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Encyclopedia > Scientific diving

Professional Diving is a type of diving where the diver is paid for their work. There are several branches of professional diving, the most well known of which is probably commercial diving. Any person wishing to become a professional diver normally requires specific training that satisfies legislation, such as that set by the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive. Due to the dangerous nature of some professional diving disciplines, specialized equipment such as a diver to surface communication system is often required by law. Diving in the sense of going underwater, has these purposes. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since...

Diver with KB Bandmask [1]

Contents

Equipment

US Navy Diver using Kirby Morgan diving helmet

Image File history File links Web_051026-N-0000X-001. ... Image File history File links Web_051026-N-0000X-001. ...

Diving suit

Main article: Diving suit

Depending on the water temperature and length of dive, the diver will either use a wetsuit, where neoprene provides thermal insulation but the diver gets wet, a hot water diving suit which is similar to a wetsuit but is flooded with warm water from the surface through an umbilical, or a drysuit, which keeps the diver totally dry and relies on either the suit material or the air trapped in thermal undergarments to insulate the diver. Certain applications require a specific type of dive suit; long dives into deep, cold water normally require a hot water suit, whilst diving into potentially contaminated environments requires a drysuit.[1] Two divers, one wearing a 1 atmosphere diving suit and the other standard diving dress, preparing to explore the wreck of the RMS Lusitania, 1935 A diving suit is a garment or device designed to protect a diver from the underwater environment. ... A surfer in a wetsuit. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... drysuits are used in a number of sports to provide a barrier between the occupant and cold water. ...


Breathing apparatus

A number of factors dictate the type of breathing apparatus used by the diver. Typical considerations include the length of the dive, water contamination, space constraints and vehicle access for support vehicles. Some disciplines will very rarely use surface supplied diving, such as military clearance divers, whilst commercial divers will rarely use SCUBA equipment. Surface supplied diver at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California Surface supplied diving refers to divers using equipment supplied with breathing gas using an umbilical cord from the surface, often from a diving support vessel but possibly, indirectly via a diving bell. ... A scuba diver in usual sport diving gear SCUBA is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. ...


Scuba

Main article: Scuba diving

SCUBA equipment is normally used by media and military divers, often utilizing specialized equipment such as rebreathers, which are closed circuit SCUBA equipment that recycles breathing gas instead of releasing it into the water. It is the "re-breathing" of gas that makes rebreathers ideal for long duration dives, efficient decompression when the gas mix is adjustable, and for the observation of animals in the wild due to the lack of noisy bubbles. These characteristics also make rebreathers ideal for military use, such as when military divers are engaged in covert action or when performing mine clearance where bubbles could potentially set off an explosion. Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... This article is about the breathing apparatus. ...


Open circuit scuba equipment is occasionally used by commercial divers working on sites where surface supplied equipment is unsuitable, such as around raised structures like a water tower, or in remote locations where it is necessary to carry equipment to the dive site. Normally, for comfort and for practicality, a full face mask such as those manufactured by Kirby Morgan will be used to allow torches and video cameras to be mounted onto the mask. The benefit of full-face masks is that they can normally be used with surface supplied equipment as well, removing the need for the diver or the company to have two sets of expensive equipment. The mushroom-shaped concrete water tower of Roihuvuori in Helsinki, Finland was built in the 1970s. ... A diver in a pool wearing an AGA full face mask A diver wearing an Ocean Reef full face mask A full-face diving mask is a type of diving mask worn by SCUBA divers so that they can talk with the surface or other divers. ...


Surface supplied

Surface-supplied divers from 1873 (Illustrated London News, February 8th)

This is, perhaps, the most common type of equipment used in professional diving, and the one most recognised by the public, made familiar through films such as The Abyss. Surface supplied diver at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California Surface supplied diving refers to divers using equipment supplied with breathing gas using an umbilical cord from the surface, often from a diving support vessel but possibly, indirectly via a diving bell. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2939 × 3666 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2939 × 3666 pixel, file size: 5. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... The Abyss is a 1989 science fiction film which was written and directed by James Cameron, starring Ed Harris, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, and Michael Biehn. ...

US Navy tender with umbilical - A typical surface supplied diving situation

Surface Supplied equipment can be used with full face masks or diving helmets. Helmets are normally to be found fitted with diver to surface communication equipment, and often with light sources and video equipment. The use of a full-face mask or a full diving helmet is down to requirements and personal preference, however the impact protection and warmth offered by a full diving helmet makes it popular for underwater construction sites and cold water work. A diver in a pool wearing an AGA full face mask A diver wearing an Ocean Reef full face mask A full-face diving mask is a type of diving mask worn by SCUBA divers so that they can talk with the surface or other divers. ... Diving helmets are worn by divers who need to speak and hear underwater. ...


Breathing gas for the diver is piped down from the surface, through a long, flexible hose, called an umbilical. In addition to breathing gas, the umbilical may have additional hoses and cables for such things as communications equipment or hot water should the diver be using a hot water suit. The diver's breathing gas can is pumped down from either high pressure tanks or through a gas compressor. Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... Grays Fig. ... 12 litre and 3 litre steel diving cylinders A diving cylinder, scuba tank or diving tank is used to store and transport high pressure breathing gas as a component of an Aqua-Lung. ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ...


If the diver is to be working at extreme depths for a long period, the diver may live in a special underwater habitat called a diving chamber. This type of surface supplied diving is known as saturation diving. The same technique for supplying breathing gas as regular surface supplied diving is used, with the diving bell receiving breathing gas and electricity from a diving support vessel on the surface. Due to the often extreme depths the diver is working at, specialised helium-based breathing gas mixtures are often used to prevent both nitrogen narcosis and oxygen toxicity which occurs at these extreme depths. Diving bell A diving bell is a cable suspended watertight chamber, open at the bottom, that is lowered underwater to operate as a base or a means of transport for a small number of divers. ... Saturation diving is a diving technique that allow divers to remain at great depth for long periods of time, by living under pressure in special living chamber complexes affixed to a diving support vessel, oil platform or other floating work station. ... A diving support vessel is a ship that is used as a floating base for professional diving projects. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Nitrogen narcosis or inert gas narcosis is a reversible alteration in consciousness producing a state similar to alcohol intoxication in scuba divers at depth. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ...


Branches of professional diving

Commercial diving

Offshore diving

Offshore diving is the most well known branch of commercial diving, with divers working in support of the exploration and production sector of the oil and gas industry in places such as the Gulf of Mexico in the United States and the North Sea in the United Kingdom and Norway. The work in this area of the industry typically revolves around the maintenance of oil platforms and the building of underwater structures used in the production process. The petroleum industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Hibernia platform is the worlds largest oil platform. ...


For many newly qualified divers, this is the entry point to the industry, the lack of experienced divers and the excess of qualified divers within the industry push down wages for younger, less experienced divers beginning their careers. The low wages, relative inexperience of the workforce combined with difficult and dangerous operating conditions make offshore diving the most dangerous area of employment for professional divers.


Equipment used for offshore diving tends to be surface supplied equipment but this does vary depending on the nature of the work and location, for instance Gulf of Mexico based divers may use wetsuits whilst North Sea divers need drysuits or even hot water suits due to the temperature of the water.


Inland / onshore diving

Inland or onshore diving is very similar to offshore diving in terms of the nature of work and the equipment used, the work often being in support of land based civil engineering projects, with the majority of the work either underwater survey or engineering work. The number of dive sites this covers is varied however, and divers can be found working in harbours and lakes, in rivers and around bridges and pontoons, with the bulk of this work being undertaken in freshwater. Onshore divers typically earn less per hour than their colleagues who work offshore, but the ability to work from home for many divers is an advantage. The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... There are several uses of the word survey, relating to two primary meanings: land surveying; and statistical surveys of people or other items, such as animals, organisations, or messages. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... volcanic rock. ... For the car body style, see Ponton (automobile). ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...


The equipment used does depend on the nature of the work and location, but normally a mixture of SCUBA and Surface supplied diving equipment is used by divers and their employers. A scuba diver in usual sport diving gear SCUBA is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. ... Surface supplied diver at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California Surface supplied diving refers to divers using equipment supplied with breathing gas using an umbilical cord from the surface, often from a diving support vessel but possibly, indirectly via a diving bell. ...


HAZMAT diving

US Navy Diver being decontaminated after a dive.

HAZMAT diving is widely regarded as the most dangerous branch of the commercial diving industry, employing highly skilled and experienced staff. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x960, 136 KB) Summary US Navy Accessed 17th December 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x960, 136 KB) Summary US Navy Accessed 17th December 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Typical work involves diving into raw sewage or dangerous chemicals, such as paper pulp, liquid cement, or oil sludge. This causes special requirements: Pulpwood refers to timber stocks that are cut for paper production. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Numerous late-model piston engines from many manufacturers have suffered from failures due to oil sludge contamination. ...

  • The divers need to be vaccinated against diseases such as hepatitis and tetanus.
  • The dive company needs to have specialist plans in place for decontamination of the diver and equipment after a dive.
  • A way to recover the diver if something goes wrong.
  • The diver's weighting may need to be adjusted, if he is diving in a liquid whose density is much different from the density of water.

The main tasks a diver can be found to be doing include: Vaccination is a term coined by Edward Jenner for the process of administering a weakened form of a disease to patients as a means of giving them immunity to a more serious form of the disease. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is...

  • Essential maintenance of underwater valves and sluice gates.
  • Repairing damaged pipelines.
  • Pollution control work to contain, control, and clean up after a pollution incident.
  • Some divers are required to dive into landfill sites to maintain the pumping equipment, vital in preventing landfill sites from filling up with rainwater and contaminating the water table.
  • Welding inside live sewers or working in septic tanks.
  • Miscellaneous repairs and finding lost objects.
  • Finding bodies.

Sewer diving is often considered the most dangerous of all the HAZMAT jobs due to the diseases contained in raw sewage and because syringes and glass find their way into the raw sewage, creating risks of contracting diseases. It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Albury landfill, Surrey, England A landfill, also known as a dump, is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... A septic tank, the key component of a septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes provided by private corporations or local governments. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ...


Divers working in an environment harmful to their health will always wear a full drysuit with thick gloves which are attached directly to the suit, the helmet and boots will also attach directly to the drysuit, this allows the gloves, boots, suit and helmet to be pressured in order to prevent ingress of liquid should a puncture occur. Normally, to achieve this, a diver will use a free flow diving helmet which continually supplies enough air for the diver to breathe plus an additional amount to pressurise the suit; a free flow helmet has a much lower chance of leakage through the exhaust valve compared with a demand helmet where the exhaust valve is dormant during the inhalation stage of the diver breathing.


The drysuit will be made from a material resistant to whatever hazard the diver faces: normally the diver wears a vulcanised rubber drysuit, but occasionally a neoprene or tri-laminate suit is needed. Often, a diver will wear extra protection over their drysuit to decrease the chance of a puncture: leather, PVC, and nylon coveralls are used for this purpose. drysuits are used in a number of sports to provide a barrier between the occupant and cold water. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... The word overall is also an adjective meaning above everything. Overalls are usually used as protective clothing when working, but they have sometimes been items of fashion. ...


In such diving light is often very scarce, so most such divers rely on touch to guide them, and are usually connected via rope to the surface.


Links:

  • Honolulu Advertiser article on sewer diving
  • Washington Post article on Mexico City sewer divers

Nuclear diving

Nuclear diving is similar to HAZMAT diving; the difference is the exposure to radiation instead of a water borne contaminant. To this end, different precautions are required for nuclear diving, mainly, equipment which will not absorb radiation and pose a disposal problem after several dives. Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. ...


Heat stress can also be a danger for the diver, in which case a cold water suit may be used: the cold water suit is a special canvas coverall which floods the outside of the diver's drysuit with chilled water, countering the dangerously high ambient water temperature. A dosimeter is used to ensure that the diver does not receive a dangerous dose of radiation during the dive, assisting in calculating the maximum length of the dive. In addition the dosimeter can also be used to find radiation hotspots, which can indicate areas in need of repair. A dosimeter is any device used to measure an individuals exposure to a hazardous environment, particularly when the hazard is cumulative over long intervals of time, or ones lifetime. ...


Scientific diving

A scientific diver at work

Scientific diving is the use of diving techniques by scientists to study underwater what would normally be studied by scientists on land. Scientific divers are normally qualified scientists first and divers second, who use diving equipment and techniques as their way to get to the location of their fieldwork. Underwater archaeology, marine biology and geology are examples of sciences pursued underwater. Some scientific diving is carried out by universities in support of undergraduate or postgraduate research programs. In the United States scientific diving is exempted from regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and is permitted to operate under a consensual standard of practice that is maintained by the American Academy of Underwater Sciences. Exempted scientific diving must meet four tests: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 534 KB) Summary Photo taken at snorkel depth by me at Stourhead June 17 2004 Viv Hamilton 21:04, 2 March 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 534 KB) Summary Photo taken at snorkel depth by me at Stourhead June 17 2004 Viv Hamilton 21:04, 2 March 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... Various species of reef fish in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

1. The Diving Control Board consists of a majority of active scientific divers and has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program's operations.
2. The purpose of the project using scientific diving is the advancement of science; therefore, information and data resulting from the project are non-proprietary.
3. The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data gatherer. Construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated with commercial diving are not included within scientific diving.
4. Scientific divers, based on the nature of their activities, must use scientific expertise in studying the underwater environment and, therefore, are scientists or scientists in training.

Government bodies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UK Environment Agency carry out scientific diving to recover samples of water, marine organisms and sea, lake or riverbed material to examine for signs of pollution. EPA redirects here. ... (see also the List of environmental organizations) The Environment Agency (Welsh: Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd) of England and Wales was created by the Environment Act 1995, along with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. ... Riverbed Technology, Inc. ...


Equipment used varies widely in this field, but surface supplied equipment though quite uncommon in the UK is growing in popularity in the U.S. The short number of dives made by scientific divers in normally quite shallow water, and the UK governmental regulations that make surface supplied equipment cumbersome, when combined with a need for easy transportation make surface supplied gear uneconomic and undesirable for UK scientists to use.


Media diving

Media Diving is a term that covers underwater photography and underwater filming. Media Diving is often carried out in support of television documentaries, such as the BBC series Planet Earth or Hollywood blockbusters, with feature films such as Titanic and The Perfect Storm featuring underwater photography or footage. Media divers are normally highly trained camera operators who use diving as a method to reach their workplace, although some underwater photographers may start as recreational divers and move on to make a living from their hobby. Pink Anemonefish hiding in tentacles Underwater photography is the process of taking photographs while underwater. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Planet Earth is a BBC nature documentary series narrated by David Attenborough and produced by Alastair Fothergill. ... Titanic is a 1997 American romantic drama film directed, written, and co-produced by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... The Perfect Storm is a 2000 film adapted from the book of the same title by Sebastian Junger. ...


Equipment in this field is varied with SCUBA and surface supplied equipment used, depending on requirements, but rebreathers are often used for wildlife related work as they are normally quiet, release few or no bubbles and allow the diver a lengthy bottom time with a reduced risk of frightening off the subject at hand. Inspiration Closed Circuit Diving Rebreather Description A rebreather is a type of breathing equipment that provides a breathing gas containing oxygen and recycles exhaled gas. ...


Military and naval diving

US Navy Clearance Divers training to defuse a mine
Main article: Clearance Diver
Main article: Frogman

Military diving covers all types of diving carried out by military personnel. There are a number of different specialisations for a military diver to choose, some depend on which branch of the military they've joined or where the military needs more divers. Typical offensive activities include underwater demolition, infiltration and sabotage, this being the type of work elite regiments such as the UK Special Boat Service or the USA Navy Seals carry out. Defensive activities are centered around countering the threat of enemy special forces and enemy anti-shipping measures, and typically involve defusing mines, searching for explosive devices attached to the hulls of ships, and locating enemy frogmen in the water. Clearance Diver is the British Navys official name for the usual sort of general-purpose naval work diver. ... // This page describes a type of scuba diver. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys special forces unit. ... “Navy seals” redirects here. ... Special Forces (SF) or Special Operations Forces (SOF) are highly-trained military units that conduct specialized operations such as reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and counter-terrorism actions. ... Polish wz. ... For the Wizard of Oz series character, see Frogman (Oz character). ...


Military divers need equipment which hides their position and prevents explosives from being set-off, and to this end, they use rebreathers which produce few or no bubbles on the surface, and which contain no magnetic components, this continues down to the design of their diving suit, which will normally have a non-magnetic zip, and the face-mask may be fitted with special anti-reflective glass. Some navies have gone further and given their divers special contact lenses instead of large face-masks to cut down on the risk of a reflection. Inspiration Closed Circuit Diving Rebreather Description A rebreather is a type of breathing equipment that provides a breathing gas containing oxygen and recycles exhaled gas. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ...


Naval diving is the military term for commercial diving, and is drastically different to military diving. Naval divers work to support maintenance and repair operations on ships and military installations. Typical tasks include changing propellers or fitting replacement anodes. Naval divers may also work to recover downed aircraft, submarines, missiles and other military hardware. Their equipment is derived from commercially available equipment, with the US Navy using versions of the Kirby Morgan helmets and full-face masks amongst other equipment. Diagram of a zinc anode An anode (from the Greek άνοδος = going up) is the positive electrode in an electrolytic system or circuit. ...


Experimental diving, is conducted by the US Navy's Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) and involves meeting military needs through the research and development of diving practices and diving equipment, testing new types equipment and finding new and safer ways to perform dives and related activities. The US NEDU was responsible for much of the early experimental diving work to calculate decompression tables and has since worked on such developments as heated diving suits powered by radioactive isotopes and mixed gas diving equipment, while the British equivalent (The Admiralty Experimental Diving Unit) perfected the Mark 10 submarine escape suits utilized by both the Royal Navy and the US Navy.[2] BSAC Nitrox Decompression tables Dive Tables, Decompression Tables or Tables are printed cards or booklets that allow divers to determine for a particular dive profile and breathing gas, the Decompression stops required for that dive in order to avoid decompression sickness. ...


Police diving

Main article: Police diving

Police divers are normally police officers who have been trained in the use of diving techniques to recover evidence and occasionally bodies from rivers, canals and the sea. They may also be employed in searching shipping for contraband substances fitted to the outside of hulls to avoid detection. The equipment they use depends on requirements, but the requirement for communications at some sites does often require the use of full-face masks with communication equipment, either with SCUBA or surface supplied equipment. Police diving is a branch of professional diving carried out by world police services. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ...


Dive instruction

There are two differing types of dive instructor. Some train recreational divers while others train professional divers.


Recreational dive instructors differ from other types of professional divers as they normally don't require a professional level qualification, but a relevant recreational qualification from a recognised training agency such as PADI or BSAC, which permits them to teach. Dive instructors teach a wide variety of skills from entry-level diver training for beginners, to diver rescue for intermediate level divers and technical diving for more experienced divers. They often operate from dedicated dive centres at coastal sites or through hotels in popular holiday resorts or simply from local swimming pools. Initial training is carried out mainly on conventional SCUBA equipment but with the increasing use of rebreathers, their use is also taught. Not all dive instructors are professionals; most BSAC instructors are amateurs with careers outside the diving industry. Recreational diving is a type of diving that uses SCUBA equipment for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment. ... This page lists SCUBA diver training organizations. ... The Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) is the worlds largest recreational diving membership organization and diver training organization. ... The British Sub-Aqua Club or BSAC is the governing body of Britain. ... Diver training is essential for safe diving. ... Beaching a casualty while providing artificial respiration Diver rescue, following an accident, is the process of avoiding or limiting further exposure to diving hazards and bringing a SCUBA diver to safety. ... Technical diving is a form of SCUBA diving that exceeds the scope of recreational diving. ... A scuba diver in usual sport diving gear SCUBA is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. ... This article is about the breathing apparatus. ...


Commercial dive instructors normally required to have professional diving qualifications. They typically teach trainee commercial divers how to operate types of diving equipment and typical underwater tools they will use in the course of their work. Commercial dive instructors will use similar equipment to commercial divers in the course of their work. The fundamental item of diving equipment used by divers is the SCUBA equipment, such as the Aqualung or Rebreather. ...


Training

In the UK, any person diving at work is required to hold a relevant qualification approved by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). In the UK, diving schools work towards a standard HSE approved qualification, whilst divers who have trained overseas may find their existing qualifications meet the necessary HSE standards, if not, additional training may be required. HSE approved qualifications are well known around the world and due to the stringent requirements of HSE qualifications, most diving qualifications around the world are designed to meet HSE standards, allowing any trained diver to work in the UK, an important location due to the North Sea oil industry. The stringent requirements of the HSE qualifications make then a common requirement around the world for employers looking for new staff. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ...


There are several different HSE qualifications, each focusing on a different type of equipment or type of diving activity, for instance the HSE Scuba qualification allows the holder to use only SCUBA equipment. Training usually takes place at a residential school, with courses taking anything between 9 and 13 weeks although divers with existing qualifications, such as former military divers can take courses which build on their existing knowledge and experience. During training, divers will be taught how to use common types of diving equipment (nearly every school trains divers to use the Kirby Morgan equipment) and how to carry out underwater construction techniques such as welding and cutting. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


In addition to physical training, there is a large amount of classroom work, with divers being trained subjects such as basic gas laws and decompression tables. First Aid courses are normally also a requirement for trainee divers, with the emphasis placed on dealing with decompression and other diving related injuries. The gas laws are a set of laws that describe the relationship between thermodynamic temperature (T), pressure (P) and volume (V) of gases. ... Dive Tables, Decompression Tables or Tables are printed cards or booklets that allow divers to determine for a particular dive profile and breathing gas, the Decompression stops required for that dive in order to avoid decompression sickness. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Divers face specific physical and health risks when they go underwater (e. ...


References

  1. ^ US Environmental Protection Agency Guidance For Contaminated Environment Diving
  2. ^ US Navy History Site

See also

For scientific and archaeological applications for which diving is needed see:

For other diving activities Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... Marine biology is the scientific study of the plants, animals, and other organisms that live in the ocean. ...

Diving in the sense of going underwater, has these purposes. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
► ► Scuba - Scientific diving (411 words)
It is the diving performed by individuals necessary to and part of a scientific research or educational activity.
The commercial diving are, inspection of pipelines and similar objects; placing or removing heavy objects underwater; demolition; cutting or welding; construction; or the use of explosives.
Scientific divers must be trained to use this tool to a level of proficiency that allows them to focus on the research task.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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