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Encyclopedia > Scientific journal
Nature, Science and PNAS
Nature, Science and PNAS

In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are actually quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are rarely read casually, as one would read a magazine. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method; they generally must supply enough details of an experiment that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record. Image File history File links Journalcovers. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article is about the concept. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... In scientific publishing, a paper is a scientific article that is published in a scientific journal. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... In logic, the form of an argument is valid precisely if it cannot lead from true premises to a false conclusion. ... This article is about people called professionals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


The history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French Journal des sçavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results. Over a thousand, mostly ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, and the number has increased rapidly after that. (D. A. Kronick, "History of Scientific and Technical Periodicals," 2nd ed. Scarecrow, 1976) The first issue of the Journal des sçavans (title page) The Journal des sçavans (later renamed Journal des savants), founded by Denis de Sallo, was the earliest scientific journal published in Europe. ... Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... An ephemeral river is one in which lasts only a few days. ...


These articles are frequently used in research and graduate education. Many classes are partially devoted to the explication of classic articles, and seminar classes usually consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs. Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... A seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at a university or offered by a commercial or professional organization. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... A journal club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to critically evaluate recent articles in scientific literature. ...


The standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely. Some journals, such as Nature, Science, PNAS or Physical Review Letters, have a reputation of publishing articles which mark a fundamental breakthrough in their respective fields. In many fields, an informal hierarchy of scientific journals exists; the most prestigious journal in a field tends to be the most selective in terms of the articles it will select for publication. It is also common for journals to have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular country or other geographic region. “Natural” redirects here. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), mostly commonly referred to as PNAS, is the official publication of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... Physical Review Letters is one of the most prestigious journals in physics. ...


Articles tend to be highly technical, representing the latest theoretical research and experimental results in the field of science covered by the journal. They are often incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field and advanced students. In some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content.

Contents

Types of articles

There are several types of journal articles; the exact terminology and definitions vary by field and specific journal, but often include: In scientific publishing, a paper is a scientific article that is published in a scientific journal. ...

  • Letters (also called communications, and not to be confused with letters to the editor) are short descriptions of important current research findings which are usually fast-tracked for immediate publication because they are considered urgent.
  • Research notes are short descriptions of current research findings which are considered less urgent or important than Letters
  • Articles are usually between five and twenty pages and are a complete descriptions of current original research finding, but there are considerable variations between scientific fields and journals: 80-page articles are not rare in mathematics or theoretical computer science.
  • Supplemental articles contain a large volume of tabular data that is the result of current research and may be dozens or hundreds of pages with mostly numerical data. Some journals now only publish this data electronically on the internet.
  • Review articles do not cover original research but rather accumulate the results of many different articles on a particular topic into a coherent narrative about the state of the art in that field. Examples of reviews include the 'Nature Reviews' series of journals and the 'Trends in' series, which invite experts to write on their specialization and then have the article peer-reviewed before accepting the article for publication. Other journals, such as the Current Opinion series, are less rigorous in peer-reviewing each article and instead rely on the author to present an accurate and unbiased view. Review articles provide information about the topic, and also provide journal references to the original research.

The formats of journal articles vary, but many follow the general IMRAD scheme recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Such articles begin with an abstract, which is a one-to-four-paragraph summary of the paper. The introduction describes the background for the research including a discussion of similar research. The materials and methods or experimental section provides specific details of how the research was conducted. The results and discussion section describes the outcome and implications of the research, and the conclusion section places the research in context and describes avenues for further exploration. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Computer science (informally, CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... IMRAD is an acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion. ... An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the papers purpose. ...


In addition to the above, some scientific journals such as Science will include a news section where scientific developments (often involving political issues) are described. These articles are often written by science journalists and not by scientists. In addition some journals will include an editorial section and a section for letters to the editor. While these are articles published within a journal, they are not generally regarded as scientific journal articles because they have not been peer-reviewed.


Electronic publishing

It has been argued that peer-reviewed paper journals are in the process of being replaced by electronic publishing, in its various forms. For other uses, see Peer review (disambiguation). ... Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of ebooks and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries. ...


One form is the online equivalent of the conventional paper journal. By 2006, almost all scientific journals have, while retaining their peer-review process, established electronic versions; a number have even moved entirely to electronic publication. Most academic libraries, similarly, buy the electronic version, and purchase a paper copy only for the most important or most used titles.


There is usually a delay of several months after an article is written before it is published in a journal and this makes paper journals not an ideal format for announcing the latest research. Many journals now publish the final papers in their electronic version as soon as they are ready, without waiting for the assembly of a complete issue, as is necessary in paper. In many fields where even greater speed is wanted, such as physics, the role of the journal at disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint databases such as arXiv.org. Almost all such articles are eventually published in traditional journals, which still provide an important role in quality control, archiving papers, and establishing scientific credit. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ...


Cost

Many scientists and librarians have long protested the cost of journals, especially as they see these payments going to large for-profit publishing houses. To allow their researchers online access to journals, universities generally purchase site licenses, permitting access from anywhere in the university--and, with appropriate authorization, by university-affiliated users at home or elsewhere. These may be quite expensive, sometimes much more than the cost for a print subscription. Publication by scholarly societies, also known as not-for-profit-publishers (NFP), usually has lower costs than commercial publishers, but the prices of their scientific journals are still usually several thousand dollars a year. Despite the transition to electronic publishing the serials crisis persists. See also: category:Professional associations. ... The term serials crisis has become common shorthand for the runaway cost increases of many scholarly journals[1] . The crisis is a result of the cost rising much faster than the rate of inflation[2]; the cost per journal and the number of such journals proliferates, while the funds available...


Concerns about cost and open access have led to the creation of free-access journals such as the Public Library of Science family and partly-open or reduced-cost journals such as the Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. ... The Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP) is a refereed scientific journal in the field of high energy physics. ...


An article titled "Online or Invisible?" [1] has used statistical arguments to claim that open access electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ...


Copyright

In most cases, the author of an article is required to transfer the copyright to the journal publisher. Publishers claim this is necessary in order to protect author's rights, and to coordinate permissions for reprints or other use. Many authors, especially those active in the open access movement, find this unsatisfactory, and would prefer a situation in which they give the publisher an irrevocable license to publish, but retain the other rights themselves. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ...


Even while retaining the copyright to an articles, most journals allow certain rights to their authors. These rights usually include the ability to reuse parts of the paper in the author's future work, and allow him to distribute a limited number of copies. In the print format, such copies are called reprints; in the electronic format they are called postprints. Some publishers, for example the American Physical Society also grant the author the right to post and update the article on the author's or employer's website and on free e-print servers, to grant permission to others to use or reuse figures, and even to reprint the article as long as no fee is charged.[2] The rise of open access journals, in which the author retains the copyright but must pay a publication charge, such as the Public Library of Science family of journals is another recent response to copyright concerns. A postprint is a digital draft of a research journal article after it has been peer reviewed. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. ...


See also

To find related topics in a list, see List of scientific journals.

The following is a partial list of scientific journals. ... Medicament assisted rehabilitation conference in Oslo An academic conference is a conference for researchers (not always academics) to present and discuss their work. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... A citation index is an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. ... CiteSeer is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers. ... Citebase Search is a semi-autonomous citation index for the free, online research literature. ... Google Scholar Logo Google Scholar (GS) is a freely-accessible web search engine that indexes the full-text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. ... A journal club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to critically evaluate recent articles in scientific literature. ... A mathematical journal is a learned journal which publishes exclusively mathematical papers. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... Open access (OA) is the free online availability of digital content. ... The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. ... A science magazine is a periodical publication with news, opinions and reports about science for a non-expert audience. ...

References

  • A.J.Meadows, ed. The Scientific Journal. London : Aslib, c1979. ISBN 0851421180
  • R.E.Abel et al. "Scholarly Publishing: Books Journals, Publishers, and Libraries in the Twentieth Century" N.Y.: Wiley, 2002. ISBN 0471219290
  • D.W.King et al. "Scientific Journals in the United States: their Production, Use, and Economics. Stroudsberg, PA: Hutchinson-Ross, 1981 ISBN 0879333804

Dr. Steve Lawrence was among the group at NEC Research which was responsible for the creation of the Search Engine/Digital Library CiteSeer. ... NEC Corporation is a multi-national information technologies company headquarterd in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
scientific journal: Information from Answers.com (1525 words)
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.
Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer-reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity.
In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs.
The Thomson Scientific Journal Selection Process - Thomson Scientific (2157 words)
Journal evaluation and selection is conducted on an ongoing basis at ISI with journals added to and deleted from the database as frequently as every two weeks.
The journal's basic publishing standards, its editorial content, the international diversity of its authorship, and the citation data associated with it are all considered.
A journal must be publishing according to its stated frequency to be considered for initial inclusion in the ISI database.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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