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Encyclopedia > Scientist

A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. In a more restricted sense, scientist refers to individuals who use the scientific method.[1] The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science.[2] This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Look up practice, practise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...

Contents

Etymology

Historically, scientists were termed "natural philosophers" or "men of science";[3][4][5][6] they were men of knowledge. Science and philosophy were roughly synonymous. William Whewell coined the term scientist in 1833 to describe an expert in the study of nature, but this term did not gain wide acceptance until the turn of the 19th century.[7][8] By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ... Look up expert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Description

Science and technology have continually modified human existence. As a profession, the scientist of today is widely recognised. Scientists include theoreticians who mainly develop new models to explain existing data, and experimentalists who mainly test models by making measurements — though in practice the division between these activities is not clear-cut, and many scientists perform both tasks. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article is about modern humans. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


Mathematics is often grouped with the sciences. Like other scientists, mathematicians start with hunches (hypotheses) and then conduct symbolic or computational experiments to test them. Some of the greatest physicists have also been creative mathematicians. There is a continuum from the most theoretical to the most empirical scientists with no distinct boundaries. By personality, interests, training and professional activity, there is little difference between applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Look up computation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ...


Scientists can be motivated in several ways. Many have a desire to understand why the world is as we see it and how it came to be. They exhibit a strong curiosity about reality. Other motivations are recognition by their peers and prestige, or the desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of peoples health, the nations, the world, nature or industries. Only few scientists count generating personal wealth as an important driving force behind their science.[citation needed] For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ...


Scientists versus Engineers

Engineers and scientists are often confused in the minds of the general public, with the former being closer to applied science. While scientists explore nature in order to discover general principles, engineers apply established principles drawn from mathematics and science in order to develop economical solutions to technical problems.[9][10] In short, scientists study things whereas engineers build things. However, there are plenty of instances where significant accomplishments are made in both fields by the same individual. Scientists often perform engineering tasks in designing experimental equipment and building prototypes, and some engineers do first-rate scientific research. Mechanical, electrical, chemical and aerospace engineers are often at the forefront of scientific investigation of new phenomena and materials. Peter Debye received a degree in electrical engineering and a doctorate in physics before eventually winning a Nobel Prize in chemistry. Similarly, Paul Dirac, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, began his academic career as an electrical engineer before proceeding to mathematics and later theoretical physics. Claude Shannon, a theoretical engineer, founded modern information theory. Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch physical chemist. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... This box:      Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger, founders of Quantum Mechanics. ... An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory,[1] and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ...


Historical Scientists

See also: Timeline of the history of scientific method
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) has been described as the "first scientist" for his development of the scientific method.
The physicist Albert Einstein is one of the most well known scientists of the 20th century.
The physicist Albert Einstein is one of the most well known scientists of the 20th century.
Louis Pasteur's portrait in his later years.
Louis Pasteur's portrait in his later years.

An early scientific method which emphasized experimentation was first used by the Iraqi Muslim Arab physicist and polymath Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), circa 1021 AD, in his Book of Optics, and he has been described as the "first scientist" for this reason.[11][unreliable source?] This timeline of the history of scientific method shows the cultural inventions that have contributed to the development of the the scientific method. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x969, 340 KB) Photograph of Albert Einstein, published in the USA in 1921. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x969, 340 KB) Photograph of Albert Einstein, published in the USA in 1921. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (814x1126, 97 KB) first copy source:w:sv:Bild:Louis Pasteur, foto av Félix Nadar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (814x1126, 97 KB) first copy source:w:sv:Bild:Louis Pasteur, foto av Félix Nadar. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen...


There are notable examples of people who have moved back and forth among disciplines. Such polymaths were common during the Islamic Golden Age and European Renaissance. Many of these early polymath scientists were also religious priests and theologians: for example, the polymath scientists Alhazen and al-Biruni were mutakallimiin; the polymath physician Avicenna was a hafiz; the polymath physician Ibn al-Nafis was a hafiz, muhaddith and ulema; the astronomer and physician Nicolaus Copernicus was a priest; and Gregor Mendel, whose discoveries on inheritance founded modern genetics and provides a mechanism to explain Charles Darwin's observations about evolution, was also a priest. Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Descartes was not only a pioneer of analytic geometry but formulated a theory of mechanics and advanced ideas about the origins of animal movement and perception. Vision interested the physicists Young and Helmholtz, who also studied optics, hearing and music. Newton extended Descartes' mathematics by inventing calculus (contemporaneously with Leibniz). He provided a comprehensive formulation of classical mechanics and investigated light and optics. Fourier founded a new branch of mathematics — infinite, periodic series — studied heat flow and infrared radiation, and discovered the greenhouse effect. Von Neumann, Turing, Khinchin, Markov and Wiener, all mathematicians, made major contributions to science and probability theory, including the ideas behind computers, and some of the foundations of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Many mathematically inclined scientists, including Galileo, were also musicians. Descartes redirects here. ... Analytic geometry, also called coordinate geometry and earlier referred to as Cartesian geometry or analytical geometry, is the study of geometry using the principles of algebra. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (March 21, 1768 - May 16, 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist who is best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their application to problems of heat flow. ... The Fourier series is a mathematical tool used for analyzing periodic functions by decomposing such a function into a weighted sum of much simpler sinusoidal component functions sometimes referred to as normal Fourier modes, or simply modes for short. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... flux in science and mathematics. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Aleksandr Ya. ... Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Russian: ) (June 14, 1856 N.S. – July 20, 1922) was a Russian mathematician. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... This article is about the machine. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Galileo redirects here. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ...


In the late 19th century, Louis Pasteur, an organic chemist, discovered that microorganisms can cause disease. A few years earlier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., the American physician, poet and essayist, noted that sepsis in women following childbirth was spread by the hands of doctors and nurses, four years before Semmelweis in Europe. There are many compelling stories in medicine and biology, such as the development of ideas about the circulation of blood from Galen to Harvey. The flowering of genetics and molecular biology in the 20th century is replete with famous names. Ramón y Cajal won the Nobel Prize in 1906 for his remarkable observations in neuroanatomy. Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article is about the occupation. ... Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 portrait): advised handwashing with a chlorinated-lime solution in 1847. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...


Some see a dichotomy between experimental sciences and purely "observational" sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, oceanography and seismology. But astronomers have done basic research in optics, developed charge-coupled devices, and in recent decades have sent space probes to study other planets in addition to using the Hubble Telescope to probe the origins of the Universe some 14 billion years ago. Microwave spectroscopy has now identified dozens of organic molecules in interstellar space, requiring laboratory experimentation and computer simulation to confirm the observational data and starting a new branch of chemistry. Computer modeling and numerical methods are techniques required of students in every field of quantitative science. A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... The beginning of the universe can refer to either: Big Bang, the scientific theory that describes the origin and evolution of the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Rotational spectroscopy or microwave spectroscopy studies the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules associated with a corresponding change in the rotational quantum number of the molecule. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that simulation software be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that simulation software be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Those considering science as a career often look to the frontiers. These include cosmology and biology, especially molecular biology and the human genome project. Other areas of active research include the exploration of matter at the scale of elementary particles as described by high-energy physics, and nanotechnology, which hopes to develop electronics including microscopic computers, and perhaps artificial intelligence. Although there have been remarkable discoveries with regard to brain function and neurotransmitters, the nature of the mind and human thought still remain. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... This article is about the machine. ... AI redirects here. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...


Types of scientists

Archeologists
Astronomers 
astrophysicists
Biologists 
botanists, entomologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, geneticists, herpetologists, ichthyologists, immunologists, lepidopterists, microbiologists, neuroscientists, ornithologists, paleontologists, pathologists, pharmacologists, physiologists, and zoologists
Chemists 
biochemists
Computer scientists
Earth scientists
geologists, mineralogists, seismologists, volcanologists, hydrologists, glaciologists, limnologists, meteorologists, and oceanographers
Mathematicians
Physicists
Philosophers
Psychologists
Social scientists 
anthropologists, demographers, economists, geographers, political economists, political scientists, and sociologists
Technological and agricultural scientists
Medical scientists
Military scientists

Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... An astrophysicist is a person whose profession is astrophysics. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Herpetology (from greek: ἑρπετόν, creeping animal and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, fish; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... A lepidopterist is a person who catches and collects, or simply studies, lepidopterans, members of an order comprising butterflies, skippers, and moths. ... A Microbiologist is a biologist that studies the field of microbiology. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... This article is about the field of zoology. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. ... Hydrology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and movement of water on, in, and above the earth. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Lake Geneva Limnology (from Greek: Λίμνη limne, lake; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of inland waters (both fresh and saline), including their biological, physical, chemical, geological and hydrological aspects. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... This is about the social science. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Technology (Gr. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ...

See also

The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ... A gentleman scientist was a scientist with a private income who could pursue scientific study independently as he wished without excessive external financial pressures, in the days before large-scale government funding was available, up to the Victorian era, especially in England. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Woman teaching geometry. ...

Related lists

For a list of engineers see: List of aerospace engineers List of chemical engineers List of civil engineers List of electrical engineers List of industrial engineers List of materials engineers List of mechanical engineers List of inventors List of architects List of urban planners List of scientists List of heroic... Mathematicians by letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Requested mathematicians articles Lists of mathematicians (by country, etc. ... This page contains links to lists of scientists. ...

References

  1. ^ Isaac Newton (1687, 1713, 1726). "[4] Rules for the study of natural philosophy", Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Third edition. The General Scholium containing the 4 rules follows Book 3, The System of the World. Reprinted on pages 794-796 of I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation, University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4, 974 pages.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 1989
  3. ^ Nineteenth-Century Attitudes: Men of Science. http://www.rpi.edu/~rosss2/book.html
  4. ^ Friedrich Ueberweg, History of Philosophy: From Thales to the Present Time. C. Scribner's sons v.1, 1887
  5. ^ Steve Fuller, Kuhn VS. Popper: The Struggle For The Soul Of Science. Columbia University Press 2004. Page 43. ISBN 0231134282
  6. ^ Science by American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1917. v.45 1917 Jan-Jun. Page 274.
  7. ^ William Whewell (1794-1866) gentleman of science. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  8. ^ Tamara Preaud, Derek E. Ostergard, The Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory. Yale University Press 1997. 416 pages. ISBN 0300073380 Page 36.
  9. ^ National Society of Professional Engineers (2006). Frequently Asked Questions About Engineering. Retrieved on 2006-09-21. Science is knowledge based on observed facts and tested truths arranged in an orderly system that can be validated and communicated to other people. Engineering is the creative application of scientific principles used to plan, build, direct, guide, manage, or work on systems to maintain and improve our daily lives.
  10. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor (2006). Engineers. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
  11. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006). Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, ISBN 1599350246.

Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003) was the Victor S. Thomas Professor of the history of science at Harvard University and the author of many books on the history of science and, in particular, Isaac Newton. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) is a professional engineering organization in the United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External articles

Further reading
  • Science, The Relation of Pure Science to Industrial Research. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Page 511+.
  • Arthur Jack Meadows. The Victorian Scientist: The Growth of a Profession, 2004. ISBN 0712308946.
  • Charles George Herbermann, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Science and the Church. The Encyclopedia press, 1913. v.13. Page 598.
Websites
  • The philosophy of the inductive sciences, founded upon their history (1847)- Complete Text
  • Who was the greatest scientist ever? - Cafe Intellect
  • For best results, add a little inspiration - The Telegraph about What Inspired You?, a survey of key thinkers in science, technology and medicine
  • Peer Review Journal Science on amateur scientists

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