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Encyclopedia > Scientific racism


Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. It may also refer to the notion, advanced by some relativists that the very root of western science is fundamentally racist.[citation needed] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... An obsolete scientific theory is a scientific theory that was once commonly accepted but (for whatever reason) is no longer considered the most complete description of reality by mainstream science; or a falsifiable theory which has been shown to be false. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cultural relativism is the principle that beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ...


Historically, scientific racism (or pseudo-scientifical racism) has included the use of anthropology (especially physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, phrenology, physiognomy and other disciplines in the construction of typologies, or the classification of humans into distinct biological races. Such theories have provided ideological justifications to racism, slavery and colonialism during the New Imperialism period in the second half of the 19th century. Their popularity coincide with this period of European expansion in the world. These scholarly theories sometimes worked in conjunction with racism, for example in the case of the "human zoos", during which various human beings were presented in cages during colonial exhibitions. They were strongly denounced after World War II and the Holocaust, in particular by the UNESCO 1950 statement, signed by internationally known scholars, and titled The Race Question. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Illustration from The Speaking Portrait (Pearsons Magazine, Vol XI, January to June 1901) demonstrating the principles of Bertillons anthropometry. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... Typology in anthropology is the division of culture by races. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Slave redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Human Zoo (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928 For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation). ... The Colonial Exhibitions were supposed to bolster popular support for the various colonial empires. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Race Question is a UNESCO statement issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II. Signed by some of the leading researchers of the time, in the field of psychology, biology, cultural anthropology and ethnology, it questioned the foundations of scientific racist theories which had became very popular at...


Today, the phrase is used either as an accusation or to describe what is generally considered to be historical racist propaganda about the supposed existence of different "human races", refuted by The Race Question UNESCO statement who advocated the use of the more precise term "ethnic group". The phrase has been applied retroactively to publications on race as far back as the 18th century. Many subsequently disproven claims of scientific conclusion have been used as advocacy for racist policies. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Overview

Along with eugenics, invented by Francis Galton and popularized at the turn of the 20th century, such theories, which often postulated a "master race", usually "Nordic" and "Aryan", were a main influence of the Nazi racial policies and their program of eugenics. However, this was not necessarily a continuous relationship, as several influential authors of Nazism were not anti-semitic. Quite to the contrary, Arthur de Gobineau (1816-82), for example, was a philo-semite who placed the "Jewish race" above all. Thus, although his racial theories largely influenced Nazi ideologies, they had to adapt him to suit their mindset. Apart from Gobineau's 1853 The Inequality of Human Races,[1] other scientific racist works that largely influenced Nazism were Francis Galton’s 1870 Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into Its Laws and Consequences,[2] Madison Grant’s 1916/1924 The Passing of the Great Race[3] and Lothrop T. Stoddard’s 1920 The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy[4] Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimity. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Arthur de Gobineau. ... Philo-Semitism, Philosemitism, or Semitism is an interest in, respect for the Jewish people, as well as the love of everything Jewish, and the historical significance of Jewish culture and positive impact of Judaism in the history of the world. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855) by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is a milestone of scientific racism (also called racialism) and White supremacy, and is generally considered to be the first formulation of biological racism, in contrast to Boulainvilliers theory of races. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Present Distribution of the European Races — Grants vision of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow. ... Lothrop Stoddard. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy. ...


Beside this first acception of the term, scientific racism is a pejorative label sometimes given to modern theories or arguments that allege that scientific evidence shows significant evolutionary differences between races or ethnic groups. The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


In this sense, the term is used to criticize modern studies of human genetics or studies claiming to show a link between race and intelligence, as well as hierarchically classifying races, hence asserting the superiority or inferiority of specific ones. Critics of such studies assert that both "race" and "intelligence" are fuzzy concepts. A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... A fuzzy concept is a concept of which the content or boundaries of application vary according to context or conditions. ...


Earliest examples of scientific racism

See also: Race (historical definitions)

According to Benjamin Isaac's The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton University Press, 2006), roots of scientific racism may be found in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Other authors (such as the French author Raphaël Lagier, Les races humaines selon Kant - Human Races According to Kant, 2004 [5]), however, reject this claim, highlighting the very different scientific frame created in the 19th century with the birth of modern biology, making any interpretation of continuity between Ancient racist theories with modern scientific racism hazardous at best. B. Isaac discussed in his book the alleged role of Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Galen and many other notable figures in the gradual formation of the modern scientific racist worldview. He presents for instance the 5th-century BC treatise Airs, Waters, Places by Hippocrates as a prime instance of early (proto)scientific racism, and links Pseudo-Aristotle's suggestions to Hippocrates: "The idea that dark people are cowards and light people courageous fighters is found already in Airs, Waters, Places..." [6] He also quotes Vitruvius (70-25 B.C.) who, relying on the racial theories of Posidonius, wrote "those races nearest to the southern half of the axis are of lower stature, with swarthy complexions, curly hair, black eyes and little blood on account of the sun. This poverty of blood makes them over-timid to stand up against the sword...On the other hand, men born in cold countries are indeed ready to meet the shock of arms with great courage and without timidity" [7]. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... This box:      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Pseudo-Aristotle is a general cognomen for authors of philosophical or medical treatises who attributed their work to the Greek philosopher Aristotle, or whose work was later attributed to him by others. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ...


Historian of race Ivan Hannaford discusses the role of ancient Greek racial theories in early modern scientific racism: "Hippocrates' Airs, Waters and Places was for Johann Gottfried von Herder and Alexander von Humboldt, as they looked out upon a new world of ethnic groupings arising from the differentiations of environment, climate, soil and culture, historical proof of their newly invented cultural and climatic theories of existence" (Race: The History of an Idea in the West, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, p. 20). For further study on Hippocrates and proto-scientific racism, see "The Well-Tempered Racism of Hippocrates" in Masks of Authority: Fiction and Pragmatics in Ancient Greek Poetics by Claude Calame, trans. Peter M. Burk (Cornell University Press, 2005), p. 135. Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ...


In other parts of the pre-modern world, proto-scientific racist arguments persisted. In the Middle East, Islamic ethnology absorbed many of the Greek ideas on racial characteristics being naturalistically attributable to the environment, climate and blood. The Muslim Masudi (d. 956) quoted the Greek physician and scientist Galen (A.D. c. 130-c. 200) in explaining the perceived deficiency of intelligence congenital to the Negroid type: Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Negroid is a term used to describe one of the groups of craniofacial anthropometry, a view now mostly regarded as an over-simplification of the spectrum of human diversity. ...


"Galen says that merriment dominates the Black man because of his defective brain, whence also the weakness of his intelligence" (Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, 1990, p. 52).


In the South Said al-Andalusi (d. 1070) thought that the blacks, because of the hot thin air, lacked "self control and steadiness of mind and are overcome by fickleness, foolishness and ignorance" (cited in Lewis, 1990: 47-48). Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), one of the greatest social thinkers and historians of the Middle Ages, attributed the perceived intellectual inferiority of black people to climate and not genetics (Lewis, p. 47). Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Regular publications on race and other claimed differences between people of different geographical locations began at least as early as the eighteenth century. The 17th and 18th century were marked by natural history, in which the concept of evolution had no sense. Early attempts at distinguishing various races had been made by Henri de Boulainvilliers (1658-1722), who divided the nation of France between two races, the aristocratic, "French" race, descendants of the Germanic Franks, and the Gallo-Roman, indigenous race, which comprised the population of the Third Estate. According to Boulainvilliers, the descendants of the Franks dominated the Third Estate by a right of conquest. In the exact opposite of modern nationalism, the foreigners had a legitimate right of domination on indigenous peoples. But contrary to later, scientifically-justified theories of race, Boulainvilliers did not understand the concept of race as designing an eternal and immutable essence. His account was not, however, only a mythical tale: contrary to hagiographies and epics such as The Song of Roland, Boulainvilliers sought some kind of scientific legitimity by basing his distinction between a Germanic race and a Latin race on historical events. But his theory of races was completely distinct from the biological concept of race later used by nineteenth century's theories of scientific racism. Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Henri de Boulainvilliers (October 21, 1658, St. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... The right of conquest is the purported right of a conqueror to territory taken by force of arms. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ...


Carolus Linnaeus (1707-78), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who laid the bases of binomial nomenclature (the method of naming species) and is known as the "father of modern taxonomy" (the science of describing, categorising and naming organisms) was also a pioneer in defining the concept of "race" as applied to humans. Within Homo sapiens he proposed four taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank. These categories are, Americanus, Asiaticus, Africanus, and Europeanus. They were based on place of origin at first, and later skin color. Each race had certain characteristics that were endemic to individuals belonging to it. Native Americans were reddish, stubborn, and angered easily. Africans were black, relaxed and negligent. Asians were yellow, avaricious, and easily distracted. Europeans were white, gentle, and inventive.[8] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition, in Amoenitates academicae (1763), Carolus Linnaeus defined Homo anthropomorpha as a catch-all race for a variety of human-like mythological creatures, including the troglodyte, satyr, hydra, and phoenix. He claimed that these creatures actually existed, but were in reality inaccurate descriptions of real-world ape-like creatures. Look up troglodyte in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... For other uses, see Hydra. ... The phoenix from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ...


He also defined in Systema Naturæ Homo ferus as "four-footed, mute, hairy." It included the subraces Juvenis lupinus hessensis (wolf boys), who he thought were raised by animals, and Juvenis hannoveranus (Peter of Hanover) and Puella campanica (Wild-girl of Champagne). He likewise defined Homo monstrosous as agile and fainthearted, and included in this race the Patagonian giant, the dwarf of the Alps, and the monorchid Hottentot. A feral child is a child who has lived isolated from human contact starting from a very young age. ... Peter the Wild Boy (fl. ... Marie-Angélique Memmie Le Blanc, also called the Wild Girl of Champagne, The Maid of Châlons, and the Wild Girl of Songy, was one of the most famous feral children. ... The Patagones were a legendary tribe of native giants that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew claimed to have seen while exploring South America in the 1520s. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (San). ...


Edward Long, a British colonial administrator, created a more simple classification of race in History of Jamaica (1774). The next year, Johann Blumenbach published his thesis, On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, one of the foundational work of scientific racism. Blumenbach, however, supported monogenism, according to which all mankind had a common origin, against Samuel von Sömmering and Christoph Meiners, who supported polygenism, the view that separate races originated independently. Edward Long was a British Historian. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... monogenism (or monogenesis) is a word meaning single origin. It has been used in various contexts as an antonym for polygenism, or multiple origin. Race In the nineteenth century the term monogenesis was used to refer to the theory, supported by traditional interpretations of the Bible, that human beings all... Samuel Thomas von Sömmering Samuel Thomas von Soemmering (b. ... Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was a German philosopher, and early anthropologist. ... Polygenism is a biblical theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages. ...


19th century theories of race

Nott's and Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857) used misleading imagery to suggest that "Negroes" ranked between whites and chimpanzees.
Nott's and Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857) used misleading imagery to suggest that "Negroes" ranked between whites and chimpanzees.

The scientific classification proposed by Linnaeus was a prerequisite of any attempts at scientifically classifying humanity according to various races. Unilinealism depicting a progression from primitive human societies to industrialised civilisation became popular amongst philosophers including Friedrich Hegel, Immanuel Kant and Auguste Comte, and fitted well with the Christian belief of a divine Creation following which all of humanity descended from the same Adam and Eve. In contrast, polygenist theory alleged that there were different origins of mankind, thus making it possible to conceive of different, biological, human races, or to classify other humans as akin to animals without rights. Early scientific racist theories such as Arthur Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855) were mostly decadent in that they did not believe in the possibility of "improvement of the race." Image File history File links A scientific demonstration from 1868 that the Negro is less evolved, by highlighting similarities to the young chimpanzee. ... Image File history File links A scientific demonstration from 1868 that the Negro is less evolved, by highlighting similarities to the young chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Unilineal evolution (also referred to as classical social evolution(ism)) is a 19th century social theory about the evolution of societies and cultures. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... Polygenism is a biblical theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ... Decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement. ...


Charles Darwin's 1859 On the Origin of Species was very influential, although it made no mention of humanity and when he published his views in his The Descent of Man of 1871 he was emphatic that there were no clear distinctive characteristics to categorise races as separate species, and that all shared very similar physical and mental characteristics indicating common ancestry.[9] While he did not believe races to be distinct species, Charles Darwin did state, however, For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...

"At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes, as Professor Schaaffhausen has remarked, will no doubt be exterminated. The break will then be rendered wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilised state, as we may hope, than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as at present between the negro or Australian and the gorilla."[10]

However with "Social Darwinism", a later name for ideas from earlier thinkers combined with concepts of evolution by natural selection, scientific racist theories could postulate a racist "survival of the fittest," an expression coined by Herbert Spencer in 1864. Ideas of improving human races were popularized by Francis Galton's "eugenics". Scientific racism theories, influenced by other discourses and events, became extremely popular towards the end of the 19th century. Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Herbert Spencer coined the phrase, survival of the fittest. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ...


Phrenology, which attempted to describe traits of character by outward appearance, including by the shape of skulls, measured via craniometry, and of skeletons, was put to use in racist ends. Thus, skulls and skeletons of Black people and other indigenous people were displayed between apes and white men. Thus, Ota Benga, a Pygmy, was displayed as the "Missing Link" in 1906 in the Bronx Zoo in New York, alongside apes and other animals. Some of the most influential theories included Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936)'s "anthroposociology" and Herder (1744-1803), who applied "race" to nationalist theory to develop the first conception of ethnic nationalism. To the contrary, Ernest Renan famously argued in 1882 against Herder for a conception of nation based on the "will to live together," which was not founded on any ethnic or racial prerequisite. Scientific racist discourse posited the historical existence of "national races" such as German and French, branching from basal races supposed to have existed for millennia, such as the "Aryan race", and believed political boundaries should mirror these supposed racial ones. A 19th century phrenology chart. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda This article is about the Pygmy people. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936) was a French anthropologist and a theoretician of eugenics and pseudo-scientific racism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Craniometry and physical anthropology

Further information: Craniometry  and physical anthropology

Dutch scholar Pieter Camper (1722-89) was one of the first theorists of craniometry, the measure of skulls, which he used to justify racial differences. In 1770, he invented in one of his numerous memoirs the concept of the "facial angle", a measure meant to determine intelligence among various species. According to this technique, a "facial angle" was formed by drawing two lines: one horizontally from the nostril to the ear; and the other perpendicularly from the advancing part of the upper jawbone to the most prominent part of the forehead. Camper claimed that antique statues presented an angle of 90°, Europeans of 80°, Black people of 70° and the orangutan of 58°, thus displaying a hierarchic and racist view of mankind, based on a decadent conception of history. These scientific racist researchs were continued by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) and Paul Broca (1824-80). This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Peter, Pieter, or usually Petrus Camper (May 11, 1722 in Leyden – April 7, 1789 in The Hague) was a Dutch anatomist. ... See also Decadent movement Decadence refers to a personal trait and, much more commonly, to a state of society. ... An engraving of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. ... Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ...


Samuel George Morton (1799-1851), one of the inspirator of physical anthropology, collected hundreds of human skulls from all over the world and started trying to find a way to classify them according to some logical criteria. Influenced by the common racist theories of his time, he claimed that he could judge the intellectual capacity of a race by the cranial capacity (the measure of the volume of the interior of the skull). A large skull meant a large brain and high intellectual capacity, and a small skull indicated a small brain and decreased intellectual capacity. By studying these skulls he decided at what point Caucasians stopped being Caucasians, and at what point Negroes began. Morton had many skulls from ancient Egypt, and concluded that the ancient Egyptians were not African, but were white. His two major monographs were the Crania Americana (1839), An Inquiry into the Distinctive Characteristics of the Aboriginal Race of America and Crania Aegyptiaca (1844). In Crania Americana, he claimed that the mean cranial capacity of the skulls of Whites was 87 in³ (1,425 cm³), while that of Blacks was 78 in³ (1,278 cm³). Based on the measurement of 144 skulls of Native Americans, he reported a figure of 82 in³ (1,344 cm³) [sic]. Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) An American physician and natural scientist. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Cranial capacity is a measure of the volume of the interior of the cranium (also called the braincase or brainpan) of those animals who have both a brain and a cranium. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... Negro means the color black in both Spanish and Portuguese languages, being derived from the Latin word niger of the same meaning. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This article is about the color. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Native Americans redirects here. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...

William Z. Ripley's map of the "cephalic index" in Europe, from The Races of Europe (1899).
William Z. Ripley's map of the "cephalic index" in Europe, from The Races of Europe (1899).

Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002), an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and historian of science, studied from a historical perspective these craniometric works in The Mismeasure of Man (1981). He showed that Samuel Morton had fudged data and "overpacked" the skulls with filler in order to justify his racist opinions. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x836, 453 KB) Map by anthropologist/economist William Z. Ripley of the cephalic index of European populations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x836, 453 KB) Map by anthropologist/economist William Z. Ripley of the cephalic index of European populations. ... William Z. Ripley was an economist who trained at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and at Columbia University. ... The Races of Europe is the title of two books related to the anthropology of Europeans. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ...


In 1873, Paul Broca (1824-1880), founder of the Anthropological Society of Paris in 1859, found the same pattern described by Samuel Morton's Crania Americana by weighing brains at autopsy. Other historical studies alleging a Black-White difference in brain size include Bean (1906), Mall, (1909), Pearl, (1934) and Vint (1934). 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ...


Monogenism and polygenism

Further information: Monogenism  and Polygenism

Morton's followers, particularly Josiah C. Nott (1804-1873) and George Gliddon (1809-57) in their monumental tribute to Morton's work, Types of Mankind (1854), carried Morton's ideas further and claimed that his findings in fact supported the notion of polygenism, which claims that humanity originates from different lineages and is the ancestor of the multiregional hypothesis. Morton himself had been reluctant to explicitly espouse polygenism because it was a major challenge to the biblical account of creation. Charles Darwin opposed Nott and Glidon's polygenist — and creationists — arguments in his 1871 The Descent of Man, arguing for a monogenism of the species. Darwin conceived the common origin of all humans (aka single-origin hypothesis) as essential for evolutionary theory. monogenism (or monogenesis) is a word meaning single origin. It has been used in various contexts as an antonym for polygenism, or multiple origin. Race In the nineteenth century the term monogenesis was used to refer to the theory, supported by traditional interpretations of the Bible, that human beings all... Polygenism is a biblical theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages. ... Josiah Clark Nott (31 March 1804– 31 March 1873) was an American physician and surgeon; he was a writer on surgery, yellow fever, and race. ... George Robins Gliddon (1809-1857) was an American Egyptologist, born in Devonshire, England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... This article is about biological evolution. ...


Furthermore, Josiah Nott was the translator of Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-55), which is one of the founder of "biological racism", in contrast to Boulainvilliers (1658-1722)'s theory of races. Arthur de Gobineau. ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ... Henri, Comte de Boulainvilliers (1658, St. ...


Philosophers of the Enlightenment and racial classifications

Further information: Unilineal evolution

A few years later, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), celebrated as the symbol of the Enlightenment's philosophy of progress and humanism, wrote his essay On the Different Races of Man (1775) in which he attempted a scientific classification of human races. Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) would also include a strongly evolutionist account of history in Lectures on the Philosophy of History, describing the development of the Geist (Spirit or Reason) in history through a serie of incarnations in specific Volkgeists (Folk Spirit). Hegel's philosophy of history was explicitly biased in favor of Europe, and, in particular, of the Prussian state, conceived as the achievement of history (the "End of History"). In his chapter on the Geographical Foundings of Universal History, Hegel wrote that "each People represented a particular degree of the development of the Spirit," thus forming a "nation." Influenced, as many others, by Montesquieu's theory on the influence of climate on mores and laws, which the latter had developed in The Spirit of the Laws (1748), Hegel wrote that: This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Lectures on the Philosophy of History (also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History) is the title of a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. ... Geist - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, in which he argues the controversial thesis that the end of the Cold War signals the end of the progression of human history: What we may... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... The Spirit of Laws (French: De lesprit des lois) is a book on political theory by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, published in 1748. ...

"It is true that climate has influence in that sence that neither the warm zone nor the cold zone are favourable to the liberty of man and to the apparition of historical peoples.[11]"(i.e. of peoples that "have" a history, in contrast with "savages" that allegedly have no history). Look up savage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Unsurprisingly, Hegel thus favored the Geist in temperate zones. Hegel finally made an account of "universal history," which started with the Oriental World, then the Greek Antiquity, then the Roman and the Christian World, and, ultimately, the Prussian World[12] It is true, however, that Hegel's philosophy, as Kant for that manner, can not be reduced to such evolutionist statements. In the same lessons, Hegel thus write that "America is the country of the future", but that "philosophy does not concerns itself with prophecies", but with history.[13] Nevertheless, as great as Hegel's philosophy may be considered to be, it has provided justifications for Europe's imperialism until World War I. In the same way, the works of Montesquieu, one of the early founder of modern sociology, has provided various justifications over the age claiming to scientifically ground "Negroes' inferiority" on claims of the alleged influence of climate. Such racial and evolutionist statements would be echoed by Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) who attributed civilizational primacy, on naturalistic grounds, to the "white races" who gained their sensitivity and intelligence by refinement in the rigorous North: Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Christianism may refer to: Christianity, or its theory and practice The term Christianist is referred to as early as 1992 in a book by Rémi Brague. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ...

"The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than the rest and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmins, the Incas, and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want and misery, which in their many forms were brought about by the climate. This they had to do in order to make up for the parsimony of nature and out of it all came their high civilization."[14] This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Look up parsimony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Various typologies

Further information: Race (historical definitions)

One of the first typologies used to classify various human races was invented by Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936), a theoretician of eugenics, who published in 1899 L'Aryen et son rôle social (1899 - "The Aryan and his social role"). In this book, he classified humanity into various, hierarchized, races, spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic" "mediocre and inert" race, best represented by the "Jew [sic]." Between these, Vacher de Lapouge identified the "Homo europaeus (Teutonic, Protestant, etc.), the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat, Turkish, etc.), and finally the "Homo mediterraneus" (Neapolitan, Andalus, etc.) Vacher de Lapouge became one of the leading inspiration of Nazi anti-semitism and Nazi racist ideology.[15] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Typology in anthropology is the division of culture by races. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been... It has been suggested that Nordish race be merged into this article or section. ... Madison Grants map, from 1916, charting the distribution of the European races. Nordic race is shown in bright red; green indicates the Alpine race; yellow, the Mediterranean race. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripleys book The Races of Europe (1899). ... For other uses, see Naples (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimity. ...


Vacher de Lapouge's classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe (1899), a book which had a large influence on US white supremacism. Ripley even made a map of Europe according to the alleged cephalic index of its inhabitants. He was an important influence of the American eugenist Madison Grant. William Z. Ripley was an economist who trained at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and at Columbia University. ... The Races of Europe is the title of two books related to the anthropology of Europeans. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Cephalic index is the ratio of the maximum width of the head to its maximum length (i. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ...


Furthermore, according to John Efron (Indiana Univ.), the late 19th century also witnessed "the scientizing of anti-Jewish prejudice," stigmatizing Jews with male menstruation, pathological hysteria, and nymphomania [16][17]. At the same time, several Jews, such as Joseph Jacobs or Samuel Weissenberg, also endorsed the same pseudo-scientific theories, convinced that the Jews formed a distinct race [16][17]. Chaim Zhitlovsky also attempted to define Yiddishkayt (Ashkenazi Jewishness) by turning to contemporary racial theory [18]. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Hypersexuality describes human sexual behavior at levels high enough to be considered clinically significant. ... Joseph Jacobs (1854, Australia - 1916) was a British literary historian. ... Chaim Zhitlowsky (1861-1943) was a Russian Jewish socialist, philosopher, social and political thinker, writer and literary critic. ... Yiddishkeit (Yiddish: ייִדישקייט — yidishkeyt in standard transcription) literally means Jewishness, i. ...


Deniker, Grant and the "Nordic race"

Deniker's "Races de l'Europe" from 1899, including la race nordique.
Deniker's "Races de l'Europe" from 1899, including la race nordique.

One of William Ripley's main opponent was Joseph Deniker (1852-1918). While Ripley maintained, as Vacher de Lapouge, that Europe was composed of three racial stocks, Joseph Deniker held that there were ten European races (six primary races with four subsidiary or sub-races). Deniker's most lasting contribution to the field of racial theory was the designation of one of his races as la race nordique (the Northern race). While this group had no special place in Deniker's racial model, it would be elevated by Madison Grant (1865-1937) in his Nordic theory to the engine of civilization. Grant adopted Ripley's three-race model for Europeans, but disliked Ripley's use of the "Teuton" for one of the races. Grant transliterated la race nordique into "Nordic", and promoted it to the top of his racial hierarchy in his own popular racial theory of the 1910s and 1920s. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (3062 × 2150 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (3062 × 2150 pixel, file size: 2. ... Joseph Deniker (March 6, 1852–March 18, 1918) was a French naturalist and anthropologist, known primarily for his attempts to develop highly-detailed maps of race in Europe. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... It has been suggested that Nordish race be merged into this article or section. ...


Furthermore, Deniker proposed that the concept of "race" was too confusing, and instead proposed the use of the word "ethnic group" instead, which was later adopted prominently in the work of Julian Huxley and Alfred C. Haddon. Ripley argued that Deniker's idea of a "race" should be rather called a "type", since it was far less biologically rigid that most approaches to the question of race. Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Alfred Cort Haddon (May 24, 1855-April 20, 1940) was an influential British anthropologist. ...


Scientific racism in the Svecoman movement in 19th century Finland

Main articles: Language strife, Svecoman, and Fennoman

A language strife developed in the Grand Duchy of Finland in the 19th century, supported by Finnish speaking nationalists, the Fennomans, which aimed at raising the majority language, Finnish language, from peasant-status it had during the Swedish reign to the position of a national language and status. These were opposed by the the Swedish speaking minority living in Finland, called Svecomans and best represented by the linguist Axel Olof Freudenthal (1836-1911), who defended the use of the Swedish language against Finnish. Svecomans were influenced by Herder, Gobineau, Blumenbach (1752-1840) and others racialist theorists, and thus considered that Finland was separated into two discrete "races," one speaking Finnish, and the other, superior one, assimilated to the "Germanic race," spoke Swedish. The racial theory was finally disproven by genetics: the genetics of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Finns do not differ from each other.[citation needed] The language strife was one of the major conflicts of Finlands national history and domestic politics. ... The Swecomans, or Svekomans, was a political movement in the Grand Duchy of Finland, chiefly reactionary to the demands vigorously conveyed by the Fennomans for the substitution of Swedish in state administration, courts and schools with the Finnish language, then spoken by approximately 80 percent of the countrys population. ... The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... The language strife was one of the major conflicts of Finlands national history and domestic politics. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... The Swecomans, or Svekomans, was a political movement in the Grand Duchy of Finland, chiefly reactionary to the demands vigorously conveyed by the Fennomans for the substitution of Swedish in state administration, courts and schools with the Finnish language, then spoken by approximately 80 percent of the countrys population. ... Axel Olof Freudenthal Axel Olof Freudenthal (born 12 December 1836 in SjundeÃ¥, dead 2 June 1911, Helsinki) was a Finland Swedish philologist and politician. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language (also called Scandinavian languages) spoken predominantly in Sweden and in parts of Finland, especially along the coast and on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ...


Scientific racism and eugenics

Further information: Eugenics

Madison Grant's The Passing of the Great Race (1916) was described by Stephen Jay Gould as "the most influential tract of American scientific racism." Grant's Nordic theory was embraced in Germany by the racial hygiene movement in the 1920s-30s. The term itself of Rassenhygiene was coined by Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940) in Racial Hygiene Basics (1895). Ploetz founded the German Society for Racial Hygiene in 1905. The German Racial hygiene movement advocated selective breeding, compulsory sterilizations and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Present Distribution of the European Races — Grants vision of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... It has been suggested that Nordish race be merged into this article or section. ... Racial hygiene (often labeled a form of scientific racism) is the selection, by a government, of the most physical, intellectual and moral persons to raise the next generation (selective breeding) and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. ... Alfred Ploetz (March 22, 1860 – March 20, 1940) was a German physician, biologist, eugenicist known for introducing together with Wilhelm Schallmayer the concept of racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene) in Germany. ... The German Society for Racial Hygiene (German: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene) was an organization founded on 22 June 1905 by the physician Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940) in Berlin. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


Racial hygiene was historically tied to traditional notions of public health, but usually with an enhanced emphasis on heredity — what philosopher and historian Michel Foucault has called state racism. The use of social measures to attempt to preserve or enhance biological characteristics was first proposed by Francis Galton (1822-1911) in his early work, starting in 1869. He then coined the term "eugenics." A statistician before all, Galton had created the statistical concepts of regression and correlation and discovered regression toward the mean, and was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and "inheritance of intelligence". He introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on sets of populations, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies. Galton also founded psychometrics (the science of measuring mental faculties) and differential psychology (the branch of psychology that concerns itself with psychological differences between people, rather than on common traits). Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... Regression toward the mean refers to the fact that those with extreme scores on any measure at one point in time will, for purely statistical reasons, probably have less extreme scores the next time they are tested. ... The subject of the inheritance of intelligence is the genetics of mental abilities. ... A questionnaire is a type of survey handed out in paper form usually to a specific demographic to gather information in order to provider better service or goods. ... Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... Anthropometry literally means measurement of humans. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Differential psychology is concerned with the study of individual differences in humans. ...


As scientific racism, eugenics became very popular in the early 20th century, and both were main influence of the Nazi racial policies as well as their eugenics program. Galton, Karl Pearson (1857-1936) and Walter F. R. Weldon (1860-1906) founded in 1901 the Biometrika scientific journal, which promoted the study of biometrics and the statistical analysis of hereditary phenomena. Charles Davenport (1866-1944) was involved for a short time in the review. He published in 1929 Race Crossing in Jamaica, purported to give statistical evidence for biological and cultural degradation following interbreeding between white and black populations. Davenport had connections to Nazi Germany, before and during World War II. in 1939 he wrote a contribution to the festschrift for Otto Reche (1879-1966), who became an important figure within the plan to "remove" those populations considered "inferior" in eastern Germany.[19] The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimity. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ... Walter Frank Raphael Weldon (15 March 1860 — 13 April 1906) was an English evolutionary zoologist and biometrician. ... Biometrika is a scientific journal established in 1901 by Francis Galton, Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon to promote the study of biometrics, the statistical analysis of hereditary phenomena. ... At Walt Disney World, biometric measurements are taken from the fingers of guests to ensure that the persons ticket is used by the same person from day to day For the use of statistics in biology, see Biostatistics. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... Charles B. Davenport at a 1921 eugenics conference. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Otto Reche (1879 - 1966) was a German anthropologist and professor. ...


Scientific racism and popular racist ideology

Further information: Human zoo
A caricature of Saartjie Baartman, called the Hottentot Venus. Born to a Khoisan family, she was displayed in London in the early 19th century that sparked the indignation of the African Association. She was examined by French anatomist Georges Cuvier and then died in 1815. Her remains were conserved until 1974 at the Musée de l'Homme and have since been returned to South Africa on Nelson Mandela's request.

Human zoos were an important means of bolstering "popular racism", while being at the same time an object of anthropology and anthropometry; they were sometimes called "ethnographic exhibitions" or "Negro villages." Starting in the 1870s, they were common until World War II, and the concept has even survived until the 21st century. Ethnographic zoos were often predicated on unilinealism and a version of Social Darwinism. A number of them placed indigenous people (particularly Africans) in a continuum somewhere between the great apes and human beings of European descent. Human Zoo (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928 For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation). ... Saartje Baartman This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Saartje Baartman This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A caricature of Baartman drawn in the early 19th century Last resting place of Saartjie Baartman. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... The Musée de lHomme (French for Museum of Man) was created in 1937 by Paul Rivet, for the event of the Worlds Fair. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela (disambiguation). ... Human Zoo (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928 For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation). ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Illustration from The Speaking Portrait (Pearsons Magazine, Vol XI, January to June 1901) demonstrating the principles of Bertillons anthropometry. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Fundamental to any scientific racist theory and white supremacist views, theories of unilineal evolution claimed that Western culture was the contemporary pinnacle of social evolution. It was upheld by famous thinkers such as August Comte (1798-1857), Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917), Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881), and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). Social evolutionism represented an attempt to formalize social thinking along scientific lines, later influenced by the biological theory of evolution. White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Social evolution is a subdiscipline of evolutionary biology that is concerned with social behaviours, i. ... Auguste Comte Auguste Comte (full name Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte) (January 17 (recorded January 19), 1798 _ September 5, 1857) was a positivist thinker and a founder of the discipline of sociology. ... Edward Burnett Tylor. ... Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was an American lawyer and amateur scholar best known for his work on cultural evolution and Native Americans. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... Social Evolutionism is a athropological and sociological social theory that holds that societies progress through stages of increasing development, i. ... This article is about biological evolution. ...


The display of human beings in cages, in an attempt to demonstrate scientific racist theories, became common in the second half of the 19th century. The 1889 World Fair in Paris had as major attraction a "Negro village" where 400 indigenous people were displayed. Carl Hagenbeck, a German merchant in wild animals, exhibited in 1874 Samoans and Sami people described as "purely natural" populations. Two years later, he sent an emissary to Sudan to capture wild beasts for his circus attractions, along with Nubians. Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire, son of Edouard Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and owner of the Parisian Jardin d'acclimatation, presented Nubians and Inuit in 1877. The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France from May 5, to October 31, 1889. ... Carl Hagenbeck Carl Hagenbeck (1844-1913) was a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... For the Star Wars planet, see Nubia (Star Wars). ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


In 1906, Madison Grant, head of the New York Zoological Society, had Congolese pygmy Ota Benga put on display at the Bronx Zoo in New York City alongside apes and other animals. At the behest of Grant, a prominent eugenicist, the zoo director placed Ota Benga in a cage with an orangutan and labeled him The Missing Link, illustrating that in evolutionary terms Africans like Ota Benga were closer to apes than were Europeans. Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


Historian Pascal Blanchard et al. thus wrote:

Human zoos, the incredible symbols of the colonial period and the transition from the nineteenth to twentieth century, have been completely suppressed in our collective history and memory. Yet they were major social events. The French, Europeans and Americans came in their tens of millions to discover the "savage" for the first time in zoos or "ethnographic" and colonial fairs. These exhibitions of the exotic (the future "native") laid the foundations on which, over an almost sixty-year period, was spun the West's progressive transition from a "scientific" racism to a colonial and "mass" racism affecting millions of "visitors" from Paris to Hamburg, London to New York, Moscow to Barcelona...[20] A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...

Justification of slavery in the nineteenth century

An 1839 drawing by Samuel George Morton of "a Negro head… a Caucasian skull… a Mongol head."

Because the Atlantic slave trade raised moral questions from its inception scientific theories were provided to justify the enslavement of Africans, in particular in the United States. According to Alexander Thomas and Samuell Sillen during this time period the Black man was described as uniquely fitted for bondage because of what researches at the time called "his primitive psychological organization."[21] Hence, a well-known physician of the ante-bellum South, Samuel A. Cartwright (1793-1851) of Louisiana, had a psychiatric explanation for runaway slaves. He diagnosed their attempts to gain freedom as a treatable mental illness and coined the term "drapetomania" in 1851 to describe it. His feeling was that with "proper medical advice, strictly followed, this troublesome practice that many Negroes have of running away can be almost entirely prevented."[22] Cartwright also described dysaethesia aethiopica, "called by overseers 'rascality'". Image File history File links Morton_drawing. ... Image File history File links Morton_drawing. ... Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) An American physician and natural scientist. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Drapetomania was a psychiatric diagnosis proposed in 1851 by Louisiana physician Samuel A. Cartwright to explain the tendency of black slaves to flee captivity. ... Drapetomania was a psychiatric diagnosis identified in 1851 by Louisiana physician Samuel A. Cartwright to explain the tendency of black slaves to flee captivity. ...


The attention focused on race leading up to, during, and after the American Civil War led to a proliferation of works looking at the physiological differences between Caucasians and Negroes, with a large amount of attention paid to the question of "miscegenation." Work by early anthropologists such as Josiah Clark Nott, George Robins Gliddon, Robert Knox, and Samuel George Morton attempted to prove scientifically that Negroes were not the same species as white people, and alleged that the rulers of Ancient Egypt were not actually Africans, and that racial mixture provided infertile or weak offspring. In the years after the Civil War, Southern physicians wrote text after text outlining different scientific studies which sought to prove that the Negro was dying out as a race under the conditions of freedom, implying that the system of slavery had been beneficial. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... For an island of the Philippines, see Negros. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: POV essay about the Vedic race - no mention of Josiah Clark Nott anywhere If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... George Robins Gliddon (1809-1857) was a British Egyptologist born in Devonshire in 1809. ... Robert Knox (4 September 1791 — 20 December 1862) was a doctor, natural scientist and traveller. ... Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) An American physician and natural scientist. ... “Whites” redirects here. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ...


In the twentieth and twenty first centuries

This sort of work continued through the early twentieth century, but soon intelligence testing became a new source for comparisons between races. Poorly designed studies appeared to justify the claim that "Negroes," as well as Eastern Europeans and Jews, were physically and mentally inferior to whites from Northern Europe. In the United States, eugenicists such as Harry H. Laughlin and Madison Grant sought to justify policies such as compulsory sterilization and immigration restriction by using scientific research to show that certain populations of people were physically or mentally inadequate. Compulsory sterilization programs were active until the 1960s and even further on. In France, Nobel prize winner Alexis Carrel, who founded the ancestor of the present INED demographic institute, followed a similar discourse, in particular under the Vichy regime. However, Vichy didn't implement any eugenics programs. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Harry H. Laughlin Harry Hamilton Laughlin (March 11, 1880 – January 26, 1943) was a leading American eugenicist in the first half of the 20th century. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 – November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. ... INED is a shortcut for: Institut National Etudes Démographiques - National Institute for Demografic Research [1] International Network of Economic Developers [2] Instituto de Educación a Distancia [3] INed Editor for AIX The royal titulary of Ined of the 13th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt This article consisting of a... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later...


Nazi Germany

The Nazis and sympathizers published a great number of books dealing with scientific racism. Many beliefs which would become associated with the Nazis, such as Eugenics and Anti-Semitism, had been in circulation since the 19th century, and the Nazis seized on this body of existing work in their own publications. Books such as Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes (Ethnology of German People) by Hans F. K. Günther and Rasse und Seele (Race and Soul) by Dr. Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss attempt to identify and classify the differences between the German, Nordic or Aryan type and other, supposedly inferior, peoples using scientific and anthropological methods. These books were used as texts in German schools during the Nazi era. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Hans Friedrich Karl Günther (born February 16, 1891 in Freiburg; died September 25, 1968 also in Freiburg) was a German race researcher and eugenicist in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. ... It has been suggested that Nordish race be merged into this article or section. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...

Civil rights era

In the 1960s George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party gave an interview to Alex Haley for Playboy magazine (April 1966 issue) In the interview, Rockwell explained why he believed black people were inferior to whites. He cited a study by G.O. Ferguson that showed that black people who were part white did better on a test than the "pure-black niggers" (Rockwell's words); Rockwell's use of these statistics is a textbook example of a statistical fallacy used to propagate scientific racism.[23] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the party formed in 1959, later renamed the National Socialist White Peoples Party. ... Alexander Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ... A misuse of statistics occurs when a statistical argument asserts a falsehood. ...


Criticism of IQ tests and intelligence research

Main article: Race and intelligence

Much of the actual science used in certain early physical anthropological studies on race has been discredited as highly flawed, usually from methodological standpoints. The early IQ tests used during intelligence testing of soldiers during World War I, for example, were found later to have measured acculturation to the USA more than they did any latent intelligence. [citation needed] Multiple-choice questions included such highly context-based questions as: "Crisco is a: patent medicine, disinfectant, toothpaste, food product" and "Christy Mathewson is famous as a: writer, artist, baseball player, comedian." Not surprisingly, recent immigrants to the USA did poorly on such questions, and the intelligence scores correlated most significantly with the number of years spent immersed in American culture. However, modern studies on race and intelligence have overcome many of these concerns, and the subject remains one of intense interest because they continue to show differences between races. Dorthy Roberts writes that the history of the eugenics movement in America was strongly tied to the older scientific racism used to justify slavery. Roberts writes that paralleling the development of eugenic theory was the acceptance of intelligence as the primary indicator of human value. Eugenicists claimed that the IQ test could quantify innate human ability in a single measurement, despite the objections of the creator of the test, Alfred Binet.[24] The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method... ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912 Crisco, a popular brand of shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of vegetable oil. ... Christopher Christy Mathewson (August 12, 1880 - October 7, 1925), nicknamed Big Six, The Christian Gentleman, or Matty, was a right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball. ... This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... Alfred Binet Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ...


Until the 1920s such work was regarded as science and faced little criticism. But soon, new work by the cultural anthropologist Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict began to slowly, point out methodological errors and to allege that political and ideological bias was affecting the conclusions more than the observations made. Through the 1920s and 1930s, the Boasian school of cultural anthropology began to compete with and even replace the school of physical anthropology, in a bitter institutional battle. Eventually the Boasians were defeated. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ...


In the early 1930s, the government of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler utilized highly racialized scientific rhetoric based on social Darwinism for pushing its restrictive and discriminatory social policies. When World War II broke out, the Nazi approach to race became anathema in the United States, and Boasians such as Ruth Benedict were able to consolidate their institutional power. In the years after the war, the discovery of the Holocaust and the Nazi abuses of scientific research (such as the ethical violations of Josef Mengele and other war crimes which were revealed at the Nuremberg Trials) led to a widespread repudiation of the use of science to support racist causes within the scientific community. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Mengele in uniform Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979), was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


In response to the German racial propaganda, many geneticists, especially Julian Huxley and Alfred C. Haddon, along with certain anthropologists, published works denouncing the Nazi views on race and the studies they purported to be based on. Some of the anthropologist's works were even made into anti-racist propaganda and distributed widely in the form of pamphlets. Many began to identify Nazi Germany specifically with many racist attitudes which had previously been accepted (indeed, Nazi Germany did not develop them in a bubble, and many like-minded scientists had institutional support in the U.S. and UK as well), and after the war this had a great effect on how the public and scientists viewed research which made strong statements about the superiority or inferiority of races, even to the point that any scientific studies of racial differences, were viewed as being beyond the pale. Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Alfred Cort Haddon (May 24, 1855-April 20, 1940) was an influential British anthropologist. ...


In the decades after the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, increased attention was paid to those who attempted to use science to justify purportedly racist viewpoints. Many scientists who had previously published works relating to racial differences moved into other fields. Robert Yerkes, for example, had previously worked on the World War I Army intelligence testing, but in the years that followed moved instead into the field of primatology. Historically, various popular movements struggling for social justice and democratic rights since the Second World War were known as civil rights movement, most famously the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which struggled for equal rights for African-Americans. ... Robert Mearns Yerkes, PhD, (b. ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ...


Also symptomatic of this change in conditions were effort of international bodies such as UNESCO to draft resolutions that attempted to summarize the state of scientific knowledge about race and issue calls for the resolution of racial conflicts. In its 1950 The Race Question [1] UNESCO declared that "A race, from the biological standpoint, may therefore be defined as one of the group of populations constituting the species Homo sapiens", which were broadly defined as the Mongoloid, Negroid, and the Caucasoid "divisions" but stated that "It is now generally recognized that intelligence tests do not in themselves enable us to differentiate safely between what is due to innate capacity and what is the result of environmental influences, training and education." To this day, the 1950 UNESCO Statement is controversial among some scientists because of its message (some, such as R. A. Fisher, vehemently disagreed with it) and its purpose (some objected to what was perceived as a political declaration about what science did or did not "say"). It clearly did not subscribe to the denial of the reality of race point of view. UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Negroid is a term used to describe one of the groups of craniofacial anthropometry, a view now mostly regarded as an over-simplification of the spectrum of human diversity. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890 – July 29, 1962) was an evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...


In 1978, a similar sort of declaration UNESCO Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice [2]. This Statement proclaimed that no race was superior to any other, but in contrast to the 1950 statement, hardly mentioned science but rather relied more on "moral and ethical principles of humanity." The corresponding 2001 statement by UNESCO, Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity [3] does not mention race at all, nor does it use "science" as the underpinning justification for its views on cultural diversity. Views, or at least the language, of racial discourse, have clearly evolved over the half-century. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Modern usage

The labeling of a work today as being "scientific racism" is generally meant to imply that the research has been politically motivated and is attempting to justify racist ideology through the use of a veneer of science. This labeling is challenged by those who have conducted this research, who claim that their work was indeed objective and that the attempts to denounce it are acts of political correctness or censorship. Some have compared the attacks on their work as akin to Lysenkoism. Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Some of the work of such scientists of the 19th century, such as the naturalist Charles Darwin, contain statements and ideas which would be considered racist in the current cultural context, but in their time were either typical for their Victorian context or even less racist than many other contemporary scientific views. For example, Darwin believed in a hierarchy of the human races (with Europeans at the top and Native Americans at or near the bottom), as did most Victorian scientists. However, Darwin can be considered far less racist in this belief than much of the anthropological community of his time, who argued that other races were not even of the same species as Europeans, an idea Darwin vehemently opposed. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Few scientists today argue for a linear model of racial superiority, believing that each human population is fitted best to its own ancestral environment and there is no possible universal standard by which to compare and judge. Most scientists today also disdain the idea of deriving moral or legal rights from the results of scientific research, but these humanistic attitudes do not prevent objective researchers from studying and publishing on the various empirical differences between and among populations and ethnic groups with differing genetic histories. Speaking for the modern anthropo-genetic consensus, geneticist Spencer Wells, in his book The Journey of Man, connects differences in brain evolution and behaviorial style with the migration of human beings away from Africa and into the Northern and wintry regions: Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ... The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey is the book by Spencer Wells, an American geneticist and anthropologist, in which he traces the human evolution, summing up the recent progress in genetics and evolutionary biology. ...


"The Eurasian interior was a fairly brutal school for our ancestors. Advanced problem-solving skills would have been critical to their survival, which helps us to understand why it was only after the Great Leap Forward in intellectual capacity that humans were ready to colonize most of the world. During their sojourn on the steppes, modern humans developed highly specialized toolkits... The problem-solving intelligence that would have allowed Upper Paleolithic people to live in the harsh northern Eurasian steppes and hunt enormous game illustrates something that could called the 'will to kill'".


The very large collaborative study known as the HapMap project, which is an outgrowth of the huge Human Genome Project, has exhaustively made available to all the Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency differences between four groups or populations, Han Chinese, Tokyo Japanese, Northern Europeans, and Nigerian Yoruba. It is well known today that many diseases are influenced by genes, that it is important and beneficial to understand the links between genes and disease, and how the frequencies of both differ between races. Using powerful new laboratory techniques such as PCR, DNA microarrays, and bioinformatics together with modern statistical methods, these connections are being intensively studied around the world by the medical community. The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project undertaken with a goal to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms. ... DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The term Caucasian race has in time acquired somewhat different meanings in different contexts. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa; the majority of them speak the Yoruba language (èdèe Yorùbá; èdè = language). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A DNA microarray (also DNA chip or gene chip in common speech) is a piece of glass or plastic on which pieces of DNA have been affixed in a microscopic array. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ...


The attacks on scientific research into racial differences on these studies are much less frequent and muted than those directed at researchers who study behavioral, and, especially, intelligence differences between the races[citation needed]. These latter differences, while 'comparatively easy' to demonstrate, have cause(s) that are much more difficult to determine because of the many confounding effects, partly rooted in historical and economic circumstances. These studies are also relatively value laden, which tends to increase the emotional temperature of the debate somewhat.[citation needed]


Among those most prominently attacked as scientific racists in the late 20th century have been Arthur Jensen (The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability), J. Philippe Rushton, president of the Pioneer Fund (Race, Evolution, and Behavior), Richard Lynn (IQ and the Wealth of Nations), and Richard Herrnstein (The Bell Curve), among others. Many critics of these authors, such as Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, said that their refusal to renounce their work indicated racist motivations. In turn, Gould has been accused by a number of scientists of misrepresenting their work and of being motivated in these attacks by his political views. Jensen published a rebuttal of Gould's accusations in The Debunking of Scientific Fossils and Straw Persons [4]. Both Gould and Lewontin have given a course titled Biology as a Social Weapon, which, Gould explained, was intended to foster "a powerful political and moral vision of how science, properly interpreted and used to empower all the people, might truly help us to be free." For the Danish actor, see Arthur Jensen (actor). ... Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ... The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ... Richard Lynn (born 1930) is a British Professor Emeritus of Psychology and a leading scholar of racial and ethnic differences,[1] known for his work on intelligence and differential psychology. ... IQ and the Wealth of Nations IQ and the Wealth of Nations is a controversial 2002 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. ... Richard Herrnstein (1930-1994) was a prominent researcher in comparative psychology who did pioneering work on pigeon intelligence employing the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. ... The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ...


As another example, Edinburgh University psychologist Chris Brand, whose work involves IQ, broke with convention in 1996 by indicating that he was a 'race realist.' He was fired after a sixteen-month battle with his university (though later compensated financially for 'unfair dismissal')[5][6]. The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Christopher Richard Brand (born 1 June 1943) is a British author and psychology researcher who is famous for his controversial views on race and intelligence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scientific racism. ...


The question of who is being more political — either those to whom the term is applied or those who apply the term — is itself a source of much dispute. Some critics have argued that the entire attempt to compare races using science is impossibly fraught with methodological problems, and that even if it were not, nothing good could come from the research. Those who support such work generally appeal to the more idealistic goals of scientific knowledge, and many have implied that social policy should be tailored around accurate scientific knowledge of such differences, if they exist. Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ...


As a result of this historical evolution of the idea of race, the pejorative term "scientific racism" or simply "racism" is still sometimes applied even to the activities of scientists who seek to understand the nature of the differences between races or geographically separated populations for medical, anthropological, or even genealogical purposes. Recently, the discovery of many ancestry-informative markers in the human genome has provided powerful new tools for distinguishing populations, and can serve as replacements for the historical, more subjective variables which sometimes vary little between races. An ancestry-informative marker (AIM) is a gene, generally of humans, which have several polymorphisms that exhibit substantially different frequencies between races. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ...


See also

Einsteins brain was preserved after his death, but this fact not revealed until 1978. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Hamitic hypothesis is a racialist hypothesis created by John Hanning Speke that taught that the Tutsi people (Hamites) were superior to the Hutus (Bantus). ... The Institute for the Study of Academic Racism (ISAR) is an information clearinghouse for academic controversies related to racism. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ... The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... The Science wars were a series of intellectual battles in the 1990s between postmodernists and realists (though neither party would likely use the terms to describe themselves) about the nature of scientific theories. ... Alexandru Xenopol Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol (March 23, 1847 - February 27, 1920) was a Romanian scholar, economist, philosopher, historian, professor, sociologist, and author. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Drapetomania was a psychiatric diagnosis proposed in 1851 by Louisiana physician Samuel A. Cartwright to explain the tendency of black slaves to flee captivity. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... American Renaissance (AR) is a monthly white separatist magazine published by the New Century Foundation. ...

References

  1. ^ *Tucker, William. 2002. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press; *Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books;* Biddiss, Michael D. 1970. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. New York: Weybright and Talley
  2. ^ (Tucker 1994)
  3. ^ *Tucker 1994; *Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood.)
  4. ^ *Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press;* Tucker 1994)
  5. ^ Raphaël Lagier, Les races humaines selon Kant, PUF, 2004. ISBN 9782130546573 (French)
  6. ^ Benjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity, p. 356
  7. ^ Benjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity, p. 83
  8. ^ Linnaeus, Carl. Systema Naturae (1767), p. 29
  9. ^ "It may be doubted whether any character can be named which is distinctive of a race and is constant... they graduate into each other, and.. it is hardly possible to discover clear distinctive characters between them... As it is improbable that the numerous and unimportant points of resemblance between the several races of man in bodily structure and mental faculties (I do not here refer to similar customs) should all have been independently acquired, they must have been inherited from progenitors who had these same characters.", Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man p225 onwards,
    The Mis-portrayal of Darwin as a Racist
  10. ^ Darwin, Charles. 1871. The Descent of Man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray. Volume. 1. 1st edition. p 201
  11. ^ Friedrich Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of History, 1828-1830, Chapter IV, Natural Conditions - The Geographical Foundings of Universal History; 1, General Definitions; A. Natural Conditioning, §5.
  12. ^ Hegel, ibid., Chapter V
  13. ^ Hegel, ibid., IV, 2, The New World, 4 (1 is the Introduction) "North America and its Destiny," excipit
  14. ^ Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, Volume II, Section 92
  15. ^ See Pierre-André Taguieff, La couleur et le sang - Doctrines racistes à la française ("Colour and Blood - Racist doctrines à la française"), Paris, Mille et une nuits, 2002, 203 pages, and La Force du préjugé - Essai sur le racisme et ses doubles, Tel Gallimard, La Découverte, 1987, 644 pages
  16. ^ a b John M. Efron (History and Jewish Studies, Indiana University), Defenders of the Race: Jewish Doctors and Race Science in Fin-De-Siecle Europe, Yale University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0300054408
  17. ^ a b Richard Bodek. "Review of John M. Efron, Defenders of the Race: Jewish Doctors & Race Science in Fin-de-Siècle Europe", H-SAE, H-Net Reviews, May, 1996 (English)
  18. ^ Matthew Hoffman, From Pintele Yid to Racenjude: Chaim Zhitlovsky and racial conceptions of Jewishness in Jewish History, Vol. 19, n°1 / January 2005
  19. ^ Kuhl, 1994.
  20. ^ **"Le retour des zoos humains (par Pascal Blanchard et Olivier Barlet)", Africacultures, October 28, 2005. ;**"From human zoos to colonial apotheoses: the era of exhibiting the Other by Pascal Blanchard, Nicolas Bancel and Sandrine Lemaire (English version)", Africacultures, October 28, 2005. ;**Black Deutschland, von Oliver Hardt
  21. ^ Alexander Thomas and Samuell Sillen (1972). Racism and Psychiatry. New York: Carol Publishing Group.
  22. ^ Samual A. Cartwright, "Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race", DeBow's Review—Southern and Western States, Volume XI, New Orleans, 1851
  23. ^ The statistics used in the study and the excerpt from the Playboy article were used as an example of a "statistical fallacy" in the book Flaws and Fallacies in Statistical Thinking by Stephen K. Campbell
  24. ^ Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty by Dorothy Roberts. Page 63. December 1998 ISBN 0679758690

Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ... PUF (Presses universitaires de France) are the largest French university publishing houses, founded in 1921 by several professors. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Lectures on the Philosophy of History (also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History) is the title of a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ... Fayard (complete name Librairie Arthème Fayard) is a French Paris-based publishing house established in 1857. ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... H-Net is an interdisciplinary online discussion forum for humanities and social sciences scholars. ... DeBows Review was a highly influential and widely circulated magazine of agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resource in the American South during the middle of the 19th century. ...

Bibliography

  • Asseo, Henriette (1997). The Gypsies During the Second World War, Vol. 1: From Race Science to the Camps. University of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 0-900458-78-X
  • Barkan, Elazar. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Biddiss, Michael D. 1970. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. New York: Weybright and Talley.
  • Efron, John M., Defenders of the Race: Jewish Doctors and Race Science in Fin-De-Siecle Europe, Yale University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0300054408
  • Gould, Stephen Jay. 1981. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton.
  • Gross, Paul R., and Levitt, Norman. Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels With Science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8018-4766-4
  • Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Lombardo, Paul A. 2002. "‘The American Breed’: Nazi Eugenics and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund." Albany Law Review 65:743–830.
  • Murray, Charles. 2005. (co-author of The Bell Curve), The Inequality Taboo. Commentary Magazine, September.
  • Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Proctor, Robert N.. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.
  • Sapp, Jan (1987). Beyond the Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and the Struggle for Authority in Genetics. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-504206-9
  • Taguieff, Pierre-André. 1987. La Force du préjugé. Essai sur le racisme et ses doubles (Tel Gallimard, La Découverte) ISBN 2-07-071977-4 (French)
  • Tucker, William. 2002. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • UNESCO, The Race Question, 1950.

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... Paul R. Gross is a biologist and author, perhaps best known to the general public for Higher Superstition (1994),[1] written with Norman Levitt. ... Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels With Science is a book by biologist Paul R. Gross and mathematician Norman Levitt. ... The Pioneer Fund is a foundation that claims to have played a significant role in research on heredity and human personality differences since its 1937 founding, particularly in intelligence. ... Charles Murray Charles Alan Murray (born 1943) is a controversial libertarian American political scientist. ... The Bell Curve is a controversial, best-selling 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray exploring the role of genes in American life. ... Léon Poliakov (Russian: ; 1910-1997) was a historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. ... Robert N. Proctor (1954 - ) is an American science historian and Professor of the History of Science at Stanford University. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Race Question is a UNESCO statement issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II. Signed by some of the leading researchers of the time, in the field of psychology, biology, cultural anthropology and ethnology, it questioned the foundations of scientific racist theories which had became very popular at...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
racism: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (7641 words)
Racism was at the heart of North American slavery and the overseas colonization and empire-building activities of some western Europeans, especially in the 18th century.
Racism infers an assumption of racial superiority and a harmful intent, whereas separatists sometimes prefer the term racialism, indicating a strong interest in matters of race without a necessary inference of superiority or a desire to be harmful to others.
While 19th century racism is related to nationalism (some authors have opposed a "close nationalism", based on racism, etc., towards an "open nationalism", based on the universalist conception of the nation, etc.), medieval racism precisely divides the nation into various non-biological "races", which are the consequences of historical conquests and social conflicts.
Racism at AllExperts (4959 words)
Racism refers to various belief systems maintaining that the essential value of an individual person can be determined according to a perceived or ascribed racial category and that social discrimination by race is therefore justifiable.
Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequalities among "races", as in institutional racism.
Racism may be divided in three major subcategories: individual racism, structural racism, and ideological racism.Examples of individual racism include an employer not hiring a person, failing to promote or giving harsher duties or imposing harsher working conditions, or firing, someone, in whole or in part due to his race.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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