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Encyclopedia > Science and technology in Iran
Science continues to be produced in modern Iran despite many limitations.

Science and technology in Iran, formerly known as Persia, have an extensive history, like the country itself. Persia was a cradle of science in earlier times. Persian scientists contributed significantly to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Persians founded algebra and chemistry, invented the wind-power machine, and discovered alcohol. Image File history File linksMetadata Science_Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Science_Iran. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... “Natural” redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Science in Persia

Science in Persia evolved in two main phases separated by the arrival and widespread adoption of Islam in the region. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Before Islam

Little is known about science in Iran during ancient times. In the Sassanid period (226 to 652 AD), great attention was given to mathematics and astronomy. The Academy of Gondeshapur is a prominent example. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Gundeshapur (in Persian گندیشاپور, Pahlavi Gund-ī Shāh Pūr, Gondeshapur, Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gundishapur, Gondêšâpur, Jund-e Shapur, Jundê-Shâpûr, etc. ...


Astronomical tables—such as the Shahryar Tables—date to this period, and Sassanid observatories were later imitated by the astrologers and astronomers of the Islamic period.

Laleh Park's southwestern entrance with a statue of Biruni, a medieval Persian astronomer.

Sa'ad Andolsosi, in his book Classes of People, praised Persian knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Many references to scientific subjects such as natural science and mathematics occur in books written in the Pahlavi languages. Image File history File linksMetadata Laleh_park_jonub. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Laleh_park_jonub. ... Laleh Parks southwestern entrance with a statue of Biruni, a medieval Persian astronomer. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...


The medical and veterinary essays, prescriptions, and expressions mentioned in Dinkart (from the Sassanid period) were of interest to later and modern scholars. Some medical books later translated into Arabic were initially compiled in the Syrian or Pahlavi languages by Iranian scholars. Among such books are those on veterinary medicine, agriculture, diseases and treatment of gab-birds, training and education of children, and tactics of warfare.


In the mid-Sassanid era, knowledge came to Persia from the West in the form of the views and traditions of Greece which, after the spread of Christianity, accompanied Syriac, the official language of Christians as well as the Iranian Nestorians. The Christian schools in Iran produced great scientists such as Nersi, Farhad, and Marabai. Also, a book was left by Paulus Persa, head of the Iranian Department of Logic and Philosophy of Aristotle, written in Syriac and dictated to Sassanid King Anushiravan. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... This article is about the philosopher. ...


Other great teachers have risen from similar theological and philosophical schools. Amongst them was Ibrahim Madi, Hibai the translator, Marbab Gondishapuri, and Paulus, son of Kaki of Karkhe. During the Sassanid period, Gondishapur (a town east of Susa, southeast of Dezful and northwest of Shushtar) became a center of medical knowledge, and its fame lasted for several centuries, even after the advent of Islam in Persia. Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Dezful (Dezh-pol, Dez Bridge) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Shushtar Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


A fortunate incident for pre-Islamic Iranian science during the Sassanid period was the arrival of eight Greek scholars, who sought refuge in Persia from persecution by the Roman Emperor Justinian. They were followers of the neoplatonic school. King Anushiravan had many discussions with these men, especially Priscianus. A summary of their exchanges was compiled in a book entitled "Solution to the Problems of Khosrow, the King of Persia," which is now in the Saint Germain Library in Paris. The group touched on subjects such as philosophy, physiology, metabolism, natural science, and astronomy. After the establishment of Omayyad and Abbasid states, many Iranian scholars were sent to the capitals of these Islamic dynasties. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Ancient technology in Persia

Qanat (a water management system used for irrigation), which requires highly sophisticated design and technology, originated in pre-Achaemenid Persia. The oldest and largest known qanat is in the Iranian city of Gonabad which, after 2,700 years, still provides drinking and agricultural water to nearly 40,000 people.[1] A qanat (from Persian: ‎) or kareez (from Persian: ‎) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Gonabad (گناباد in Persian) is a city in the south of Khorasan, Iran. ...


Persian philosophers and inventors may have created the first batteries (sometimes known as the Baghdad Battery) in the Parthian or Sassanid eras. Some have suggested that the batteries may have been used medicinally. Other scientists believe the batteries were used for electroplating—transferring a thin layer of metal to another metal surface—a technique still used today and the focus of a common classroom experiment.[4] [1] Drawing of the 3 pieces. ...


Windmills were developed by the Babylonians ca. 1700 BC to pump water for irrigation. In later times, Persian inventors developed a more advanced wind-power machine, building upon the basic model developed by the Babylonians. [5][6] Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ...


After Islam

The philosophy of the Islamic period was influenced by Greece, India, and by the Iran of the pre-Islamic period. Ibn Khurram writes in his book "al Melal wa al-Nehal" that Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi took from the ancient Iranians five principles in which he believed: For other uses, see Razi. ...

  1. Creator- Ahuramazda
  2. Satan-Ahriman
  3. Moment-Time
  4. Place-Locality
  5. Essence-Spirit

The same is mentioned by Massoudi in his book Moruj-oz-Zahab. Shahaboddin Sohrevardi, in the preface to his philosophical book, quotes old Iranian terms and expressions derived from Zoroastrians, Manians, and Zarvanians. Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Masudi (transl: ) (born c. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ...

Manuscript of Abdolrahman Sufi's Depiction of Celestial Constellations, In Arabic

The Abbasids paid special attention to science. Scientific interest in the courts of caliphs of Baghdad and the Emirs of Persia such as Khwarazmshahis, Samanids, Ziariads, and the Bowayyids and Dialameh of Isfahan reached its peak at the end of the 11th and beginning of 12th centuries, but declined under the Turkmen and Mongol invasions. Image File history File links Book_Al_Sufi. ... Image File history File links Book_Al_Sufi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


Some of the great Iranian translators who knew Syriac, Greek and Pahlavi languages and translated many scientific books into Arabic were Al Bakhtyasu, Al-Nowbakht, Al-Masouyeh, Abdollah Ibn Moqaffa, Omar Ibn Farakhan Tabari, Ali Ibn Ziad Tammimi, Ibn Sahl, Yusof Al Naqel, Isa Ibn Chaharbakht, and Yatr Ibn Rostam Al Kouhi. The latest was Abu Reyhan Birooni, the mathematician and famous translator of Indian books. Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu in many a literature) were a family of Nestorian Christian Persian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... Yuhanna ibn Masawaih, also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was an Assyrian physician [1] from the Academy of Gundishapur. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... The name Tabari (Mazandarani/Persian: تبری or طبری) or al-Tabari (Arabic الطبري) means simply from Tabaria (Tabaristan), modern Iranian province of Mazandaran in Caspian sea. ... Shapur ibn Sahl, also written Sabur ibn Sahl, was a 9th century Persian Christain physician from the Academy of Gundishapur. ... (sometimes ), was a Persian mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was...


As the result of these men and their Arab colleagues (e.g. Thabit ibn Qurra), the knowledge and science of ancient India, Greece, and Alexandria was translated into Arabic, creating the largest scientific treasury of the Middle Ages. The most ancient mathematicians and writers amongst the Muslims were two Iranians: Nowbakht Ahwazi and Ibrahim Ibn Habib-ol-fazari, and the latter also translated into Arabic a collection of Indian astronomy books. (836 in Harran, Mesopotamia – February 18, 901 in Baghdad) was an Arab astronomer and mathematician, who was known as Thebit in Latin. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... Abu Ishaq Ibrahlm ibn Habib ibn Sulaiman ibn Samura ibn Jundab al-Fazari was an 8th century Persian mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. ...


One of the greatest mathematicians of antiquity, who appeared at the end of the 9th century, was an Iranian by the name of Muhammad Ibn Musa-al-Kharazmi, whose work affected the Islamic and European culture after the 12th century. This noted mathematician, in addition to compiling a table of figures named Algorithm, also developed algebra and revived the ancient Iranian and Indian arithmetic system. His work in algebra was translated into Latin by the Latin translator Gerard of Cremona and titled: De jebra et almucabola. Robert of Chester also translated it under the title Liber algebras et almucabala. The works of Khwarizmi "exercised a profound influence on the development of mathematical thought in the medieval West". [2] (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Gerard of Cremona (Italian: Gerardo da Cremona; Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. ... Robert of Chester (Robertus Castrensis) was an English arabist who flourished around 1150. ...


Mathematics were later developed by scientists such as Abu Abbas Fazl Hatam, the Banu Musa brothers, Farahani, Omar Ibn Farakhan, Abu Zeid Ahmad Ibn Soheil Balkhi (9th century AD.), Abul Vafa Bouzjani, Abu Jaafar Khan, Bijan Ibn Rostam Kouhi, Ahmad Ibn Abdul Jalil Qomi, Bu Nasr Iraqi, Abu Reyhan Birooni, the noted Iranian poet Hakim Omar Khayyam Neishaburi, Qatan Marvazi, Massoudi Ghaznavi (13th century AD), Khajeh Nassireddin Tusi, and Ghiasseddin Jamshidi Kashani. It has been suggested that Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir be merged into this article or section. ... (sometimes ), was a Persian mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... A stamp issued 1979 in Iran commemorating al-Kāshī. (or ) (c. ...


In medicine, Mansour Davaniqi, the founder of Baghdad, invited scholars from Gondishapur to live in that city. Amongst them was a Nestorian Christian named Jurjis Ibn Jebreel Ibn Bakhtyasu, who wrote a detailed book on medicine that contained all subjects on medical science known to their culture at that time. Others who migrated to Baghdad also had publications of their own. The first Muslim who wrote about medicine was another Persian, Ali Ibn Rabn Tabari, who compiled medical knowledge from Greece, India, and ancient Persia. Gundeshapur (in Persian گندیشاپور, Pahlavi Gund-ī Shāh Pūr, Gondeshapur, Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gundishapur, Gondêšâpur, Jund-e Shapur, Jundê-Shâpûr, etc. ... Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu in many a literature) were a family of Nestorian Christian Persian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. ... Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (ca 838 - ca 870) was a scholar physician in who produced the first encyclopedia of medicine. ...


Later in the 10th century, Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi wrote detailed, albeit short, books on medicine. His books were translated into Latin and were printed several times. In addition to compiling subjects from ancient books, Razi fully relied on his own experiences. His student was Abu Bakr Joveini, who wrote a comprehensive medical book in Persian. This was the first book on medicine in the Persian language and is one of the oldest literary works in that language. Razi is considered the founder of practical physics and the inventor of the special or net weight of matter. For other uses, see Razi. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The third important writer on medicine of this period was Ali Ibn Abbas Majussi Ahwazi, the physician to the court of Azod-od-Dowleh Daylami, whose works were also translated into Latin and reprinted several times. His books were considered the best and most complete works on medicine prior to the appearance of Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina), who wrote many books and papers on various scientific subjects. His book Qanun was used as a textbook by Europeans for many centuries. Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, also known as Masoudi, was a famous Persian physician. ... Aḍud al-Dawla (Arabic: عضد الدولة ) or Azod od-Dowleh Fana Khusraw (September 24, 936, Isfahan - March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buwayhid dynasty in Iran and Iraq. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ...


Many excellent physicians have appeared since Avicenna, but none gained the prominence of Zinn-ol-Abedin Esmail Jorjani. His book is even more complete than Avicenna's Canons and is considered to be the greatest medical book written in Persian. Iranians were also proficient in other natural sciences such as botany, pharmacology, chemistry, zoology, lithology, and mineralogy. The most famous scientists in these fields were Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi and Abu Reyhan Birooni. Alcohol and sulfuric acid are thought to have been discovered by Rhazes, and Biruni calculated specific gravity of many substances in a very precise manner. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


In 1000 AD, Biruni wrote an astronomical encyclopaedia which discussed the possibility that the earth might rotate around the sun. This was long before Tycho Brahe drew the first maps of the sky, using stylized animals to depict the constellations. Monument of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler in Prague Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), was a Danish nobleman from the region of Scania (in modern-day Sweden), best known today as an early astronomer, though in his lifetime he was also well known...

The legacy of Alhazen who was highly instrumental in the founding of modern optics was continued by Ali Javan who invented the gas laser.

In the tenth century, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi cast his eyes upwards to the awning of stars overhead and was the first to record a galaxy outwith our own. Gazing at the Andromeda galaxy he called it a "little cloud" - an apt description of the slightly wispy appearance of our galactic neighbour.[3] Download high resolution version (1716x1692, 350 KB)Helium-Neon laser demonstration at the Kastler-Brossel Laboratory at Paris VI: Pierre et Marie Curie. ... Download high resolution version (1716x1692, 350 KB)Helium-Neon laser demonstration at the Kastler-Brossel Laboratory at Paris VI: Pierre et Marie Curie. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Ali Javan (Persian: علی جوان , born 1928 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian inventor and physicist at MIT. He invented the gas laser in 1960. ... The gas laser is a kind of laser in which some sort of gas (such as helium or neon) is discharged to produce the laser light. ...


In the 13th century, more than 600 years before Charles Darwin, Nasir al-Din Tusi developed a basic theory of evolution. Key differences exist between Tusi's approach and Darwin's The Origin of Species. While Darwin used deductive reasoning, gathering samples of plants and animals to work his way from facts to a theory, Tusi used a more theoretical approach. Tusi explained that "hereditary variability" was the leading force of evolution. He wrote that all living organisms were able to change and that the animate organisms developed owing to their hereditary variability: "The organisms that can gain the new features faster are more variable. As a result, they gain advantages over other creatures." This sounds remarkably like a simplistic form of Darwin's writings about mutations. Tusi was correct when he suggested: "The bodies are changing as a result of the internal and external interactions"; that is, as a result of environmental influences. Tusi wrote: "Look at the world of animals and birds. They have all that is necessary for defense, protection and daily life, including strength, courage, and appropriate tools (organs)". Tusi also believed that humans are derived from advanced animals. He wrote about the different transition forms between the human and animal world, saying: "Such humans (probably anthropoid apes) live in the Western Sudan and other distant corners of the world. They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior."[7] For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... This article is about the biological unit. ...


Tusi said that humans are related to all living and inanimate creatures of Nature: "The human has features that distinguish him from other creatures, but he has other features that unite him with the animal world, the vegetable kingdom or even with the inanimate bodies."[8]


Tusi believed that a body of matter is able to change but is not able to disappear entirely. He wrote: "A body of matter cannot disappear completely. It only changes its form, condition, composition, color, and other properties, and turns into a different complex or elementary matter." Five hundred years later, Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) created the law of conservation of mass, setting down this same idea.[9] However, it should be noted that Tusi argued for evolution within a firmly Islamic context: he did not, like Darwin, draw materialist conclusions from his theories. Moreover, unlike Darwin, he was arguing hypothetically: he did not attempt to provide empirical data for his theories. Nonetheless his arguments, which in some ways prefigure natural selection, are still considered remarkably 'advanced' for their time. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


Jaber Ibn Hayyan, the famous Iranian chemist who died in 804 at Tous in Khorasan, was the father of a number of discoveries recorded in an encyclopaedia and of many treatises covering two thousand topics, and these became the bible of European chemists of the 18th century, particularly of Lavoisier. These works led to the following uses: tinctures and their applications in tanning and textiles; distillations of plants and flowers; the origin of perfumes; therapeutic pharmacy, and gunpowder, a powerful military instrument possessed by Islam long before the West. Jabir ibn Hayyan, is widely regarded as the founder of chemistry. He invented many of the basic processes and equipment still used by chemists today such as distillation (a way of separating chemical substances).[4] Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ...


Abu Ali al'Hasan ibn al'Haitam is known in the West as Alhazen, born in 965 in Persia and dying in 1039 in Egypt. He is known as the father of optics for his writings on, and experiments with, lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection. He correctly stated that vision results from light that is reflected into the eye by an object, not emitted by the eye itself and reflected back, as Aristotle believed. He solved the problem of finding the locus of points on a spherical mirror from which light will be reflected to an observer. From his studies of refraction, he determined that the atmosphere has a definite height and that twilight is caused by refraction of solar radiation from beneath the horizon. [On the page to which this comment is linked, the optical diagram on the Pakistani commemorative in blue, green, and black is hard to decipher because of the lack of contrast.][10] For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... This article is about the philosopher. ...


Science in modern Iran

see also: Higher education in Iran and Contemporary Medicine in Iran

Trying to revive the golden time of Persian science, Iran's scientists cautiously reach out to the world. Many individual Iranian scientists, along with the Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences and The Academy of Sciences of Iran, are involved in this revival. According to the Institute for Scientific Information, Iran increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 to 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate (followed by China).[5] Currently among the 146 top-performing countries in all fields, Iran ranked 49th for citations, 42nd for papers, and 135th for citations per paper.[6] University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ... A novel surgical method developed by G.R. Pourmand et. ... The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960. ...


Iran is an example of a country that has made considerable advances through education and training. Despite sanctions in almost all aspects of research during the past few decades, Persian scientists have been producing cutting-edge science. Their publication rate in international journals has quadrupled during the past decade. Although it is still low compared with the developed countries, this puts Iran in the first rank of Islamic countries.[7] Considering the country's brain drain and its poor political relationship with the United States and some other Western countries, Iran's scientific community remains productive, even while economic sanctions make it difficult for universities to buy equipment or to send people to the United States to attend scientific meetings.[8] This article is about the emigration term. ...


Iran's university population swelled from 100,000 in 1979 to 2 million in 2006. Seventy percent of its science and engineering students are women.[9]


Theoretical and computational sciences are highly developed in Iran. Theoretical physicists and chemists regularly publish works in high impact factor journals. Despite the limitations in funds, facilities, and international collaborations, Iranian scientists have been very productive in several experimental fields such as pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, and organic and polymer chemistry. Iranian scientists are also helping to construct the Compact Muon Solenoid, a detector for the Large Hadron Collider of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) that is due to come online in 2007. Iranian biophysicists, especially molecular biophysicists, have gained international reputations since the 1990s. High field nuclear magnetic resonance facility, microcalorimetry, circular dichroism, and instruments for single protein channel studies have been provided in Iran during the past two decades. Tissue engineering and research on biomaterials have just started to emerge in biophysics departments. In the last months of 2006, Iranian biotechnologists announced that they, as the third manufacturer in the world, have sent CinneVex (a recombinant type of Interferon b1a) to the market. Also, Royana, which is the first live cloned sheep in Iran, has passed the critical first two months of his life. The Impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Medicinal Chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... NMR redirects here. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... Circular dichroism (CD) is a form of spectroscopy based on the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ...


Iranian neuroscientists gained international reputation. This nature paper is an example of the research works carried out by young Iranians who did their training and research in Iran

Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Iran's most prolific researcher of the year 2006.

Clinical sciences are highly developed in Iran. In areas such as rheumatology, hematology, and bone marrow trasplantation, Iranian medical scientists are among the world leaders. The Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Research Center (HORC) of Tehran Medical University of Medical Sciences in Shariati Hospital was established in 1991. Internationally, this center is one of the largest bone marrow transplantation centers and has carried out a large number of successful transplantations.[11] According to a study conducted in 2005, associated specialized pediatric hematology and oncology (PHO) services exist in almost all major cities throughout the country, where 43 board-certified or eligible pediatric hematologist–oncologists are giving care to children suffering from cancer or hematological disorders. Three children’s medical centers at universities have approved PHO fellowship programs.[10] Besides hematology, gastroenterology has recently attracted many talented medical students. The gasteroenterology research center based at Tehran University has produced increasing numbers of scientific publications since its establishment. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Ahmad Reza Dehpour (Born 1948 in Iran) is a Persian pharmacologist and biomedical scienist. ... Rheumatology, a subspecialty of internal medicine, is devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), of cells either derived from the bone marrow or peripheral blood, colloquially known as bone marrow transplantation is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Gastroenterology (MeSH heading[2] ) is the branch of medicine where the digestive system and its disorders are studied. ... Tehran University is the largest university in Iran, with 32,000 students. ...


Modern organ transplantation dates to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed by Prof. Mohammad-Qoli Shams at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The Shiraz Nemazi transplant center, also one of the pioneering transplant units of Iran, performed the first kidney transplant in 1967 and the first liver transplant in 1995. The first heart transplant in Iran was performed 1993 in Tabriz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran University.[12] Currently, renal, liver, and heart transplantations are routinely performed in Iran. Iran ranks fifth in the world in kidney transplants.[13] The Iranian Tissue Bank, commencing in 1994, was the first multi-facility tissue bank in country. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the Iranian Network for Transplantation Organ Procurement. This act helped to expand heart, lung, and liver transplantation programs. By 2003, Iran had performed 131 liver, 77 heart, 7 lung, 211 bone marrow, 20,581 cornea, and 16,859 liver transplantations. Sources of these donations were living-unrelated donors, 82%; cadavers, 10%; and living-related donors, 8%. The 3-year renal transplant patient survival rate was 92.9%, and the 40-month graft survival rate was 85.9%.[14] For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...


Neuroscience is also emerging in Iran. A few PhD programs in cognitive and computational neuroscience have been established in the country during recent decades. Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...


Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation was established in 2001 to promote educational and research activities in the fields of design, robotics, and automation. Besides these professional groups, several robotics groups work in Iranian high schools.[15] Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Iran's government has devoted huge amounts of funds for research on high technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, stem cell research and information technology. Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometres, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


In 2005, Iran's first genetically modified (GM) rice was approved by national authorities and is being grown commercially for human consumption. In addition to GM rice, Iran has produced several GM plants in the laboratory, such as insect-resistant maize; cotton; potatoes and sugar beets; herbicide-resistant canola; salinity- and drought-tolerant wheat; and blight-resistant maize and wheat.[16] Iran's first cloned animal, a sheep, was born on August 2, 2006.[17][18] GloFish: the first genetically modified animal to be sold as a pet. ... For other uses, see clone. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Iranian government has committed 150 billion rials (roughly $17.5 million) for a telescope, an observatory, and a training program, all part of a plan to build up the country's astronomy base. Iran wants to collaborate internationally and become internationally competitive in astronomy, says the University of Michigan's Carl Akerlof, an adviser to the Iranian project. "For a government that is usually characterized as wary of foreigners, that's an important development." [19] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


Parallel to academic research, several companies have been founded in Iran during last few decades. For example CinnaGen Inc., established in 1992, is one of the pioneering biotechnology companies in the region. CinnaGen won Biotechnology Asia 2005 Innovation Awards due to its achievements and innovation in biotechnology research. Software companies are growing rapidly. In CeBIT 2006, ten Iranian software companies introduced their products.[20][21] A crowded exhibition hall during CeBIT 2000. ...


Iran annually hosts international science festivals. The International Kharazmi Festival in Basic Science ([22]) and The Annual Festival of Razi Medical Science Research promote original research in science, technology, and medicine in Iran.


Iranians welcome scientists from all over the world to Iran for a visit and participation in seminars or collaborations. Many Nobel laureates and influential scientists such as Bruce Alberts, F. Sherwood Rowland, Kurt Wüthrich, Stephen Hawking, and Pierre-Gilles de Genne visited Iran after the revolution. Some universities also hosted American and European scientists as guest lecturers during recent decades. Dr. Bruce Alberts (b. ... Frank Sherwood Rowland (born June 28, 1927) is a Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. ... Kurt Wüthrich lecturing at the 2005 European Forum held in Alpbach, Austria. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Iran had some significant successes in nuclear technology during recent decades, especially in nuclear medicine. However, little connection exists between Iran's scientific society and that of the nuclear program of Iran. When Geoff Brumfiel, a science journalist for the journal Nature, asked: "How closely tied are academic physicists to the nuclear programme in Iran? Is it a completely divorced government situation or have physicists helped out with it? What's the relationship there?" Sharif University’s senior physicist, Reza Mansouri answered: "It's almost no relationship." Mansouri continued: "I would say the nuclear issue in Iran has almost nothing to do with science and with physics; it's a little bit of chemistry and technology. It's not physics and it's not science. But I would say everyone who understands a little bit of physics and science knows that this is just an old technology, not even a new one, and not a high technology."[11] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... This article is about Irans nuclear power program. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Reza Mansouri is an Iranian physicist and an influential figure in Iranian scientific movement during late 20th century. ...


Contribution of Iranians to modern science

Iranian scientists have made significant contributions to the international scientific community. In 1960, Ali Javan invented first gas laser. In 1973, the fuzzy set theory was developed by Lotfi Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist Tofy Mussivand invented the first artificial heart and afterwards developed it further. HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar and introduced to the medical community. The Vafa-Witten theorem was proposed by Cumrun Vafa, an Iranian string theorist, and his co-worker Edward Witten. The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation has been named after Mehran Kardar, notable Iranian physicist. Extraordinary because of multidisciplinary works at a young age, Ali Eftekhari is considered a founder of electrochemical nanotechnology and creator of surprising theories such as the Fractal Geometry of Literature. Other notable discoveries and innovations by Iranian scientists and engineers include: Ali Javan (Persian: علی جوان , born 1928 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian inventor and physicist at MIT. He invented the gas laser in 1960. ... Fuzzy sets are an extension of classical set theory and are used in fuzzy logic. ... Lotfali Askar Zadeh (born February 4, 1921) is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Toffy Musivand Persian: توفیق موسیوند (Born in Hamedan) is an Iranian physician and engineer and a world class cardiologist residing in Canada. ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ... Glycosylated (or glycated) hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, Hb1c , HbA1c or HgA1c) is a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify the plasma glucose concentration over time. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In theoretical physics, the Vafa-Witten theorem, named after Cumrun Vafa and Edward Witten, is a theorem that shows that vector-like (i. ... Cumrun Vafa is a leading string theorist from Harvard University where he started as a Harvard Junior Fellow. ... Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. ... Mehran Kardar is a prominent Iranian born physicist in MIT. He is particularly known for the KPZ equation in theoretical physics, which has been named after him. ... Ali Eftekhari (born August 29, 1979 in Tehran, Iran) is a professor of chemistry and director of Avicenna Institute of Technology, Berkeley, California. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, normally 1 to 100 nanometres, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. ... The boundary of the Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal. ...

  • Karim Nayernia: discovery of spermatagonial stem cells
  • Reza Ghadiri: 1998 Feynman prize for invention of a self-organized replicating molecular system
  • Mehdi Vaez-Iravani: invention of shear force microscopy
  • Siavash Alamouti and Vahid Tarokh: invention of space–time block code
  • Faraneh Vargha-Khadem: discovery of SPCH1 , a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder
  • Shirin Dehghan: 2006 Women in Technology Award[12]
  • Nader Engheta, inventor of "invisibility shield" (plasmonic cover) and research leader of the year 2006, Scientific American magazine,[13] and winner of a Guggenheim Fellowship (1999) for "Fractional paradigm of classical electrodynamics"
  • Ali Safaeinili: coinventor of Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS)[14]
  • Pierre Omidyar: economist, founder and chairman of eBay
  • Shahriar Afshar: proposed the Afshar experiment
  • Rouzbeh Yassini: inventor of the cable modem
  • Homayoun Seraji: most-published author in the 20-year history of the Journal of Robotic Systems (declared in 2007).

According to a study carried out by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Iranian scientists and engineers in the United States own or control around $880 billion.[23] Karim Nayernia is an Iranian biomedical scientist and a world expert on stem cell biology. ... M. Reza Ghadiri (born in Iran) is an Iranian (persian) chemist and a world expert on nano scale sciences. ... Mehdi Vaez-Iravani is an Iranian scientist, engineer and inventor who invented Shear-force microscopy. ... Siavash Alamouti is an Intel Fellow who is best known for the invention of the Alamouti space-time code disclosed jointly with Vahid Tarokh in the US patent (# 6,185,258) . Alamouti code is a 2 transmit antenna space-time block code and has been adapted in various global standards. ... Vahid Tarokh is a Persian Canadian scientist with fundamental contributions to telecommunication, specifically to signal processing for wireless communications. ... Space–time block coding is a technique used in wireless communications to transmit multiple copies of a data stream across a number of antennas and to exploit the various received versions of the data to improve the reliability of data-transfer. ... Nader Engheta (Born 1955 in Tehran) is an Iranian scientist and inventor of the invisibility cloak or plasmonic cover. ... Guggenheim Fellowships are awarded annually by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts. ... MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) is a low frequency, pulse-limited radar sounder and altimeter used on the ESA Mars Express mission. ... Pierre M. Omidyar (born 21 June 1967) is a French-born Iranian-American entrepreneur and philanthropist/economist, and the founder/chairman of the eBay auction site. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... Shahriar S. Afshar (Persian: ) is a notable Iranian-American physicist. ... In physics, and more specifically, quantum mechanics, the Afshar experiment is an optical experiment, devised by Shahriar S. Afshar in 2004, that its proponents claim disproves Niels Bohrs principle of complementarity. ... Rouzbeh Yassini is an Iranian-American engineer, considered to be the father of the cable modem. ... Homayoun Seraji (Persian: , b. ... “MIT” redirects here. ...


Medicine in Iran

See article: Ancient Iranian Medicine, Contemporary Medicine in Iran Some of the earliest records of history of Ancient Iranian medicine can be found in Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history. ... A novel surgical method developed by G.R. Pourmand et. ...

A 500 year old Latin translation of the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna.

The practice and study of medicine in Iran has a long and prolific history. Situated at the crossroads of the East and West, Persia was often involved in developments in ancient Greek and Indian medicine; pre- and post-Islamic Iran have been involved in medicine as well. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1272x890, 619 KB) Summary I took this image and allow its free use. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1272x890, 619 KB) Summary I took this image and allow its free use. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Persia redirects here. ...


For example, the first teaching hospital where medical students methodically practiced on patients under the supervision of physicians was the Academy of Gundishapur in the Persian Empire. Some experts go so far as to claim that: "to a very large extent, the credit for the whole hospital system must be given to Persia". [15] The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: ‎) was a renowned center of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ... Persia redirects here. ...


The idea of xenotransplantation dates to the days of Achaemenidae (the Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis.[16] Xenotransplantation (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Chimera on a red-figure Apulian plate, ca 350-340 BCE (Musée du Louvre) In Greek mythology, the Chimera (Greek Χίμαιρα (Chímaira); Latin Chimaera) is a monstrous creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, which was made of the parts of multiple animals. ... This article is about the ancient city. ...


Several documents still exist from which the definitions and treatments of the headache in medieval Persia can be ascertained. These documents give detailed and precise clinical information on the different types of headaches. The medieval physicians listed various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of headaches. The medieval writings are both accurate and vivid, and they provide long lists of substances used in the treatment of headaches. Many of the approaches of physicians in medieval Persia are accepted today; however, still more of them could be of use to modern medicine.[17] A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ...


In the 10th century work of Shahnama, Ferdowsi describes a Caesarean section performed on Rudaba, during which a special wine agent was prepared by a Zoroastrian priest and used to produce unconsciousness for the operation.[18] Although largely mythical in content, the passage illustrates working knowledge of anesthesia in ancient Persia. Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... Rudaba or Roodabeh (رودابه in Persia) was Daughter of Mehrab Kaboli. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


After the Islamic conquest of Iran, medicine continued to flourish with the rise of notables such as Rhazes and Haly Abbas, albeit Baghdad was the new cosmopolitan inheritor of Sassanid Jundishapur's medical academy. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, also known as Masoudi, was a famous Persian physician. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...


The first medical encyclopedia to be written in the Persian language instead of the usual Arabic lingua franca was Dhakhira-i Khwarazmshahi, composed between 1111 AD and 1136 AD by Sayyed Ismail Gorgani. “Farsi” redirects here. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


An idea of the number of medical works composed in Persian alone may be gathered from Adolf Fonahn's Zur Quellenkunde der Persischen Medizin, published in Leipzig in 1910. The author enumerates over 400 works in the Persian language on medicine, excluding authors such as Avicenna, who wrote in Arabic. Author-historians Meyerhof, Casey Wood, and Hirschberg also have recorded the names of at least 80 oculists who contributed treatises on subjects related to ophthalmology from the beginning of 800 AD to the full flowering of Muslim medical literature in 1300 AD. Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is a health care profession concerned with examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the eyes and related structures and with determination and correction of vision problems using lenses and other optical aids [1]. An optical refractor (also called a foropter... This article is about the branch of medicine. ...


Aside from the aforementioned, two other medical works attracted great attention in medieval Europe, namely Abu Mansur Muwaffaq's Materia Medica, written around 950 AD, and the illustrated Anatomy of Mansur ibn Muhammad, written in 1396 AD. Abu Mansur Muwaffak ibn Ali al-Harawi was a 10th century Persian physician. ...


Modern academic medicine began in Iran when Joseph Cochran established a medical college in Urmia in 1878. Cochran is often credited for founding Iran’s "first contemporary medical college".[24] The website of Urmia University credits Cochran for "lowering the infant mortality rate in the region" [25] and for founding one of Iran's first modern hospitals (Westminister Hospital) in Urmia. Joseph Plumb Cochran (Jan 14, 1855 - August 18, 1905) was an American Presbyterian missionary. ... Urmia (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™, Kurdish: Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh) is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Urmia University is a major university in the city of Urmia in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. ...


References

Iranian G.R. Pourmand and his team on the cover of the most important urology journal
  • Iran the cradle of science, by R. Behrouz, M. Ourmazdi and P. Reza'i. Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. Distributed with the authors' permission.
  1. ^ Ward English, Paul (Jun. 21, 1968). "The Origin and Spread of Qanats in the Old World". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol 112, No. 3: pp 170-181. JSTOR. 
  2. ^ Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0455-3 p.222
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ PSA target metrics for the UK research base
  6. ^ Essential Science Indicators
  7. ^ Education and training put Iran ahead of richer states
  8. ^ Education and training put Iran ahead of richer states
  9. ^ Nature: News Feature
  10. ^ Pediatric hematology and oncology in Iran: past and present state.
  11. ^ Nature: Prof Reza Mansouri comments on Nuclear issue and existing hostilities toward Iranian scientists
  12. ^ 'Top technology' woman announced
  13. ^ Research leaders of the year
  14. ^ First-of-Its-Kind Antenna to Probe the Depths of Mars
  15. ^ C. Elgood, A medical history of Persia, Cambridge Univ. Press. p.173
  16. ^ See link: [3]
  17. ^ History of headache in medieval Persian medicine, The Lancet, Volume 1, Issue 8, December 2002, Pages 510-515
  18. ^ Edward Granville Browne, Islamic Medicine, Goodword Books, 2002, ISBN 81-87570-19-9 p.79

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A novel surgical method developed by G.R. Pourmand et. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ... Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ...

See also

General

 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 
The first six rows of Khayyam-Pascal's triangle

The first five rows of Pascals triangle In mathematics, Pascals triangle is a geometric arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ... Dariush Shayegan. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... A novel surgical method developed by G.R. Pourmand et. ... Pathology (Aseeb Shenasi in Persian) as a science of discovering the reasons for an illness has attracted the attention of physicians since the time of antiquity. ... Scientific sanctions against Iranians include all actions taken to directly or indirectly suppress Iranian scientific community. ... Since mid 20th century, Iranian students, junior researchers and senior scientists have had a significant presence in international science competitions. ... This is a list of Iranian Research Centers: The Academy of Arts of Iran, Tehran The Academy of Persian Language & Literature, Tehran The Academy of Medical Sciences of Iran, Tehran The Academy of Sciences of Iran, Tehran Aerospace Research Institute, Tehran Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj Chemistry & Chemical... Here is the list of active research groups in Iran: // Group led by Vahid Karimipour website publications Group led by Farhad Ardalan [website] publications Cosmology group at Sharif: Reza Mansouri and Sohrab Rahvar [publications][1] Group led by Mehdi Golshani Group led by Afshin Shafiee Group led by Hossein Naderimanesh... The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per... The Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) (صندوق حمایت از پژوهشگران کشور in Persian) is an Iranian government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the fields of science, engineering and medical science. ...

Prominent organizations

ISIRI logo is designed in a way that it contains the English characters isiri upside-down and it resembles the the word Iran (ايران) without dots in Persian language at the same time The Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI; مؤسسهٔ استاندارد و تحقیقات صنعتی ایران) is the Iranian governmental institution for standardization and... The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is the main official body responsible for implementing regulations and operating nuclear energy installations in Iran. ... The Iranian Space Agency (ISA) is a governmental space agency. ... Iranian Chemists Association (ICA-ACS) is a subgroup of American Chemical Society and Iranian Chemical Society. ... Postdlf 07:56, 10 May 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

Highly cited Iranian scientists

Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is a well established medical school of Iran that even admits foreign students. ... Cumrun Vafa is a leading string theorist from Harvard University where he started as a Harvard Junior Fellow. ... The Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, often shortened to IPM (پژوهشگاه دانشهای بنیادی in Persian) is a government-sponsored research institute founded in 1989 in Tehran, Iran. ... Jawad A. Salehi [1] was born in Kazemain, Iraq, on December 22, 1956. ... Sharif University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی شریف Dāneshgāh-e Sanati-ye Sharif), formerly named Aryamehr University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی آریامهر Dāneshgāh-e Sanati-ye Āryāmehr) is a public university of technology, engineering and science in Iran. ...

External links

A few scientific figures who promoted world-class research in Iran: Caro Lucas, M.R. Darafsheh, V. Karimipour and M.R. Zarrindast

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Caro Lucas is an Iranian scientist. ... Mohammad Reza Zarrindast is a notable Persian pharmacologist and biomedical researcher. ...

Prominent scientific organizations of Iran

  • Iran Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology
  • Iranians Association of Medical Physics
  • Iran Research Organization for Science and Technology
  • Iran Science Network
  • Pasteur Institute of Iran
  • Biotechnology Study Center
  • Iranian Institute for Philosophy
  • National Energy Research Institute of Iran
  • National Research Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  • Iran Academy of Sciences
  • Iran Academy of Medical Sciences
  • Knowledge Diffusion Network
  • International Association of Iranian Managers

Provincial science parks

  • Khorasan Province
  • East Azerbaijan Province
  • Semnan Province
  • Gilan Province
  • Yazd Province
  • Markazi Province
  • Isfahan Province

Other

  • Iran science island (in Persian)
  • Iranian science: Iran's Scientists Cautiously Reach Out to the World
  • Iranian science: An Islamic Science Revolution?
  • Iranian science: Iranian Women Hear the Call of Science
  • Iranian neuroscience: The brain trust of Tehran
  • Nature editorial: Iran's long march
  • Nature editorial: Revival in Iran
  • Nature: String theorists bypass NSF en route to Iran seminar
  • History of ancient medicine in Iran
  • Science in culture: An exhibition in Britain explores a rich scientific heritage.
  • Science in Iran: The Sturgeon's Last Stand
  • Nature correspondence: Education and training put Iran ahead of richer states
  • The medical sciences in the Avesta
  • The contribution of Iranian scientists to world civilization

 
 

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