources supporting its position.[132] Different countries have taken markedly different approaches to Scientology. Scientology is considered a legitimate religion in the United States of America,[133] Taiwan,[134] Tanzania,[135] Zimbabwe,[135] South Africa,[136] Australia,[133] Sweden,[137] New Zealand,[133][138] and thus enjoys and regularly cites the constitutional protections afforded in these nations to religious practice. Some countries, mostly in Europe, have regarded Scientology as a potentially dangerous cult, or at least have not considered local branches of the Church of Scientology to meet the legal criteria for being considered religion-supporting organizations.[139] Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... The Church of Scientology pursues an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a bona fide religion and cites numerous scholarly sources supporting its position, many of which can be found on a website the Church of Scientology established for this purpose. ... // Publicity according to etymonline. ... Good faith, or in Latin bona fides, is the mental and moral state of honesty, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion, or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct, even if the conviction is objectively unfounded. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ... Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted. ...


Although the Church's religious status is often controversial, the Church of Scientology itself, on the other hand, holds that many of these issues were laid to rest by the recognition in 1993 by the United States IRS of the mother church as being "operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes" after their review of "voluminous information provided by the Church regarding its financial and other operations." [140][141]


Scientology as a cult

In some instances, former members have claimed the Church used information obtained in auditing sessions against them.[142][143][144]However, no such claim has to date been legally confirmed against Scientology based solely upon use or revelation of auditing records.


The Anderson Report, an official inquiry conducted for the state of Victoria, Australia, found that the auditing process involved a form of "authoritative" or "command" hypnosis, in which the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient. "It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetics techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous. … the scientific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highest repute … which was virtually unchallenged—leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that there is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques of scientology. Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names."[145] Hubbard was an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman (Hubbard's literary agent) and A. E. van Vogt (an important early supporter of Dianetics) witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills.[146] (See Scientology and hypnosis). Licensed psychotherapists have alleged that the Church's auditing sessions amount to mental health treatment without a license [citation needed], but the Church disputes these allegations, and claims to have established in courts of law that its practice leads to spiritual relief. So, according to the Church, the psychotherapist treats mental health and the Church treats the spiritual being. Using the synonym of alternative religions, Barrett (1998:237) and Hunt (2003:195) place Scientology in the sociological grouping of personal development movements together with the Neurolinguistic Programming, Emin, and Insight. In 1959, L. Ron Hubbard set up Scientologys headquarters at Saint Hill, England, a few miles from East Grinstead. ... Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... Professor Charcot was well-known for showing, during his lessons at the Salpêtrière hospital, hysterical woman patients – here, his favorite patient, Blanche (Marie) Wittman, supported by Joseph BabiÅ„ski. ... Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916 in Los Angeles, California) is a legendary science fiction fan and collector of science fiction-related memorabilia. ... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Personal development (also known as self-development, self-improvement or personal growth) comprises the development of the self. ... Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a field of human endeavor concerned with empirically studying and modeling human performance and excellence, with the goal of creating transferable skill sets. ... The Emin is a society that does research into esoteric/occult through human being development. ... Look up Insight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In France, the Church of Scientology was categorized as a sect (or cult) in the 2468 report of the Assemblée Nationale (the legislative body), in 1995. A more recent government report in 2000 categorized the church as an "absolute sect" and recommended that all its activities be prohibited.[147] The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


The federal government of Germany as well as its states, have to a greater or lesser degree and for varying periods placed Scientology and Scientologists under surveillance by the Verfassungsschutz intelligence agencies since 1997, based on anti-democratic tendencies.[148] No criminal or civil charges have been brought as a result of this surveillance. On Federal level Scientology lost a complaint against continued surveillance by the Federal Verfassungsschutz because the court held the opinion that there are indicators that Scientology is pursuing anticonstitutional activities. As of April 2007 the case was pending in appeal.[149][150] In Berlin, the court prohibited the use of paid undercover agents.[151] In Saarland, surveillance was stopped by the court as inappropriate because there is no local branch of Scientology and few members.[152] Verfassungsschutz (Constitution Protection) is the short name for any of Germanys federal and state-based secret services for the interior. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km...


Allegations of Scientology's cult status may be attributed to its unconventional creation by a single authoritative and charismatic leader.[153]


On May 12, 2007 Journalist John Sweeney of BBC Panorama made highly critical comments regarding Scientology and its teachings, and further reported that since beginning an extensive investigation he had been harassed, surveilled, and investigated by strangers. Sweeney wrote, "I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a "bigot" by star Scientologists, brain-washed … and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers. Back in Britain strangers have called on my neighbors, my mother-in-law's house and someone spied on my wedding and fled the moment he was challenged." In another passage, "He [Scientology representative Tommy Davis] harangued me for talking to … heretics. I told him that Scientology had been spying on the BBC and that was creepy." And in another passage, "In LA, the moment our hire car left the airport we realized we were being followed by two cars. In our hotel a weird stranger spent every breakfast listening to us."[154][155] John Sweeney is an award-winning journalist and author, currently working as an investigative journalist for the BBCs Panorama series. ... Panorama is a long-running current affairs documentary series on BBC television, launched on 11 November 1953 and focusing on investigative journalism. ...


The Church of Scientology called John Sweeney's documentary (first aired May 14, 2007) into question and produced its own documentary in which it claimed to have documented 154 violations in the BBC's and OfCom's guidelines.[156]
The Church documentary also claimed that the BBC had organized a demonstration outside a Church building in London in order to film it, following which e-mailed anonymous death threats had been made against the Church. The BBC described these allegations as "clearly laughable and utter nonsense" whilst representatives of the picket group stated that the BBC had simply turned up to a scheduled picket date that was part of an ongoing protest since 1996.[157] Sandy Smith, the BBC program's producer, commented that the Church of Scientology has "no way of dealing with any kind of criticism at all."[158]


Scientology as a commercial venture

The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars, as well as a large amount of other funds from the practice of auditing.[114] Hubbard was accused in his lifetime of adopting a religious façade for Scientology to allow the organization to maintain tax-exempt status and to avoid prosecution for false medical claims.[159] There have been numerous accounts from Hubbard's fellow science-fiction authors and researchers, notably Harlan Ellison, Neison Himmel, Sam Merwin, Sam Moskowitz, Theodore Sturgeon, Lloyd Arthur Eshbach, and Lyle Stuart,[146] of Hubbard stating on various occasions that the way to get rich was to start a religion.[160] This is referenced, among other places, in a May 1980 Reader's Digest article, which quotes Hubbard, "If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion."[161] Scientology pays members commissions on new recruits they bring in, so Scientology members routinely try to sell Scientology to others. ... A tax exemption is an exemption to the tax law of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization are instead foregone. ... Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, teleplays, essays, and criticism. ... Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ... Theodore Sturgeon (February 26, 1918 Staten Island, New York – May 8, 1985) was an American science fiction author. ... Lloyd Arthur Eshbach (Palm, Pennsylvania June 20, 1910 - Myerstown, Pennsylvania October 29, 2003) was an American science fiction author and publisher. ... Lyle Stuart is an American independent publisher of controversial books. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Church says that "One individual once claimed L. Ron Hubbard made such a comment during a lecture in 1948. The only two people who could be found who attended that very lecture in 1948 denied that Mr. Hubbard ever made this statement" and that therefore it is an "unfounded rumor." The Church's statement does not address any of the other individuals who have stated that they personally heard Hubbard make such a statement, some saying that he said it on multiple occasions. The Church also suggests that the origin of the "rumor" was a quote by George Orwell which had been "misattributed" to Hubbard. However, Robert Vaughn Young, who left the Church in 1989 after twenty years, said that he had discovered the Orwell quote, and suggested that reports of Hubbard making such a statement could be explained as a misattribution of Orwell, despite having encountered three of Hubbard's associates from his science fiction days who remembered Hubbard making statements of that sort in person.[107] Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Robert Vaughn Young (also commonly known by his initials, RVY) was the public relations officer for the Church of Scientology for many years. ...


Scientology pays members commissions on new recruits they bring in, encouraging Scientology members to "sell" Scientology to others.[114] In addition, Scientology franchises, or missions, pay the church roughly 10% of their gross income.[162] On that basis, it is often likened to a Pyramid selling scheme.[163] Charges for auditing and other Church-related courses run to tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars.[164][165] Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, without any affiliation or connection to the Church of Scientology. Scientology has sued a number of individuals who attempted to set up their own "auditing" practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down. A pyramid scheme is a business model that involves the exchange of money primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, usually without any product or service being delivered. ...


In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around 1996 the German state Baden-Württemberg conducted a thorough investigation regarding the group's activities within Germany.[166] The results of this investigation indicated that, at the time of publication, Scientology's main sources of revenue ("Haupteinnahmequellen der SO") were from course offerings and sales of their various publications. Course offerings—e.g. "The Ups and Downs of Life", "Hubbard's Key to Life", "Intensive Auditing", etc.—ranged from (German Marks) DM 182.50 to about DM 30,000—the equivalent today of approximately $119 to $19,560 US dollars. Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions. Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density...


In June of 2006, it was announced at the Book Expo America a Dianetics Racing Team joined NASCAR. The Number 27 Ford Taurus driven by Kenton Gray displays a large Dianetics logo.[167][168] This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... Kenton Gray is a Nascar racer and the driver of #27. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ...


Scientology and psychiatry

Main articles: CCHR, Scientology and psychiatry, and Psychiatry: An Industry of Death
Scientologists regularly hold anti-psychiatry demonstrations they call "Psychbusts"

The Church of Scientology is one of a number of groups involved in the anti-psychiatry movement, and one of the few organizations that publicly oppose the study and application of psychology in addition to psychiatry. The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Scientology is publicly, and often vehemently, opposed to psychiatry and psychology and offers itself as an alternative to psychiatry, which Scientologists believe to be a barbaric and corrupt profession. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x693, 178 KB)Church of Scientology anti-psychiatry demonstration in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 2005 By Legolam File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x693, 178 KB)Church of Scientology anti-psychiatry demonstration in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 2005 By Legolam File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... Psychology (from Greek: Literally knowledge of the soul (mind)) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


The Church says that psychiatry was responsible for World War I,[169] the rise of Hitler and Stalin,[170] the decline in education standards in the United States,[171] the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo,[172] and the September 11 attacks.[173] The Church's point of view on these issues is documented mainly by Church groups and magazines such as those published by the Citizens Commission on Human Rights and Freedom Magazine. Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR; also sometimes known as the Citizens Committee on Human Rights) is an advocacy group established in 1969 by the Church of Scientology and Thomas Szasz. ...


Scientology versus the Internet

In the 1990s Scientology representatives began extensive operations to deal with growing allegations against Scientology on the Internet. The organization states that it is taking actions to prevent distribution of copyrighted Scientology documents and publications online by people whom it has called "copyright terrorists."[174] Critics say that the organisation's true motive is to attempt to suppress the free speech of its critics. Scientology versus the Internet is a colloquial term for a long-running online dispute between the Church of Scientology and a number of the Churchs online critics. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ...


In January 1995, Church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group on the grounds that: Helena Kobrin is an American Scientologist and lawyer, working for the Religious Technology Center, which controls the trademarks of Scientology and the copyright of the works of L. Ron Hubbard. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... The newsgroup alt. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...

(1) It was started with a forged message; (2) not discussed on alt.config; (3) it has the name "scientology" in its title which is a trademark and is misleading, as a.r.s. is mainly used for flamers to attack the Scientology religion; (4) it has been and continues to be heavily abused with copyright and trade secret violations and serves no purpose other than condoning these illegal practices.[175]

In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when applied to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates. alt. ... A rmgroup message is a form of control message which is issued to remove a Usenet newsgroup. ... A newgroup message is a form of control message which is issued to create a new Usenet newsgroup. ...


The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and pressed for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. The even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act was also strongly promoted by the Church and some of its provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended copyright terms in the United States by 20 years. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which implements two 1996 WIPO treaties. ... The Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act (OCILLA), a portion of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act known as DMCA 512 or the DMCA takedown provisions, is a 1998 United States federal law that provided a safe harbor to online service providers (OSPs, including internet service providers) that promptly take down... An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...


Beginning in the middle of 1996 and for several years after, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed "sporgery" by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Although the Church neither confirmed nor denied its involvement with the spam, some investigators said that some spam had been traced to Church members. Former Scientologist Tory Christman, after she left the Church, confessed to having been part of the sporgery project, taking money supplied by the Office of Special Affairs to open up Internet accounts at various ISPs under false names, accounts from which she later saw forged and garbled communications going out.[176] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tory Christman (former married name Tory Bezazian; online name Magoo) born 1947, is a former member of the Church of Scientology who left the organization in 2000, after being a member for about three decades. ... The Office of Special Affairs (OSA) is a department of the Church of Scientology responsible for directing legal affairs, publicizing the Churchs social betterment works, and oversee[ing its] social reform programs. Observers outside the Church have characterized the department as an intelligence agency, comparing it variously to the...


Scientific criticism of Scientology's beliefs

A 1971 ruling of the United States District Court, District of Columbia (333 F. Supp. 357), specifically stated, "the E-meter has no proven usefulness in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease, nor is it medically or scientifically capable of improving any bodily function."[177] Scientology now publishes the following disclaimer in its books and publications: "The e-meter is an electronic instrument that measures mental state and change of state in individuals and assists the precision and speed of auditing. The E-Meter is not intended or effective for any diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease"[178] and that it is used specifically for spiritual purposes. Mark Super VII Quantum E-meter An E-meter is an electronic device manufactured by the Church of Scientology at their Gold Base production facility. ...


Professor Richard Dawkins, a prominent critic of religious assertions, has described Scientology as "gullibiligy" and its claims as "purely made-up."[179] Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ...


See also

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was an American pulp fiction writer,[2][3][4] creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of Scientology belief system. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... This is an incomplete bibliography of Scientology and Scientology-related books produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ... Scientology and Me is the name of a controversial television documentary conducted by reporter John Sweeney, which aired on the BBC programme, Panorama on 14 May 2007. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... This is an incomplete list of the symbols of Scientology, the Church of Scientology, and related organizations. ... This is an incomplete filmography of Scientology and Scientology-related films, videos, and audiovisual materials produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The following lists specific Scientology references in popular culture. ... Scientology has been in Australia since the mid 1950s, and currently has about 2000 members (according to the latest ABS census). ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b History of Scientology's expansion. Church of Scientology. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  2. ^ 'Church of American Science' (incorporation papers); 'Church of Scientology' (incorporation papers); 'Church of Spiritual Engineering,' (incorporation papers); 18 December 1953
  3. ^ Web Site: Bona Fide Scientology / Organizations of the Scientology Religion
  4. ^ HCOB 18 April 67 (Hubbard Communications Office Bulletin (HCOB) of 21 June 1960 Revised) "Religious Philosophy and Religious Practice"
  5. ^ Church Scriptures Get High-Tech Protection
  6. ^ LRH early studies
  7. ^ a b c [Scientology classic lecture: The Story of Dianetics and Scientology by LRH]
  8. ^ Pendle, George (2005). Strange Angel: The Otherworldly Life of Rocket Scientist John Whiteside Parsons. Harcourt, pg.253. ISBN 978-0-15-100997-8. 
  9. ^ Philadelphia Doctorate Lectures, Lecture #40 titled "Games/Goals", 12 December 1952: About "Limitations on self and others": "Old Aleister Crowley had come interesting things to say about this. He wrote a Book of the Law. He was a mad old boy! I mean, he … You'd be surprised though that Crowley, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Aristotle—all the boys practically along the line—they all talked about the same thing. And actually you can find all these ideas we're talking about someplace in the writings of practically any philosopher who ever thought things over. He couldn't fail to fall headlong across the most salient facts in the case. He never organized them or was able to evaluate or use them. But he had them."
  10. ^ Lecture #45 titled "Development of Scientology: Characteristics of a Living Science", 13 December 1952: About "Life Science":"I was sitting there tonight trying to pretend that this had been a very brace voyage of adventure because it was—been to dangerous and there's so many men fall on their faces doing this. As a matter of fact, it has not been a very dangerous voyage. But the point is that an awful lot of men have fallen on their faces in the last century trying to hit this track. Amongst them were Nietzsche; amongst them were Aleister Crowley. They were all trying to hit this track and they were overshooting, undershooting, round and round. Because they were looking at it as it, and trying to analyze it as itself, and trying to apply to it its own peculiarities of logic and formulation and it had no such evaluation.
  11. ^ L. Ron Hubbard, "Conditions of Space/Time/Energy" Philadelphia Doctorate Course cassette tape #18 5212C05
  12. ^ "Possible origins for Dianetics and Scientology"
  13. ^ [Lecture: Scientology: Its General Background part 1, track 7 by L. Ron Hubbard "For to say… that a Westerner such as my self should suddenly develop all you need to know… is an incredible and an unbelievable and an untrue statement. Had the information of the Veda not been available to me"]
  14. ^ [Lecture: Scientology: It's General Background part 1, track 7 by L Ron Hubbard]
  15. ^ [Lecture: Scientology: It's General Background part 1, 2 and 3 by L Ron Hubbard ]
  16. ^ Church of Scientology Introduction to Scientology (website accessed 4/12/06)
  17. ^ Scientology: Milestone One an audio lecture in Wichita, Kansas on 3 March 1952 with transcript, 1952 Published by Golden Era Productions, Hollywood CA
  18. ^ HCOB 18 April 67 (HCOB of 21 June 1960 Revised) “Religious Philosophy and Religious Practice”
  19. ^ LRH ED 4 Int, 22 February 69 “Attachment (letter to doctor)”
  20. ^ Allen Upward: The New Word, pp 139, 149 & 156
  21. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group, 128. ISBN 0-8184-0499-X. 
  22. ^ Dr. A. Nordenholz. Welcome to the Scientologie Home Page
  23. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron Scientology Fundamentals 1956 (website accessed 04/13/06)
  24. ^ Bridge Publications: The Basics
  25. ^ ReligiousTolerance.org: About Scientology
  26. ^ Bridge Publications: The Basics: Introduction
  27. ^ Introduction to Scientology. Church of Scientology. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  28. ^ web site: What is Scientology: foreword
  29. ^ Web site: Bonafide Scientology - Doctrine of the Scientology Religion
  30. ^ Web Site: What is Scientology - SCIENTOLOGY: ITS BACKGROUND AND ORIGINS
  31. ^ Web Site: Bona Fide Scientology - Introduction to the Scientology Religion pg 2
  32. ^ Web Site: Bona Fide Scientology - doctrine of the Scientology Religion pg 2
  33. ^ a b [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/index.html Web Site: Scientology.org - Introduction to Scientology
  34. ^ Web Site: What is Scientology - THE PRACTICE OF SCIENTOLOGY
  35. ^ "psychiatrists and psychologists … can cure nothing and cannot change anyone for better or worse and as a result have to kill 'difficult patients.' … Anyone who disagrees with their planned totalitarian rule is pronounced 'insane.' He is seized quietly, conveyed to a prison, tortured and usually permanently injured or killed." Hubbard, L. Ron (1969) How To Win An Argument. Retrieved May 9, 2006.
  36. ^ The Parts of Man
  37. ^ a b [Professional Auditor's Bulletin 85, 22 May 1956, The Parts of Man]
  38. ^ Scientology Axioms 1 to 10
  39. ^ The Thetan
  40. ^ The Parts of Man
  41. ^ How the mind works.
  42. ^ The Parts of the mind
  43. ^ GLOSSARY OF SCIENTOLOGY & DIANETICS TERMS
  44. ^ The Reactive Mind
  45. ^ What is Dianetics?. Church of Scientology International. Retrieved on 2006-05-03.
  46. ^ a b Bonafine Scientology Website / SCIENTOLOGY SYMBOL
  47. ^ 20th ACC, 7 August 1958, Lecture #19 "The most basic rock of all"
  48. ^ Google Maps Trementina Base in Google Maps (website accessed 04/19/06)
  49. ^ Leiby, Richard Scientology church’s mark inscribed in N.M. desert scrub, published November 29, 2005 in the Free New Mexican (website accessed 04/15/06)
  50. ^ a b c d Reitman, Janet. "Inside Scientology: Unlocking the complex code of America's most mysterious religion", Rolling Stone, 2006-02-23, p. 4. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. 
  51. ^ Scientology Large Classification Gradation and Awareness Chart (image). Church of Scientology. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  52. ^ OT Levels (HTML). Xenu.net. Operation Clambake. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  53. ^ Description of purpose of the freewinds
  54. ^ a b c Ortega, Tony (1999-12-23). Double Crossed. Phoenix New Times. Village Voice Media. Retrieved on 2007-09-16.
  55. ^ Hines, Matt (2003-09-08). Scientology loss keeps hyperlinks legal. CNET. Retrieved on 2007-09-16.
  56. ^ Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (24 June 1990). "The Scientology Story". Los Angeles Times: page A36:1. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.  Additional convenience link is here.
  57. ^ US Patent and Trademark Office Device for Measuring and Indicating Changes in the Resistance of a Human Body Inventor: Lafayette R. Hubbard issued 6 December 1966
  58. ^ a b The Auditors' Code. What is Scientology® Auditing?. Church of Scientology International. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  59. ^ Scientology Auditing and Earlier Practices
  60. ^ Scientology "Success Stories"
  61. ^ . "Agreement Regarding Confidential Religious Files". Church of Scientology / Flag Service Organization. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  62. ^ Validity magazine (Church of Scientology), issue 362.
  63. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron, Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary, 1st edition.
  64. ^ Church of Scientology (2006). Scientology Newsroom. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  65. ^ L. Ron Hubbard in Dianetics, quoted in SilentBirth.org. Accessed 2007-06-15.
  66. ^ University of Miami: statement on Hubbard's infant diet
  67. ^ Magazine "The Auditor", No. 6, 1965, article "Healthy Babies"
  68. ^ HCO Bulletin by L. Ron Hubbard, "Barley Formula For Babies," 28 April 1991R Issue I
  69. ^ a b Hubbard, L. Ron Processing a New Mother, HCO Bulletin 20 December 1958
  70. ^ The Auditor Nr. 6, 1965, "Healthy Babies". Quote: "Roman troops marched on barley. Barley is the highest protein content cereal."
  71. ^ in 'LRH Book Compilations staff of the Church of Scientology International,' based on the works of L. Ron Hubbard: The Scientology Handbook, 1994, Los Angeles, California: Bridge Publications. ISBN 0-88404-899-3. 
  72. ^ Pub Med
  73. ^ http://theology.scientology.org/eng/pdf/scientology-04-religious-practice.pdf
  74. ^ http://theology.scientology.org/eng/pdf/scientology-15-true-religion.pdf
  75. ^ http://www.scientology.org/wis/wiseng/41/41-books.htm
  76. ^ http://theology.scientology.org/eng/pdf/scientology-04-religious-practice.pdf
  77. ^ Scientology Press Office 10 September 2006
  78. ^ Millions of Members?
  79. ^ a b Breakdown of Worldwide Religions By Adherents
  80. ^ Kosmin, Barry A. et al American Religious Identification Survey.
  81. ^ Jarvik, Elaine (2004-09-18). Scientology: Church now claims more than 8 million members. Deseret News. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. “If the church indeed had 4 million members in the United States, he says, "they would be like the Lutherans and would show up on a national survey" such as the Harris poll.”
  82. ^ Religious Technology Center Web Site
  83. ^ What is Scientology: Religious Technology Center
  84. ^ The Man Behind Scientology by THOMAS C. TOBIN, St. Petersburg Times, October 25, 1998
  85. ^ Official Scientology web site: The Church of Scientology International
  86. ^ Official Scientology Website: CHURCHES, MISSIONS AND GROUPS
  87. ^ http://www.churchofscientology.com/ List of Scientology organizations world wide]
  88. ^ SCIENTOLOGY MISSIONS
  89. ^ List of all Scientology Missions world wide
  90. ^ SCIENTOLOGY: ADVANCED ORGANIZATIONS
  91. ^ Scientology's town, St Petersburg Times, July 18, 2004
  92. ^ Church of Scientology Flag Ship Service Organization
  93. ^ Able Web Site
  94. ^ The Origins of the Narconon® Program
  95. ^ Description of the Narconon program
  96. ^ Youth for Human Rights
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  98. ^ Foundation for a Drug-Free World. Church of Scientology. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  99. ^ CC International in Hollywood
  100. ^ http://www.fatherbob.com.au/father_bob/2006/07/philanthropy.html
  101. ^ "We were told that we needed to plant a field and that it was to help Tom impress Nicole … but for some mysterious reason it wasn't considered acceptable by Mr. Miscavige. So the project was rejected and they redid it."Hoffman, Claire, Christensen, Kim. "Tom Cruise and Scientology", Los Angeles Times, 2005-12-18. Retrieved on 2006-11-14. 
  102. ^ Affidavit of Andre Tabayoyon, 5 March 1994, in Church of Scientology International vs. Steven Fishman and Uwe Geertz. contradicted in sworn declaration of staffer James Hall with evidence photos, 11 April 1994
  103. ^ Affidavit of Andre Tabayoyon, 5 March 1994, in Church of Scientology International vs. Steven Fishman and Uwe Geertz. contradicted in sworn declaration of staffer James Hall with evidence photos, 11 April 1994
  104. ^ John H. Richardson. Catcha Rising Star. Premiere Magazine/September 1993.
  105. ^ US State department Report 2006: "Several states published pamphlets about Scientology (and other religious groups) that detailed the Church's ideology and practices. States defended the practice by noting their responsibility to respond to citizens' requests for information about Scientology as well as other subjects. While many of the pamphlets were factual and relatively unbiased, some warned of alleged dangers posed by Scientology to the political order, to the free market economic system, and to the mental and financial well being of individuals. Beyond the Government's actions, the Catholic Church and, especially, the Evangelical Church have been public opponents of Scientology. Evangelical "Commissioners for Religious and Ideological Issues" have been particularly active in this regard."
  106. ^ Morgan, Lucy. "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology", St. Petersburg Times, 1999-03-29. Retrieved on 2007-09-07. “Canada's highest court in 1997 upheld the criminal conviction of the Church of Scientology of Toronto and one of its officers for a breach of trust stemming from covert operations in Canadian government offices during the 1970s and 1980s.” 
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  108. ^ Goodin, Dan (1999-06-03). Scientology subpoenas Worldnet. CNET News.com. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
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  110. ^ Stacy Brooks affidavit recanting earlier affidavits and describing legal strategy she helped formulate to put pressure on the Church of Scientology International with false claims
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  112. ^ Scientology web site: What is "disconnection"?
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  114. ^ a b c d Behar, Richard SCIENTOLOGY: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, Ruined lives. Lost fortunes. Federal crimes. Scientology poses as a religion but really is a ruthless global scam—and aiming for the mainstream Time Magazine, May 6, 1991 courtesy link, (accessed 04/20/06)
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  116. ^ Goodin, Dan (1999-06-03). Scientology subpoenas Worldnet. CNET News.com. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  117. ^ Scientology is a Bona Fide Religion Serving Exclusively Religious and Charitable Purposes
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  119. ^ Kent, Stephen (July 1999). "Scientology—Is this a Religion?". Marburg Journal of Religion. Retrieved on 2006-08-26. Sociologist Kent, while acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, argues that "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious." (Italics in original.)
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  121. ^ Gianni, Luke. "Scientology does detox—David E. Root, M.D", local stories > 15 minutes, Sacramento News & Review, 2007-02-22. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. 
  122. ^ Politicians Award Scientology
  123. ^ Monserrate Defends Detox Program
  124. ^ Program for prisoners draws fire over Scientology
  125. ^ Memorandum of Intended Decision in Church of Scientology of California vs. Gerald ArmstrongPDF (3.05 MiB) format)
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  127. ^ Book: Introduction to Scientology Ethics
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  150. ^ Upper administrative court of Saarland, finding on 29. March 2001, file number: 6 K 149/00 (overruled in revision by same court in 2005)
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  152. ^ Upper administrative court of Saarland, finding on 27. April 2005, file number: 2 R 14/03
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  155. ^ BBC Panorma
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  162. ^ Sappell, Joel, Welkos, Robert W.. "The Man In Control", Los Angeles Times, 1990-06-24, p. A41:4. Retrieved on 2006-06-06. 
  163. ^ West, L. J., M.D. (July 1990). Psychiatry and Scientology. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  164. ^ Cooper, Paulette Scandal of Scientology, Chapter 19, Tower Publications, NYC, 1971
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  166. ^ Zur Frage der Beobachtung der Scientology-Organisation durch die Verfassungsschutzbehörden (in German) (PDF format)
  167. ^ Jeff Elder (June 7, 2006). "Scientology is newest NASCAR sponsor". The Charlotte Observer. 
  168. ^ DIANETICS RACING TEAM TO JOIN NASCAR CIRCUIT, Bridge Publications, 2006
  169. ^ Criminals & psychiatry. July 29, 1980.
  170. ^ Book review of Psychiatrists: The Men Behind Hitler
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  175. ^ cmsg rmgroup alt.religion.scientology
  176. ^ "The Secret Project to Spam the Internet"
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  178. ^ Scientology's official description of the E-meter
  179. ^ "The gullible age," The Times, 5 August 2007

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General references

  • Scientology: Cult of Greed and power—Time Magazine article on Scientology
  • Spirituality through therapy: Scientology, teaching that divinity lies within, appeals to our pop gods
  • Frenschkowski, Marco (1999). "L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature".
  • Kent, Stephen A. (1996). "Scientology's Relationship With Eastern Religious Traditions".
  • Barrett 1998. Sects, `Cults' & Alternative Religions: A World Survey and Sourcebook (Paperback) Sterling Pub Co Inc; New Ed edition. ISBN-13: 978-0713727562
  • Hunt, Stephen J. (2003) Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction Ashgate Publishing (ISBN 0-7546-3410-8

External links

Find more information on Scientology by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Scientology web links

  • Church of Scientology official home page
  • Church of Scientology International - News Site
  • Official Church site about L. Ron Hubbard
  • Scientology Handbook (Training Manual for Scientology Volunteer Ministers)
  • What is Scientology? A description of Scientology and its activities and answers to FAQs (by the Church of Scientology)
  • Theology & Practice of Scientology
  • Religious scholars "What Religious Scholars Say About Scientology"
  • Scientology Volunteer Ministers

Critical links

  • "Operation Clambake - The Inner Secrets Of Scientology"
  • "Secrets of Scientology"
  • "Rick A. Ross Institute"
  • Scientology at "The Rotten Library"
  • Through the Door, survey interviews of over 200 former Scientologists
  • Scientology—is this a Religion? Stephen A Kent, 1979
  • "Scientology Lies.com"
  • Lermanet.com
  • XENU TV
  • Site on Scientology and L. Ron Hubbard

Other links

  • International Freezone Association
  • Beliefnet site on scientology.
  • Links about Scientology on dmoz Open Directory Project
  • "Inside Scientology", Rolling Stone; 02/23/06 article on Scientology
  • Life Positive Scientology: The doctrine of clarity
  • Scientology: A Religion in South Africa by David Chidester, University of Cape Town, South Africa
  • Center for Studies in New Religions

  Results from FactBites:
 
God, as viewed by Christianity and other monotheistic religons (193 words)
The Scientology religion is an expanding new religion, founded by American author and humanitarian L. Ron Hubbard.
The word Scientology means the “study of knowledge or truth” and addresses the rehabilitation and salvation of the human spirit.
Scientology, Dianetics and The Bridge are trademarks and service marks owned by Religious Technology Center.
Church of Scientology - The Foundation for Religious Freedom (1119 words)
Church of Scientology believes "that Man is basically good, that he is seeking to survive, [and] that his survival depends on himself and upon his fellows and his attainment of brotherhood with the universe" (from Church of Scientology's statement of beliefs).
Scientology auditing (counseling of one individual by another) consists of an "auditor" guiding someone through various mental processes to first free the individual of the effects of the "reactive mind," and then to fully realize the spiritual nature of the person.
Scientology "training" consists of many levels of courses about (1) improving the daily life of individuals by giving them various tools (i.e., concerning communication), and (2) learning the techniques of auditing so that one can counsel others.
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