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Encyclopedia > Science fiction film

Science fiction film is a film genre that uses speculative, science-based depictions of imaginary phenomena such as extra-terrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, and time travel, often along with technological elements such as futuristic spacecraft, robots, or other technologies. Science fiction films have often been used to provide social commentary on political or social issues, and to explore philosophical issues, such as "what makes us human." In many cases, tropes derived from written science fiction may be used by filmmakers ignorant of or at best indifferent to the standards of scientific plausibility and plot logic to which written science fiction is traditionally held. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... In film theory, genre refers to the primary method of film categorization. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Planets in science fiction are fictional planets that appear in various media, especially those of the science fiction genre, as story-settings or depicted locations. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... This is a list of fictional spacecraft, starships, and exo-atmospheric vessels that have been identified by name in published works of fiction (novels, films, television series, etc). ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Social commentary is the act of expressing an opinion on the nature of society. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ...


The genre has existed since the early years of silent cinema, when Georges Melies' A Trip to the Moon (1902) amazed audiences with its trick photography effects. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the genre consisted mainly of low-budget B-movies. After Stanley Kubrick's 1968 landmark 2001: A Space Odyssey, the science fiction film genre was taken more seriously. In the late 1970s, big-budget science fiction films filled with special effects became popular with audiences. The hugely influential Star Wars trilogy and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, appeared, paving the way for the blockbuster hits of subsequent decades, such as E.T. the Extra Terrestrial (1982) and Men in Black (1997). Le Voyage dans la lune is a 1902 French science fiction black and white silent film known in its English language release as A Trip to the Moon. ... Events March 10 - Circuit Courts decision disallows Thomas Edison from having a monopoly on motion picture technology. ... The term B-movie originally referred to a film designed to be distributed as the lower half of a double feature, often a genre film featuring cowboys, gangsters or vampires. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... The year 1968 in film involved some significant events. ... The DVD cover of the Star Wars trilogy. ... This article is about the film; for the definition of the UFO related phenomenon, see Close encounter. ... For the Atari 2600 video game based on the movie, see E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (Atari 2600). ... // This is the year of film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, which will become the highest grossing movie for almost 15 years (until Titanic), earning double or triple against any major film of the 1980s. ... Men in Black is a 1997 science fiction comedy action film directed by Barry Sonnenfeld, starring Tommy Lee Jones, Will Smith and Vincent DOnofrio. ... The year 1997 in film involved some significant events. ...

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Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This page lists a broad variety of science fiction novels (and novel series)--some old, some new; some famous, some obscure; some well-written, some ill-written--and so may be considered a representative slice of the field. ... Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate, or did not work in that genre. ... Main article: Science fiction conventions These are lists of conventions in the genres of Science Fiction/ Fantasy, Anime, Gaming, Comics, Horror and related genres. ...

Definition

Defining precisely which films belong to the science fiction genre is often difficult, as there is no universally accepted definition of the genre, or in fact its underlying genre in literature. According to one definition:

Science fiction film is a film genre which emphasizes actual, extrapolative, or speculative science and the empirical method, interacting in a social context with the lesser emphasized, but still present, transcendentalism of magic and religion, in an attempt to reconcile man with the unknown (Sobchack 63). A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Empirical methods are the means by which scientists gather information about the world in order to develop theories. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ...

This definition assumes that a continuum exists between (real-world) empiricism and (supernatural) transcendentalism, with science fiction film on the side of empiricism, and horror film and fantasy film on the side of transcendentalism. However, there are numerous well-known examples of science fiction horror films, epitomized by such pictures as Frankenstein and Alien. And the Star Wars films blend elements typical of science fiction film (such as spaceships, androids and ray guns) with the mystical "Force", a magical power that would seem to fit the fantasy genre better than science fiction. Film critics therefore sometimes use terms like "Sci Fi/Horror" or "Science Fantasy" to indicate such films' hybrid status. For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. ... Frankenstein is a 1931 science fiction film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and very loosely based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. ... This article is about the first film in a series. ... This article is about the series. ... Ariane 5 lifts off with the Rosetta probe on 2nd of March, 2004. ... An android is an artificially created being that resembles a human being. ... // Rayguns are a type of directed-energy weapon. ... The Force is a binding, ubiquitous power that is the object of the Jedi and Sith monastic orders in the Star Wars universe. ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ...


The visual style of science fiction film can be characterized by a clash between alien and familiar images. This clash is implemented when alien images become familiar, as in A Clockwork Orange, when the repetitions of the Korova Milkbar make the alien decor seem more familiar. As well, familiar images become alien; for example, in Dr. Strangelove, the distortion of the humans make the familiar images seem more alien. Finally, alien and familiar images are juxtaposed, as in The Deadly Mantis, when a giant praying mantis is shown climbing the Washington Monument. This article is about the film. ... Strangelove redirects here. ... The Deadly Mantis is a 1957 science fiction film from Universal-International. ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is the common name for an insect of the order Mantodea. ... For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ...


Cultural theorist Scott Bukatman has proposed that science fiction film allows contemporary culture to witness an expression of the sublime, be it through exaggerated scale (the Death Star in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope), apocalypse (Independence Day) or transcendence (2001: A Space Odyssey).[citation needed] Scott Bukatman is a cultural theorist and Associate Professor of Film and Media Studies at Stanford University whose research examines how popular media (film, comics) and genres (science fiction, musicals, superhero narratives) mediate between new technologies and human perceptual and bodily experience. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... For other uses, see Death Star (disambiguation). ... Independence Day (also known as its promotional abbreviation ID4) is an Academy Award winning science fiction film directed by Roland Emmerich. ...


Also notable is the period shift in set design between white or light background sets (1960s Star Trek, 2001) to dark and black set design (1980s).


History

A still from the 1902 film Le Voyage dans La Lune. ...

1900–1920s

Metropolis, an early example of the genre that remains influential
Metropolis, an early example of the genre that remains influential

Science fiction films appeared early in the silent film era, typically as short films shot in black and white, sometimes with colour tinting. They usually had a technological theme and were often intended to be humorous. In 1902, Georges Méliès released Le Voyage dans la Lune, a film that used early trick photography effects to depict a spacecraft’s journey to the moon. Several films merged the science-fiction and horror genres, such as Frankenstein (1910), a film adaptation of Mary Shelley's novel, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1912). A longer science fiction film, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1916), was based on Jules Verne’s novel. In the 1920s, European filmmakers tended to use science fiction films for prediction and social commentary, as can be seen in German films such as Metropolis (1926) and Frau im Mond (1929). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x896, 152 KB) Summary 2002 Re-release poster for Metropolis (1927 film). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x896, 152 KB) Summary 2002 Re-release poster for Metropolis (1927 film). ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Events March 10 - Circuit Courts decision disallows Thomas Edison from having a monopoly on motion picture technology. ... Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ... Le Voyage dans la lune is a 1902 French science fiction black and white silent film known in its English language release as A Trip to the Moon. ... “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... Frankenstein is a 1910 film made by Edison Studios that was written and directed by J. Searle Dawley. ... See also: 1909 in film 1910 1911 in film years in film film Events The newsreel footage of the funeral of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom is shot in Kinemacolor, making it the first color newsreel. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... See also: 1911 in film 1912 1913 in film years in film film Events Mack Sennett, who had previously worked as an actor and comedy director with D. W. Griffith, formed a new company, Keystone Studios, that played an important role in developing slapstick comedy. ... 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea is a silent film made in 1916, based on the novel by Jules Verne of the same title. ... // Events November 19 - Samuel Goldfish (later renamed Samuel Goldwyn) and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Company (the company later became one of the most successful independent filmmakers). ... This article is about the French author. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... // August - Warner Brothers debuts the first Vitaphone film, Don Juan. ... Frau im Mond is a science fiction silent movie released in 1929, and is often considered to be one of the first serious science fiction films. ... See also: 1928 in film 1929 1930 in film 1920s in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events The days of the silent film were numbered. ...


1930s–1950s

In the 1930s, there were several big budget science fiction films, notably Just Imagine (the first feature length science fiction film by a US studio), the US-made films King Kong (1933) and Lost Horizon (1936) and the British-made Things to Come (1936). Starting in 1934, a number of science fiction comic strips were adapted as serials, notably Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers, both starring Buster Crabbe. These serials, and the comic strips they were based on, helped fix in the mind of the US public the idea that science fiction was juvenile and absurd, and led to the common description of science fiction as "that crazy Buck Rogers stuff". After 1936, no more big budget science fiction films were produced until 1950's Destination Moon, the first color sf film. Just Imagine was a humorous science-fiction movie musical presented by 20th Century Fox in 1930, directed by David Butler, to console audiences distressed by the Great Depression. ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... See also: 1932 in film 1933 1934 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events British Film Institute founded. ... Lost Horizon is a 1937 film directed by Frank Capra starring Ronald Colman, Jane Wyatt, John Howard, Margo, Thomas Mitchell, Edward Everett Horton, Isabel Jewell, H.B. Warner, and Sam Jaffe. ... See also: 1935 in film 1936 1937 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events January 6 - first Porky Pig animated cartoon September 28 - The Marx Brothers Harpo Marx marries actress Susan Fleming Top grossing films in North America Red River Valley Academy Awards Best Picture: The Great... Things to Come is a 1936 British science fiction film, produced by Alexander Korda and directed by William Cameron Menzies. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... DVD front cover for The Adventures of Captain Marvel, one of the most celebrated serials for both Republic Pictures and of the sound era in general. ... For other uses, see Flash Gordon (disambiguation). ... Buck Rogers is a fictional pulp character who first appeared in 1928 as Anthony Rogers, the hero of two novellas by Philip Francis Nowlan published in the magazine Amazing Stories. ... Buster Crabbe Buster Crabbe (February 7, 1908 – April 23, 1983) was an American athlete turned actor, who starred in a number of popular serials in the 1930s and 1940s. ... Destination Moon (originally Objectif Lune) is also the title of a comic book in the Tintin series by Hergé; see Destination Moon (Tintin). ...


During the 1950s, public interest in space travel and new technologies revived. While many 1950s science-fiction films were still low-budget B movies, there were several successful films with larger budgets and impressive special effects, notably Destination Moon, The Day the Earth Stood Still, This Island Earth, and Forbidden Planet. Some of the many B movies are also still of interest today, especially Howard Hawks's The Thing from Another World, Invasion of the Body Snatchers and It Came From Outer Space. The King of the Bs, Roger Corman, produced and directed The Raven (1963) for American International Pictures. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1950 films | Science fiction films ... The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 black-and-white science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to warn its leaders not to take their conflicts into space, or they will face devastating consequences. ... This Island Earth is a Technicolor, 1955 science fiction film directed by Joseph M. Newman. ... This article is about the 1956 film. ... Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... The Thing from Another World is a 1951 science fiction film which tells the story of an Air Force crew and scientists at a remote Arctic research outpost who fight a malevolent alien being. ... Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a 1956 science fiction film. ... It Came from Outer Space is a 1953 Science Fiction 3-D film directed by Jack Arnold, and starring Richard Carlson, Barbara Rush, and Charles Drake. ...


There was a close connection between many films in the science fiction genre and the monster movie, in, for example, Them!, The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms, and The Blob Categories: Movie stubs | 1954 films | Science fiction films ... The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms is a black and white 1953 science fiction film directed by Eugène Lourié. The films shooting title was Monster from Beneath the Sea. ... For other meanings of this term, see Blob. ...


Ray Harryhausen began to use stop-motion animation to create special effects for films such as Earth vs. the Flying Saucers (1956). Ray Harryhausen, with creations from Clash of the Titans. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... DVD Earth vs. ... The year 1956 in film involved some significant events. ...


1960s

There were relatively few science fiction films in the 1960s, but some of the films transformed science fiction cinema. Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) brought new realism to the genre, with its groundbreaking visual effects and realistic portrayal of space travel and influenced the genre with its epic story and transcendent philosophical scope. Other 1960s films included Planet of the Apes (1968) and Fahrenheit 451 (1966), which provided social commentary, and the campy Barbarella (1968), which explored the sillier side of earlier science fiction. Jean-Luc Godard's French "new wave" film Alphaville (1965) posited a futuristic Paris commanded by an artificial intelligence which has outlawed all emotion. Kubrick redirects here. ... The year 1968 in film involved some significant events. ... Planet of the Apes is a 1968 science fiction film about an astronaut (Charlton Heston) who finds himself stranded on an Earth-like planet two thousand years in the future. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit 451 (disambiguation). ... // Events Top grossing films North America Thunderball Dr. Zhivago Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? That Darn Cat! The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming Academy Awards Best Picture: A Man for All Seasons - Highland, Columbia Best Actor: Paul Scofield - A Man for All Seasons Best Actress: Elizabeth Taylor... Barbarella, also known as Barbarella, Queen of the Galaxy is a 1968 erotic science fiction film directed by Roger Vadim, based on the French Barbarella comic book created by Jean-Claude Forest. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... Alphaville is: A German music trio. ...


1970s-1980s

The era of manned trips to the moon in the 1970s saw a resurgence of interest in the science fiction film. Andrei Tarkovsky’s slow-paced Solaris (1972) had visuals and a philosophic scope reminiscent of 2001: A Space Odyssey. Science fiction films from the early 1970s explored the theme of paranoia, in which humanity is depicted as under threat from ecological or technological adversaries of its own creation, such as Silent Running (ecology), Westworld (man vs. robot), THX 1138 (man vs. the state), and Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange (threat of brainwashing). Conspiracy thriller films of the 1970s included Soylent Green and Futureworld. The science fiction comedies of the 1970s included Woody Allen's Sleeper and Dan O'Bannon's Dark Star. “Tarkovsky” redirects here. ... Solaris (Russian: , Solyaris) is a 1972 Soviet film based on the novel Solaris by Polish author StanisÅ‚aw Lem. ... // Top grossing films The Godfather Fiddler on the Roof Diamonds Are Forever Whats Up, Doc?, starring Barbra Streisand and Ryan ONeal Dirty Harry The Last Picture Show A Clockwork Orange Cabaret, starring Liza Minnelli The Hospital Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex Academy Awards Best Picture... For other uses, see Silent Running (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Westworld was a 1973 film written and directed by Michael Crichton. ... THX 1138 was George Lucas first full length movie. ... This article is about the film. ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ... Futureworld was a 1976 sequel to the 1973 science fiction film Westworld. ... Sleeper (1973) is a futuristic science fiction comedy film, written by, directed by, and starring Woody Allen. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ...


Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, both released in 1977 , were box-office hits that brought about a huge increase in science fiction films. As well, Star Wars helped to blur the distinction between the science fiction, fantasy, and superhero genres. In 1979, Star Trek: The Motion Picture brought the television series to the big screen for the first time. Ridley Scott's films, such as Alien and Blade Runner, presented the future as dark, dirty and chaotic, and depicted non-humans such as aliens and cyborgs as hostile and dangerous. In contrast, Steven Spielberg's E.T. The Extra Terrestrial, one of the most successful films of the 1980s, presented aliens as benign and friendly. This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... This article is about the film; for the definition of the UFO related phenomenon, see Close encounter. ... // Events In the Academy Awards, Peter Finch, Faye Dunaway and Beatrice Straight win Best Actor and Actress and Supporting Actress awards for Network. ... // Events March 5 - Production begins on Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. ... Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ... This article is about the first film in a series. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... For the Atari 2600 video game based on the movie, see E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (Atari 2600). ...


The big budget adaptations of Frank Herbert's Dune and Arthur C. Clarke's sequel to 2001, 2010: The Year We Make Contact, were box office duds that dissuaded producers from investing in science fiction literary properties. The strongest contributors to the genre during the second half of the 1980s were James Cameron and Paul Verhoeven with The Terminator and RoboCop entries. In the 1980s, animation began being used for science fiction films, such as the Japanese anime film Akira (1988) and the French animated science fiction film Light Years (1988). Dune is a 1984 science fiction film written and directed by David Lynch, based on the 1965 Frank Herbert novel of the same name. ... (Redirected from 2010: The Year We Make Contact) 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... Akira ) is a 1988 Japanese animated film co-written and directed by Katsuhiro Otomo based on his manga of the same name. ... // Michael Jacksons first film was Moonwalker Rain Man, starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise Who Framed Roger Rabbit, starring Bob Hoskins Coming to America, starring Eddie Murphy Big, starring Tom Hanks Twins, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and Danny DeVito Crocodile Dundee II Die Hard, starring Bruce Willis The Naked Gun... VCR tape box cover. ...


1990s–2000s

In the 1990s, the emergence of the world wide web and the cyberpunk genre spawned several movies on the theme of the computer-human interface, such as Total Recall (1990), The Lawnmower Man (1992), Virtuosity (1995), Johnny Mnemonic (1995), eXistenZ (1999) and The Matrix (1999) . Other themes included disaster movies (e.g., Armageddon and Deep Impact both from 1998), alien invasion (Independence Day from 1996) and genetic experimentation (e.g., Jurassic Park from 1993 and Gattaca from 1997). WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... For other uses, see Total recall (disambiguation). ... The year 1990 in film involved some significant events. ... The Lawnmower Man is a 1992 film which uses elements from Stephen Kings short story The Lawnmower Man. The films original script, written by director Brett Leonard and producer Gimel Everett, was titled Cyber God and had nothing to do with Stephen King. ... The year 1992 in film involved many significant films. ... Virtuosity is a 1995 science fiction movie directed by Brett Leonard. ... The year 1995 in film involved some significant events. ... Johnny Mnemonic is a 1995 cyberpunk-based movie, loosely based on a short story of the same name by William Ford Gibson, in which Keanu Reeves plays the title character, a man with a cybernetic implant in his head designed to store information. ... eXistenZ is a 1999 psychological thriller/science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... The year 1999 in film involved some significant events. ... For other films with this name, see Armageddon (disambiguation). ... Deep Impact is a 1998 science fiction disaster film released by Paramount Pictures and DreamWorks Pictures. ... The year 1998 in film involved some significant events. ... Independence Day (also known as its promotional abbreviation ID4) is an Academy Award winning science fiction film directed by Roland Emmerich. ... The year 1996 in film involved some significant events. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... The year 1993 in film involved many significant films. ... Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... The year 1997 in film involved some significant events. ...


As the decade progressed, computers played an increasingly important role in both the addition of special effects and the production of films. As the software developed in sophistication it was used to produce more complicated effects . Developments in software also enabled filmmakers to enhance the visual quality of animation, which was used in the science fiction films Ghost in the Shell (1995) from Japan and The Iron Giant (1999) and Titan A.E. (2000) from the US. Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... This article contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ... The Iron Giant is a 1999 animated science fiction film, directed by Brad Bird, produced by Warner Bros. ... Titan A.E. is a 2000 animated science fiction adventure film from Fox Animation Studios and Twentieth Century Fox. ... The year 2000 in film involved some significant events. ...


During the 2000s, fantasy and superhero films abounded, as did earthbound SF such as the Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions. In 2005, the Star Wars sextet was completed with the darkly-themed Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Science-fiction returned as a tool for political commentary in films such as A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, Minority Report, and Children of Men. The year 2005 saw a remake of King Kong. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Here are some examples of movies that are based on comic book characters: Spider-Man 5/3/02 Spider-Man 2 6/30/04 Batman WB 6/23/89 Men in Black 7/2/97 X2: X-Men United 5/2/03 Men in Black II 7/3/02 Batman... The Matrix Reloaded is the second installment of the Matrix series, written by the Wachowski brothers and released by Warner Bros. ... The Matrix Revolutions is the third and final film in The Matrix trilogy. ... This is a list of film-related events in 2005. ... Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith is the third episode of the Star Wars film series (but the sixth film to be produced), to be released on Thursday, May 19, 2005. ... A.I.: Artificial Intelligence (2001) was the last project that filmmaker Stanley Kubrick worked on. ... Minority Report is a 2002 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K. Dick 1956 short story The Minority Report. It is set in the year 1895, when criminals are interviewed based on foreknowledge. ... Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian science fiction film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... King Kong is a New Zealand/United States adventure/fantasy movie remake of the original 1933 movie. ...


Themes, imagery, and visual elements

Science fiction films are often speculative in nature, and often include key supporting elements of science and technology. However, as often as not the "science" in a Hollywood science fiction movie can be considered pseudo-science, relying primarily on atmosphere and quasi-scientific artistic fancy than facts and conventional scientific theory. The definition can also vary depending on the viewpoint of the observer. What may seem a science fiction film to one viewer can be considered fantasy to another. ...


Many science fiction films include elements of mysticism, occult, magic, or the supernatural, considered by some to be more properly elements of fantasy or the occult (or religious) film. This transforms the movie genre into a science fantasy with a religious or quasi-religious philosophy serving as the driving motivation. The movie Forbidden Planet employs many common science fiction elements, but the nemesis is a powerful creature with a resemblance to an occult demonic spirit (Some interpretations see it, however, as a manifestation of the Freudian Id, made material by alien superscience). The Star Wars series employed a magic-like philosophy and ability known as the "Force" (see entry on 'Midi-chlorians'). Chronicles of Riddick (2004) included quasi-magical elements resembling necromancy and elementalism. For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1956 film. ... Midi-chlorians (also spelled midi-clorians or midichlorians) are a fictional microorganism in the Star Wars universe, first mentioned in the prequel trilogy. ... The Chronicles of Riddick is a 2004 American science fiction / fantasy / thriller film. ... The year 2004 in film involved some significant events. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Some films blur the line between the genres, such as movies where the protagonist gains the extraordinary powers of the superhero. These films usually employ a quasi-plausible reason for the hero gaining these powers. Yet in many respects the film more closely resembles fantasy than science fiction. For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ...


Not all science fiction themes are equally suitable for movies. In addition to science fiction horror, space opera is most common. Often enough, these films could just as well pass as westerns or WWII movies if the science fiction props were removed. Common motifs also include voyages and expeditions to other planets, and dystopias, while utopias are rare. Science fiction has a number of common concepts and themes that have been reused by numerous authors. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...


Milestones of science fiction film special effects include Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, Alien, Blade Runner, the Star Wars films, Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Terminator 2: Judgment Day and, more recently, The Matrix. Kubrick redirects here. ... This article is about the first film in a series. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... This article is about the series. ... Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ... Terminator 2: Judgment Day (commonly abbreviated T2) is a 1991 movie directed by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Robert Patrick. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ...


Imagery

Film theorist Vivian Sobchack argues that science fiction films differ from fantasy films in that while science fiction film seeks to achieve our belief in the images we are viewing, fantasy film instead attempts to suspend our disbelief. The science fiction film displays the unfamiliar and alien in the context of the familiar, thereby making the images appear ordinary. Vivian Sobchack is a noted cinema and media scholar and theorist as well as a cultural critic. ...


Despite the alien nature of the scenes and science fictional elements of the setting, the imagery of the film is related back to mankind and how we relate to our surroundings. While the sf film strives to push the boundaries of the human experience, they remain bound to the conditions and understanding of the audience and thereby contain prosaic aspects, rather than being completely alien or abstract.


Genre films such as westerns or war movies are bound to a particular area or time period. This is not true of the science fiction film. However there are several common visual elements that are evocative of the genre. These include the spacecraft or space station, alien worlds or creatures, robots, and futuristic gadgets. More subtle visual clues can appear with changes the human form through modifications in appearance, size, or behavior, or by means a known environment turned eerily alien, such as an empty city.


Scientific elements

Peter Sellers as the title character from Dr. Strangelove, a darkly comic example of the "mad scientist" stock character type
Peter Sellers as the title character from Dr. Strangelove, a darkly comic example of the "mad scientist" stock character type

While science is a major element of this genre, many movie studios take significant liberties with what is considered conventional scientific knowledge. Such liberties can be most readily observed in films that show spacecraft maneuvering in outer space. The vacuum should preclude the transmission of sound or maneuvers employing wings, yet the sound track is filled with inappropriate flying noises and changes in flight path resembling an aircraft banking. The film makers assume that the audience will be unfamiliar with the specifics of space travel, and focus is instead placed on providing acoustical atmosphere and the more familiar maneuvers of the aircraft. Image File history File linksMetadata Strangelove123. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Strangelove123. ... Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ... Strangelove redirects here. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ...


Similar instances of ignoring science in favor of art can be seen when movies present environmental effects. Entire planets are destroyed in titanic explosions requiring mere seconds, whereas an actual event of this nature would likely take many hours. A star rises over the horizon of a comet or a Mercury-like world and the temperature suddenly soars many hundreds of degrees, causing the entire surface to turn into a furnace. In reality the energy is initially reaching the ground at a very oblique angle, and the temperature is likely to rise more gradually. A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... [[Link titleBold text // ]] This article is about the planet. ...


The role of the scientist has varied considerably in the science fiction film genre, depending on the public perception of science and advanced technology. Starting with Dr. Frankenstein, the mad scientist became a stock character who posed a dire threat to society and perhaps even civilization. Certain portrayals of the "mad scientist", such as Peter Sellers's performance in Dr. Strangelove, have become iconic to the genre. In the monster movies of the 1950s, the scientist often played a heroic role as the only person who could provide a technological fix for some impending doom. Reflecting the distrust of government that began in the 1960s in the U.S., the brilliant but rebellious scientist became a common theme, often serving a Cassandra-like role during an impending disaster. This article is about the 1818 novel. ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ...


Alien life forms

The concept of life, particularly intelligent life, having an extra-terrestrial origin is a popular staple of science fiction films. Early films often used alien life forms as a threat or peril to the human race, where the invaders were frequently fictional representations of actual military or political threats on Earth. Later some aliens were represented as benign and even beneficial in nature in such films as E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Aliens in contemporary films are still often depicted as hostile, however, such as those in the Alien series of films. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Atari 2600 video game based on the movie, see E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (Atari 2600). ... This article is about the film; for the definition of the UFO related phenomenon, see Close encounter. ... The Alien film series is the group of films that take place in the Alien universe. ...


In order to provide subject matter to which audiences can relate, the large majority of intelligent alien races presented in films have an anthropomorphic nature, possessing human emotions and motivations. Often they will embody a particular human stereotype, such as the barbaric warriors, scientific intellectuals, or priests and clerics. They will frequently appear to be nearly human in physical appearance, and communicate in a common Earth tongue, with little trace of an accent. Very few films have tried to represent intelligent aliens as something utterly different from human kind (e.g. Solaris, Contact). 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... Solaris (Russian title in Cyrillic lettering: Солярис--English transliteration: Solyaris) is a 1972 Russian film and is also a 2002 United States film. ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ...


Disaster films

Main article: Disaster film

A frequent theme among science fiction films is that of impending or actual disaster on an epic scale. These often address a particular concern of the writer by serving as a vehicle of warning against a type of activity, including technological research. In the case of alien invasion films, the creatures can provide as a stand-in for a feared foreign power. With the release of The Poseidon Adventure (1972), the Disaster film officially became a movie-going craze. ...


Disaster films typically fall into the following general categories:

Time travel movies can also exploit the potential for disaster as a motivation for the plot, or they can be the root cause of a disaster by wiping out recorded history and creating a new future. For example, The Terminator series of films employs time travel in this fashion (see also "Time travel" below). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The War of the Worlds (also sometimes known as H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds) is a 1953 science fiction film produced by George Pál and directed by Byron Haskin from a script by Barré Lyndon based on the H. G. Wells novel of the same name. ... War of the Worlds is a 2005 science fiction disaster film based on H. G. Wells original novel starring Tom Cruise. ... Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a 1956 science fiction film. ... Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a 1978 science fiction film based on the novel The Body Snatchers by Jack Finney. ... Body Snatchers is a 1993 science fiction film, a remake of the 1956 film Invasion of the Body Snatchers. ... The Invasion, previously known as Invasion and The Visiting, is a 2007 science fiction film based on a screenplay by Dave Kajganich, originally meant to be based on the 1956 film Invasion of the Body Snatchers. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ... This article is about the 1995 sci-fi film. ... For other films with this name, see Armageddon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Day After Tomorrow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... Colossus was a fictional computer featured in the 1969 apocalyptic science fiction movie, Colossus: The Forbin Project loosely based on the 1967 novel Colossus by Dennis Feltham Jones. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... For other uses, see I, Robot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Strangelove redirects here. ... Panic in Year Zero! is a 1962 movie directed by Ray Milland. ... Planet of the Apes is a 1968 science fiction film about an astronaut (Charlton Heston) who finds himself stranded on an Earth-like planet two thousand years in the future. ... A Boy and His Dog is a 1975 post-apocalyptic science fiction film directed by L. Q. Jones and based on the Harlan Ellison short story of the same title, which originally appeared in 1969. ... For other uses, see Mad Max (disambiguation). ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about large epidemics. ... This article is about the 1971 film. ... The Omega Man is a 1971 science fiction thriller starring Charlton Heston. ... (Redirected from 12 Monkeys) Twelve Monkeys is a 1995 science fiction conspiracy theory movie directed by former Monty Python member Terry Gilliam and inspired by the short film La Jetée. ... 28 Days Later is a 2002 British post-apocalyptic science fiction horror film directed by Danny Boyle and starring Cillian Murphy, Naomie Harris and Christopher Eccleston. ...


Monster films

Main article: Monster movie

While monster films do not usually depict danger on a global or epic scale, science fiction film also has a long tradition of movies featuring monster attacks. These differ from similar films in the horror or fantasy genres because science fiction films typically rely on a scientific (or at least pseudo-scientific) rationale for the monster's existence, rather than a supernatural or magical reason. Often, the science fiction film monster is created, awakened, or "evolves" because of the machinations of a mad scientist, a nuclear accident, or a scientific experiment gone awry. Typical examples include The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (1953), the Godzilla series of films, and Jurassic Park (1993). Monster Movie is the debut album by Krautrock Band Can. ... The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms is a black and white 1953 science fiction film directed by Eugène Lourié. The films shooting title was Monster from Beneath the Sea. ... Godzilla is a series of giant monster films starring Godzilla, a Japanese creation usually portrayed by a man in a rubber suit. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ...


Many such films could be classified as either science fiction or horror (or in fact, both). Examples include such iconic films as Alien, Creature from the Black Lagoon and Frankenstein, as well as diverse offerings like Deep Blue Sea, Night of the Living Dead and The Thing. Creature from the Black Lagoon is a 1954 black-and-white science fiction film directed by Jack Arnold, and starring Richard Carlson, Julia Adams, Richard Denning, Antonio Moreno, and Whit Bissell. ... Frankenstein is a 1931 science fiction film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and very loosely based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. ... Deep Blue Sea is a 1999 science fiction horror film that stars Thomas Jane, Samuel L. Jackson, and Saffron Burrows. ... This article is about the 1968 film directed by George A. Romero. ... The Thing is a 1982 science fiction film, directed by John Carpenter. ...


Mind and identity

The core mental aspects of what makes us human has been a staple of science fiction films, particularly since the 1980s. Blade Runner examined what made an organic-creation a human, while the RoboCop series saw an android mechanism fitted with the brain and reprogrammed mind of a human to create a cyborg. The idea of brain transfer was not entirely new to science fiction film, as the concept of the "mad scientist" transferring the human mind to another body is as old as Frankenstein. For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ...


Films such as Total Recall have popularized a thread of films that explore the concept of reprogramming the human mind. The theme of brainwashing in several films of the sixties and seventies including A Clockwork Orange and The Manchurian Candidate coincided with secret real-life government experimentation during Project MKULTRA. Similarly, movies such as Equilibrium deal with drug-induced mind control along with dystopian control of human culture. The cyberpunk film Johnny Mnemonic used the reprogramming concept for a commercial purpose as the human became a data transfer vessel. Voluntary erasure of memory is further explored as themes of the films Paycheck and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. In Dark City, human memory and the fabric of reality itself is reprogrammed wholesale. Serial Experiments Lain also explores the idea of reprogrammable reality and memory. Total Recall is an American science fiction film released on June 1, 1990 starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Ronald Shusett, Dan OBannon, Jon Povill and Gary Goldman. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... This article is about the film. ... The Manchurian Candidate (1962) is a Cold War political thriller film adapted from the 1959 thriller novel, by Richard Condon, directed by John Frankenheimer, and features Frank Sinatra, Laurence Harvey, Angela Lansbury, and Janet Leigh. ... “MKULTRA” redirects here. ... Equilibrium is a 2002 action/science fiction film written and directed by Kurt Wimmer. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Johnny Mnemonic is a 1995 cyberpunk-based movie, loosely based on a short story of the same name by William Ford Gibson, in which Keanu Reeves plays the title character, a man with a cybernetic implant in his head designed to store information. ... Paycheck is a 2003 film adaptation of the short story Paycheck by science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. ... Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind is an Academy Award-winning 2004 American romance film by director Michel Gondry. ... Dark City is a 1998 movie written and directed by Alex Proyas. ... Original run July 6, 1998 – September 28, 1998 No. ...


The idea that a human could be entirely represented as a program in a computer was a core element of the film Tron. This would be further explored in the film version of The Lawnmower Man, and the idea reversed in Virtuosity, Demon Seed and others as computer programs sought to become real persons. In the Matrix series, the virtual reality world became a real world prison for humanity, managed by intelligent machines. In eXistenZ, the nature of reality and virtual reality become intermixed with no clear distinguishing boundary. Likewise The Cell intermixed dreams and virtual reality, creating a fantasy realm with no boundaries. Tron is a 1982 science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world, Clu), Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley (and Tron), Cindy Morgan as Lora Baines (and Yori) and Dan Shor as Ram. ... The Lawnmower Man is a 1992 film which uses elements from Stephen Kings short story The Lawnmower Man. The films original script, written by director Brett Leonard and producer Gimel Everett, was titled Cyber God and had nothing to do with Stephen King. ... Virtuosity is a 1995 science fiction movie directed by Brett Leonard. ... Demon Seed is a 1977 film, starring Julie Christie, and directed by Donald Cammell. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ... eXistenZ is a 1999 psychological thriller/science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. ... The Cell is a 2000 suspense film written by Mark Protosevich and directed by Tarsem Singh. ...


Robots

Robots have been a part of science fiction since the Czech playwright Karel Čapek coined the word in 1921. In early films, robots were usually played by a human actor in a boxy metal suit, as in The Phantom Empire, although the female robot in Metropolis is an exception. The first depiction of a sophisticated robot in a US film was in The Day the Earth Stood Still. Over the last several decades, robots in films, have been depicted as having increasingly advanced capabilities, including artificial intelligence, and in some cases, enhanced sensory skills (e.g., the robot assassin in The Terminator). In films, robots are often depicted as humanoid-looking machines that walk stiffly and speak with a flat affect. For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Karel ÄŒapek (pronounced ; IPA: ) (January 9, 1890 - December 25, 1938) was one of the most important Czech writers of the 20th century. ... The Phantom Empire starring Gene Autry, the Singing Cowboy, was a 12 chapter 1935 Mascot serial that combined western, musical, and science fiction genres. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 black-and-white science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to warn its leaders not to take their conflicts into space, or they will face devastating consequences. ... AI redirects here. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ...


Robots in films are often sentient and sometimes sentimental, and they have filled a range of roles in science fiction films. Robots have been supporting characters (e.g., Ash in the 1979 film Alien and Data from Star Trek), sidekicks (e.g., C-3PO and R2-D2 from Star Wars), and extras, visible in the background to create a futuristic setting. As well, robots have been formidable movie villains or monsters (e.g., the robot Box in the 1976 film Logan's Run, Maximillian in the 1979 film The Black Hole, and the T-800 robot assassin in the 1984 film The Terminator). In some cases, robots have even been the leading characters in science fiction films; in the 1982 film Blade Runner, many of the characters are bioengineered android "replicants". Data[1] is a character, portrayed by Brent Spiner, in the Star Trek fictional universe. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... C-3PO (pronounced IPA: []., often shortened to Threepio) is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe, who appears in both the original Star Wars films and the prequel trilogy. ... R2-D2 (called R2, or Artoo for short), is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ... This article is about the series. ... Logans Run is a 1976 science fiction film based on the novel of the same name by William F. Nolan and George Clayton Johnson. ... The Black Hole is a 1979 science fiction movie directed for Walt Disney Productions by Gary Nelson. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) deals with engineering biological processes in general. ... For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... This article is about characters from Blade Runner. ...


One popular theme in science fiction film is whether robots will someday replace humans, a question raised in the film adaptation of Isaac Asimov's I, Robot, or whether intelligent robots could develop a conscience and a motivation to take over or destroy the human race (as depicted in The Terminator). Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... I, Robot is a collection of nine English language science fiction short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published by Gnome Press in 1950 in an edition of 5,000 copies. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ...


Time travel

Back to the Future (1985), a popular example of time travel in science fiction film
Back to the Future (1985), a popular example of time travel in science fiction film

The concept of time travel—travelling backwards and forwards through time—has always been a popular staple of science fiction film and science fiction television series. Time travel usually involves the use of some type of advanced technology, such as H. G. Wells' classic The Time Machine, or the commercially successful 1980s-era Back to the Future trilogy. Other movies, such as the Planet of the Apes series, explained their depictions of time travel by drawing on physics concepts such as the Special relativity phenomenon of time dilation (which could occur if a spaceship was travelling near the speed of light). Some films show time travel not being attained from advanced technology, but rather from an inner source or personal power, such as the 2000s-era films Donnie Darko and The Butterfly Effect. Poster for Back to the Future (1985). ... Cropped frame grab from Back to the Future DVD showing one of the iconic moments in the film. ... Cropped frame grab from Back to the Future DVD showing one of the iconic moments in the film. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ... This article is about the first film in the Back to the Future trilogy. ... This article is about the book. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For the fictional character, see Donald Darko. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ...


More conventional time travel movies use technology to bring the past to life in the present, or in a present that lies in our future. The movie Iceman (1984) told the story of the reanimation of a frozen Neanderthal (similar to the 1950 Christopher Lee film Horror Express), a concept later spoofed in the comedy Encino Man (1992). The Jurassic Park series portrayed cloned prehistoric life forms grown from DNA ingested by insects that were trapped in amber. The movie Freejack (1992) shows time travel used to pull victims of horrible deaths forward in time a split-second before their demise, and then use their bodies for spare parts; a similar theme is used in Millennium (1989). Iceman was a 1984 science fiction film from Universal Studios. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ... Horror Express, also known as Pánico en el Transiberiano, is a 1973 horror film starring Christopher Lee, Peter Cushing and Telly Savalas. ... Encino Man is a 1992 comedy film, which was released in Europe as California Man, featuring actors Brendan Fraser, Sean Astin and Pauly Shore. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Freejack is a 1992 science fiction film directed by Geoff Murphy. ... Millennium is a 1989 film directed by Michael Anderson and starring Kris Kristofferson, Cheryl Ladd, Robert Joy, Brent Carver, Al Waxman and Daniel J. Travanti. ...


A common theme in time travel movies is the paradoxical nature of travelling through time. In the French New Wave film La Jetée (1962), director Chris Marker depicts the self-fulfilling aspect of a person being able to see their future by showing a child who witnesses the death of his future self. La Jetée was the inspiration for 12 Monkeys, (1995) director Terry Gilliam's film about time travel, memory, and madness . In Slaughterhouse-Five (1969), the main character becomes unstuck in time, and jumps backwards and forwards across his life. François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... La Jetée (The Jetty) is a 1962 28-minute black and white science fiction film by Chris Marker. ... Chris Marker (born July 29, 1921) is a French writer, photographer, film director, multimedia artist and documentary maker. ... (Redirected from 12 Monkeys) Twelve Monkeys is a 1995 science fiction conspiracy theory movie directed by former Monty Python member Terry Gilliam and inspired by the short film La Jetée. ... Terrence Vance Gilliam (born November 22, 1940) is an American-born British filmmaker, animator, and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. ... Slaughterhouse-Five is a film adaptation of the Kurt Vonnegut novel of the same name. ...


The Back to the Future series goes one step further and explores the result of altering the past, while in Star Trek: First Contact (1996) the crew must rescue the Earth from having its past altered by time-travelling aliens. The Terminator series uses self-aware robots which travel to the past in order to alter the future outcome of a future human-robot war by killing the future leaders of the human resistance. Star Trek: First Contact (Paramount Pictures, 1996; see also 1996 in film), is the eighth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ...


Genre as commentary on social issues

A Clockwork Orange (1971) features disturbing, violent imagery (such as that pictured in this promotional poster) to facilitate social commentary on psychiatry, youth gangs, and other topics

The science fiction film genre has long served as a useful vehicle for "safely" discussing controversial current issues and often providing thoughtful social commentary on potential unforeseen future issues. Presentation of issues that are difficult or disturbing for an audience, can be made more acceptable when they are explored in a future setting or on a different, earth-like world. The altered context can allow for deeper examination and reflection of the ideas presented, with the perspective of a viewer watching remote events. Most controversial issues in science fiction films tend to fall into two general story lines, Utopian or dystopian. Either a society will become better or worse in the future. Because of controversy, most science fiction films will fall into the dystopian film category (i.e. Blade Runner, Brazil, 1984, and movies where life is worse) rather than the Utopian category (Star Trek, Star Wars, and other films, despite a villain, where life is better). Image File history File links Clockworkorangeposter. ... Image File history File links Clockworkorangeposter. ... This article is about the film. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... This is a list of films commonly regarded as dystopian. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... 1984 (sometimes Nineteen Eighty-Four, which is how the title appears on screen) is a British film based upon the 1949 novel of the same name by George Orwell; the film was made in the year imagined by the author. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... This article is about the series. ...


The type of commentary and controversy presented in a science fiction film often illustrated the particular concerns of the period in which they were produced. Early science fiction films expressed fears about automation replacing workers and the dehumanization of society through science and technology (i.e. Metropolis). Later films explored the fears of environmental catastrophe or technology-created disasters, and how they would impact society and individuals (i.e Soylent Green). For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ...


The monster movies of the 1950s—like Godzilla (1954)—served as stand-ins for fears of nuclear war, communism and views on the cold war. In the 1970s, science fiction films also became an effective way of satirizing contemporary social mores with Silent Running and Dark Star presenting hippies in space as a riposte to the militaristic types that had dominated earlier films. Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange presented a horrific vision of youth culture, portraying a youth gang engaged in rape and murder, along with disturbing scenes of forced psychological conditioning serving to comment on societal responses to crime. Gojira ), sometimes referred to as Godzilla in recent years, is a landmark 1954 Japanese science fiction film, produced and distributed by Toho Company Ltd. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silent Running (disambiguation). ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... This article is about the film. ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ...


Logan's Run depicted a futuristic swingers utopia that practiced euthanasia as a form of population control and The Stepford Wives anticipated a reaction to the women's liberation movement. Enemy Mine demonstrated that the foes we have come to hate are often just like us, even if they appear alien. And Planet of the Apes commented on the politics and culture of contemporary society. Logans Run is a 1976 science fiction film based on the novel of the same name by William F. Nolan and George Clayton Johnson. ... Swinging, sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle, is non-monogamous sexual activity, treated much like any other social activity, that can be experienced as a couple. ... Movie poster for the original 1975 film. ... Feminism is a body of social theory and a political movement primarily based on, and motivated by, the experiences of women. ... Enemy Mine is a 1985 science fiction film based on the story of the same title by Barry B. Longyear. ... Planet of the Apes is a 1968 science fiction film about an astronaut (Charlton Heston) who finds himself stranded on an Earth-like planet two thousand years in the future. ...


Contemporary science fiction films continue to explore social and political issues. One recent example would be 2002's Minority Report, debuting in the months after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and focused on the issues of police powers, privacy and civil liberties in the near-future United States. The cold dystopian film FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions (2004) presents Europe ruled by an oppressive matriarchal society, who forbid any kind of physical contact between the sexes on the grounds of hygiene. Minority Report is a 2002 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K. Dick 1956 short story The Minority Report. It is set in the year 1895, when criminals are interviewed based on foreknowledge. ...


More recently, the headlines surrounding events such as the Iraq War, international terrorism, the avian influenza scare, and U.S. anti-immigration laws have found their way into the consciousness of contemporary filmmakers. The 2006 film V for Vendetta drew inspiration from controversial issues such as The Patriot Act and the War on Terror, while the futuristic science fiction thriller Children of Men (also 2006) commented on diverse social issues such as xenophobia, propaganda, and cognitive dissonance. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Immigration in the modern sense refers to movement of people from one nation-state to another, where they are not citizens. ... V for Vendetta is a 2006 action-thriller film set in London, England in a near-future dystopian society. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian science fiction film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term describing the uncomfortable tension that may result from having two conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts with ones beliefs, or from experiencing apparently conflicting phenomena. ...


Future Noir

Lancaster University professor Jamaluddin Bin Aziz argues that as science fiction has evolved and expanded, it has fused with other film genres such as gothic thrillers and film noir. When science fiction integrates film noir elements, Bin Aziz calls the resulting hybrid form "future noir," a form which "... encapsulates a postmodern encounter with generic persistence, creating a mixture of irony, pessimism, prediction, extrapolation, bleakness and nostalgia." Future noir films such as Blade Runner, Twelve Monkeys, Dark City, and Children of Men use a protagonist who is "...increasingly dubious, alienated and fragmented", at once "dark and playful like the characters in Gibson’s Neuromancer", yet still with the "...shadow of Philip Marlowe..." Affiliations 1994 Group N8 Group Association of MBAs North West Universities Association Website http://www. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole Gothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. ... The thriller is a genre of fiction in which tough, resourceful, but essentially ordinary heroes are pitted against villains determined to destroy them, their country, or the stability of the free world. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... This article is about the 1982 film. ... Twelve Monkeys is a 1995 science fiction film written by David and Janet Peoples and directed by Terry Gilliam. ... Dark City is a 1998 science fiction film written by Alex Proyas, Lem Dobbs and David S. Goyer, and directed by Proyas. ... Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian science fiction film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... For the 1988 video game, see Neuromancer (video game). ... Ed Bishop had the title role in BBC Radios The Adventures of Philip Marlowe. ...


Future noir films that are set in a post-apocalyptic world "...restructure and re-represent society in a parody of the atmospheric world usually found in noir’s construction of a city — dark, bleak and beguiled." Future noir films often intermingle elements of the gothic thriller genre, such as Minority Report, which makes references to occult practices, and Alien, with its tag line ‘In space, no one can hear you scream’, and a space vessel, Nostromo, “that hark[s] back to images of the haunted house in the gothic horror tradition.” Bin Aziz states that films such as James Cameron’s The Terminator are a sub-genre of ‘techno noir’ that create "...an atmospheric feast of noir darkness and a double-edged world that is not what it seems." [1] Apocalyptic science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of the world or civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ... Minority Report is a 2002 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K. Dick 1956 short story The Minority Report. It is set in the year 1895, when criminals are interviewed based on foreknowledge. ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... This article is about the first film in a series. ... For other persons named James Cameron, see James Cameron (disambiguation). ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ...


Film versus literature

In science fiction novels and short stories the narrative world typically differs from our own present or historical reality in least one significant way. This difference may be technological, physical, historical, sociological, philosophical, metaphysical, etc, but usually not magical (see Fantasy). Exploring the consequences of such differences (asking "What if...?") is the traditional purpose of science fiction. Science fiction literature often relies upon story development, reader knowledge, and the discussion of abstract concepts that may not be easy to transpose to film.


When compared to science fiction literature, science fiction films often rely less on the human imagination and more upon action scenes and special effect-created alien creatures and exotic backgrounds. Since the 1970s, film audiences have come to expect a high standard for special effects in science fiction films. In some cases, science fiction-themed films superimpose an exotic, futuristic setting onto what would not otherwise be a science-fiction tale. Nevertheless, some critically-acclaimed science fiction movies have followed in the path of science fiction literature, using story development to explore abstract concepts. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ...


Influence of science fiction authors

Jules Verne was the first major science fiction author to be adapted for the screen with Melies Le Voyage dans la Lune (1902) and 20,000 lieues sous les mers (1907), which used Verne's scenarios as a framework for fantastic visuals. By the time Verne's work fell out of copyright in 1950 the adaptations were treated as period pieces. His works have been adapted a number of times since then, including 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea in 1954, From the Earth to the Moon in 1958, and Journey to the Center of the Earth in 1959. This article is about the French author. ... Le Voyage dans la lune is a 1902 French science fiction black and white silent film known in its English language release as A Trip to the Moon. ... 20000 lieues sous les mers (20,000 Leagues Under the Sea) is a silent film made in 1907 by French director Georges Méliès, based on the novel by Jules Verne of the same title. ...  20,000 Leagues Under the Sea is a 1954 film starring Kirk Douglas as Ned Land, James Mason as Captain Nemo, Paul Lukas as Professor Aronnax and Peter Lorre as Conseil. ... The projectile, as pictured in an engraving from the 1872 Illustrated Edition. ... Journey to the Center of the Earth is a 1959 adventure film adapted by Charles Brackett from the novel by Jules Verne. ...

2001: A Space Odyssey, the landmark 1968 collaboration between filmmaker Stanley Kubrick and classic science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke featured groundbreaking special effects, such as the realization of the space ship Discovery One (pictured here)

H. G. Wells has had better success with The Invisible Man, Things to Come and The Island of Doctor Moreau all being adapted during his lifetime with good results while The War of the Worlds was updated in 1953 and again in 2005, adapted to film at least four times altogether. The Time Machine has had two film versions (1961 and 2002) while Sleeper in part is a pastiche of Wells' 1910 novel The Sleeper Awakes. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The Invisible Man is a film produced by Universal Pictures in 1933 and directed by James Whale. ... Things to Come is a 1936 British science fiction film, produced by Alexander Korda and directed by William Cameron Menzies. ... Categories: Stub | Science fiction novels | 1896 books | 1933 films | 1977 films | 1996 films | Steampunk ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel (or novella) which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ... Sleeper (1973) is a futuristic science fiction comedy film, written by, directed by, and starring Woody Allen. ... The Sleeper Awakes is a dystopian novel by H. G. Wells about a man who sleeps for two hundred and three years, waking up in a completely transformed London, where, because of compound interest on his bank accounts, he has become the richest man in the world. ...


With the drop-off in interest in science fiction films during the 1940s, few of the 'golden age' science fiction authors made it to the screen. A novella by John W. Campbell provided the basis for The Thing from Another World (1951). Robert A. Heinlein contributed to the screenplay for Destination Moon in 1950, but none of his major works were adapted for the screen until the 1990s: The Puppet Masters in 1994 and Starship Troopers in 1997. Isaac Asimov's fiction influenced the Star Wars and Star Trek films, but it was not until 1988 that a film version of one of his short stories (Nightfall) was produced. The first major motion picture adaptation of a full-length Asimov work was Bicentennial Man (1999) (besed on the short stories "Bicentennial Man" and "The Positronic Man" co-written with Robert Silverberg ), although 2004's I, Robot, a film loosely based on Asimov's book of short stories by the same name, drew more attention. The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... The Thing from Another World is a 1951 science fiction film which tells the story of an Air Force crew and scientists at a remote Arctic research outpost who fight a malevolent alien being. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1950 films | Science fiction films ... The Puppet Masters is a 1994 science fiction film, adapted from Robert A. Heinleins novel of the same title, in which a trio of American government agents attempts to thwart a covert invasion of Earth by mind-controlling alien parasites. ... Starship Troopers is a 1997 film directed by Paul Verhoeven, written by Edward Neumeier, and starring Casper Van Dien, Dina Meyer and Denise Richards. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Nightfall (1990), a novel which Robert Silverberg produced by expanding and updating Asimovs original story. ... Bicentennial Man is a 1999 film starring Robin Williams based on the well-known novella of the same name by Isaac Asimov. ... For other uses, see I, Robot (disambiguation). ... I, Robot is a collection of nine English language science fiction short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published by Gnome Press in 1950 in an edition of 5,000 copies. ...


The adaptation of science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke's novel as 2001: A Space Odyssey won the Academy Award for Visual Effects and offered thematic complexity not typically associated with the science fiction genre at the time. Its sequel, 2010: The Year We Make Contact, was commercially successful but less highly regarded by critics. Reflecting the times, two earlier science fiction works by Ray Bradbury were adapted for cinema in the 1960s with Fahrenheit 451 and The Illustrated Man. Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughter-house Five was filmed in 1971 and Breakfast of Champions in 1998. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... The Academy Award for Visual Effects is an Oscar given to one film each year that shows highest achievement in visual effects. ... (Redirected from 2010: The Year We Make Contact) 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit 451 (disambiguation). ... The Illustrated Man is a 1951 book of eighteen science fiction short stories by Ray Bradbury that explores the nature of humankind. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Slaughterhouse-Five is a film adaptation of the Kurt Vonnegut novel of the same name. ... For the breakfast cereal, see Wheaties. ...


Phillip K. Dick's fiction has been used in a number of science fiction films, in part because it evokes the paranoia that has been a central feature of the genre . Films based on Dick's works include Blade Runner (1982), Total Recall (1990), Minority Report (2002), Paycheck (2003), and A Scanner Darkly (2006). Often, these film adaptations are loose adaptations of the original story, with the exception of A Scanner Darkly, which is close to Dick's book. Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982), often known by his initials PKD, or by the pen name Richard Phillips, was an American science fiction writer and novelist who changed the genre profoundly. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... For other uses, see Total recall (disambiguation). ... The Minority Report (The) Minority Report is a science fiction short story by Philip K. Dick first published in 1956. ... Paycheck is a 2003 film adaptation of the short story Paycheck by science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. ... A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 film by Richard Linklater based on the Philip K. Dick novel of the same name. ...


See also

Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This is a list of science fiction films organised chronologically. ... This is a list of films commonly regarded as dystopian. ... The Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation is one of the annual Hugo Award categories, presented by members of the World Science Fiction Convention. ... The Hugo Awards are given annually by members of the World Science Fiction Convention for the best science fiction or fantasy works. ... The following are a list of Saturn Award winners for Best Science Fiction Film: See also Science fiction film Categories: | ... A broadcast of the long-running and popular British science-fiction series Doctor Who. ... Genres and subcategories Alien invasion Alternate History Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic science fiction Artificial intelligence Astrobiology Astrosociobiology Biopunk Biorobotics Category:Science fiction technology Clerical fiction Comic science fiction Communalness Cosy catastrophe Cybernetic revolt Cyberpunk Cyberspace Cyborg Dying Earth subgenre Edisonade Extraterrestrial life Gay science fiction Gothic science fiction Hard science... For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  • Welch Everman, Cult Science Fiction Films, Citadel Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8065-1602-X.
  • Peter Guttmacher, Legendary Sci-Fi Movies, 1997, ISBN 1-56799-490-3.
  • Phil Hardy, The Overlook Film Encyclopedia, Science Fiction. William Morrow and Company, New York, 1995, ISBN 0-87951-626-7.
  • Richard S. Myers, S-F 2: A pictorial history of science fiction from 1975 to the present, 1984, Citadel Press, ISBN 0-8065-0875-2.
  • Gregg Rickman, The Science Fiction Film Reader, 2004, ISBN 0-87910-994-7.
  • Vivian Sobchack, Screening Space: The American Science Fiction Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8135-2492-X.
  • Errol Vieth, Screening Science: Context, Text and Science in Fifties Science Fiction Film, Lanham, MD and London: Scarecrow Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8108-4023-5
  1. ^ "Future Noir" by Jamaluddin Bin Aziz, Lancaster University, and School of Humanities, University Science of Malaysia. From Science Fiction To Future Noir: The Voyage Begins http://www.crimeculture.com/Contents/Articles-Summer05/JemAziz3.html

The year 1995 in literature involved some significant events and new books. ... See also: 1996 in literature, other events of 1997, 1998 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The year 1995 in literature involved some significant events and new books. ... See also: 1983 in literature, other events of 1984, 1985 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The year 2004 in literature involved some significant events and new books. ... See also: 1997 in literature, other events of 1998, 1999 in literature, list of years in literature. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Foster on Film - Science Fiction (2454 words)
Fantasy (of which Science Fiction is a sub-genre) is belittled by supporters of "the main stream," both in literature and in film.
Science Fiction is a much larger genre than Film Noir or Swashbucklers, overlapping almost all other genres (there are SF mysteries, SF Swashbucklers, SF Film Noir, SF Westerns, SF war films, SF comedies, and SF romances, to name a few).
Comparing this list with the ones I made for Film Noir and Swashbucklers points an important difference between Science Fiction film and those genres: the golden ages of those two genres are past while SF is still doing fine.
Articles: The Ten Best Science Fiction Film Directors, by Jeremy Adam Smith (4820 words)
Science fiction faithful to the science of its day (such as Verne's or Asimov's) becomes obsolete once the first spaceship lands on the moon, or the genome is mapped.
Films like Scanners (1981), Videodrome (1983), The Fly (1986), and eXistenZ (1999) are instantly recognizable for their wintry soundtracks and anonymous cityscapes, which manage to appear simultaneously seedy and clean.
In all his films, Cameron displays a talent and propensity for depicting violent spectacle (he crafts the leanest and meanest plots in all science fiction), which makes it all the more interesting that he is a genre pioneer in female characterization.
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