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Encyclopedia > Science and technology in Brazil

Brazilian science and technology has achieved in the last decades a significant position in the international arena.

Contents

History

Brazilian science efectively began only in the first decades of the 19th century, when the Portuguese royal family, headed by D. João VI, arrived in Rio de Janeiro, escaping from the invasion of Napoleon's army in 1807. Until then, Brazil was not much more than a poor colony, without universities, printing presses, libraries, museums, etc., in stark contrast to the former colonies of Spain, which had universities since the 16th century. This was a deliberate policy of the Portuguese colonial power, because they feared that the appearance of educated Brazilian classes would boost nationalism and aspirations toward political independence, as it had happened in the USA and several Latin American former Spanish colonies. In addition, Portugal was a predatory and expoliative colonial power that gave little consideration to establishing European standards of civilization in Brazil. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... John VI, King of Portugal, in Portuguese João (1769-1826), was born in Lisbon on May 13, 1769, and received the title of prince of Brazil in 1788. ... Ipanema beach A NASA satellite image of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese) is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distinct state (or city, in ancient times). ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Modern-style library itories and/or access points for maps, prints or other artwork, microfilm, microfiche, audio tapes, CDs, LPs, video tapes and DVDs, and provide public facilities to access CD-ROM databases and the Internet. ... A museum is typically a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Quote: -Albert Einstein Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Some feeble attempts of having a Brazilian science establishment were made around 1783, with the expedition of Portuguese naturalist Alexandre Rodrigues, who was sent by Portugal's prime minister, the Marquis of Pombal, to explore and identify Brazilian fauna, flora and geology. His collections, however, were lost to the French, when Napoleon invaded, and were transported to Paris by Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. In 1772, the first learned society, the Sociedade Scientifica, was founded in Rio de Janeiro, but lasted only until 1794. Also, in 1797, the first botanic institute was founded in Salvador, Bahia. 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Marquis of Pombal, or Marquês de Pombal, (13 May 1699 - 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese politician and statesman, prime minister of king Joseph I of Portugal throughout his reign. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (April 15, 1772 - June 19, 1844) was a French naturalist who established the principle of unity of composition. He was born at Étampes, Seine-et-Oise, and studied at the college of Navarre, in Paris, where he studied natural philosophy under M. J. Brisson. ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Salvador (saviour in Spanish and Portuguese) is: a 1986 film, see Salvador (movie) a city in Brazil, see Salvador, Brazil The word is also part of the names of: the nation of El Salvador the city of San Salvador San Salvador Island in the Bahamas San Salvador volcano in El... For the genus of wildflowers in the family Asteraceae, see Bahia (Botany) Bahia is a state in the north-east of Brazil. ...


D. João IV gave impetus to all these accoutrements of European civilization to Brazil. In a short period (between 1808 and 1810, the government founded the Royal Naval Academy and the Royal Military Academy (both military schools), the National Library, the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Medico-Chirurgical College of Bahia and the Medico-Chirurgical School of Rio de Janeiro. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the genus of wildflowers in the family Asteraceae, see Bahia (Botany) Bahia is a state in the north-east of Brazil. ...


The First Empire

After independence from Portugal, declared by the King's son, D. Pedro I (who became the new country's first Emperor), his policies concerning higher learning, science and technology came to a relative standstill. In the first two decades of the century, science in Brazil was mostly carried out by temporary scientific expeditions by European naturalists, such as Charles Darwin, Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied, Carl von Martius, Johann Baptist von Spix, Alexander Humboldt, Augustin Saint-Hilaire, Baron Grigori Ivanovitch Langsdorff, Friedrich Sellow, Fritz Müller, Hermann von Ihering, Émil Goeldi and others. This science was mostly descriptive of the fantastic Brazilian biodiversity of its fauna and flora, and also its geology, geography and anthropology, and until the creation of the National Museum, the specimens were mostly removed to European institutions. Brazilian expeditions were rare, the most significant one being that of Martim Francisco de Andrada e Silva and José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, in 1819. Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil (English: Peter), known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... -1... Charles Darwin, about the same time as the publication of The Origin of Species. ... Prince Alexander Philipp Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied (1782 - 1867) was a German explorer. ... Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (April 17, 1794–December 13, German botanist and explorer. ... Johann Baptist von Spix (February 9, 1781 - March 14, 1826) was a German naturalist. ... Augustin François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire (1799-1853), French botanist and traveller, was born at Orleans on October 4, 1799. ... Fritz Müller. ... Hermann von Ihering (1850 - 1930) was a German-Brazilian zoologist. ... Émil Albert Goeldi (var. ... Biodiversity or biological diversity is a neologism and a portmanteau word, from bio and diversity. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life, as distinct from Flora (plant life) Fauna is an ancient Roman goddess. ... The term flora has several meanings in English: Flora is a collective term for plant life; as distinct from Fauna (animals). ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... 1819 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In the educational area, the first law schools were founded in 1827 in Recife and São Paulo, but for decades to come, most Brazilian lawyers still studied at European universities, such as the famous University of Coimbra. In the United States, the institution where future lawyers obtain a legal degree is called a law school. ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Recife (population 1. ... Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ... The University of Coimbra (Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese state university with administrative and financial autonomy in Coimbra, a city of central Portugal. ...


The Second Empire

Things started to change after 1841, when the eldest son of D. Pedro I, Emperor D. Pedro II came to the throne when he was 15 year old. In the next 50 years, Brazil enjoyed a stable constitutional monarchy. D. Pedro II was an enlightened monarch who favored the arts, literature, science and technology and had extensive international contacts in these areas. The mainstay of Brazilian science and the seat of its first research laboratories was the National Museum Museu Nacional) in Rio de Janeiro, in existence until today. D. Pedro developed a strong personal interest and selected and invited many august European scientific personalities, such as von Ihering and Goeldi, to work in Brazil. He and his ministers, courtesans and senators often attended scientific conferences in the Museum. There, the first laboratory of physiology was founded in 1880, under João Baptista de Lacerda and Louis Coury. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dom Pedro IIs family Dom Pedro II and President Ulysses S. Grant, Philadelphia Exposition, 1876 Dom Pedro II in his old age Dom Pedro II of Brazil Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil (December 2, 1825-December 5, 1891) was the second and final Brazilian Emperor. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... Technology ( Gr. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Organization

Brazil has today a well developed organization of science and technology, which is considered the best and largest in Latin America. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Basic research is largely carried out in public universities and research centers and institutes, and some in private institutions, particularly in non-profit non-governmental organizations. Thanks to governmental regulations and incentives, however, since the 1990s is has been growing in the private universities and companies, as well. Accordingly, more than 90% of funding for basic research comes from the governmental sources. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM...


Applied research, technology and engineering is also largely carried out in the university and research centers system, contrary-wise to more developed countries such as the United States, South Korea, Germany, Japan, etc. The reasons for these are many, but the main ones are: 1) Few Brazilian private companies are competitive and rich enough for having their own R&D&I, they usually develop products by means of technology transfer from other companies, usually foreign ones; 2) The high-technology private sector in Brazil is dominated by large multinational companies, which usually have their R&D&I centers overseas, and, with a few exceptions, do not invest in their Brazilian branches. However, there is a significant trend reversing this now. Companies such as Motorola, Samsung, Nokia and IBM have established large R&D&I centers in Brazil, starting with IBM, which had established an IBM Research Center in Brazil since the 1970s. One of the incentive factors for this, besides the relatively lower cost and high sophistication and skills of Brazilian technical manpower, has been the so-called Informatics Law, which exempts from certain taxes up to 5% of the gross revenue of high technology manufacturing companies in the fields of telecommunications, computers, digital electronics, etc. The Law has attracted annually more than 1,5 billion dollars of investment in Brazilian R&D&I. Multinational companies have also discovered that some products and technologies designed and developed by Brazilians have a nice competitivity and are appreciated by other countries, such as automobiles, aircraft, software, fiber optics, electric appliances, and so on. Motorola (NYSE: MOT) (TYO: 6686) started as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928. ... The Samsung Group is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ... For the Finnish town, see Nokia. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Telecommunication is the extension of communication over a distance. ... The tower of a personal computer (specifically a Power Mac G5). ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ...


Funding

Brazilian funding for research, development and innovation comes from six main sources:

  1. Government (federal, state and municipal) sources. There are a number of state organizations which were created mostly in the 1950s specifically for directly promoting and funding R&D&I, such as the National Research Council (CNPq), which is now named Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento and the National Agency for Financing Studies and Researches (FINEP), both a part of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT). MCT is a relatively novel ministry, having being created in 1990. Before this, CNPq was the only research granting institution at federal level, working directly under the Presidency of Republic. At state level, almost all states have founded their own public foundations for support of R&D&I, following the pioneering (and highly successful) example of São Paulo state, which created the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) in 1962. Usually these foundations are guaranteed by changes in the state constitituions, along the 1980s and 1990s.
  2. Indirect funding through the budgets of public and private universities, institutes and centers. Some universities, such as UNICAMP, have their own internal agencies, foundations and funds set apart and managed with the purpose of supporting R&D&I by their faculties and students.
  3. Public companies, such as Embrapa (Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research). Their source of revenue are the government itself (via budgetary allocations my ministries and state secretaries) and investment of a part of products and services sold.
  4. Industrial, commercial and services private companies, usually for their own R&D&I centers, or via some fiscal benefit (tax exemption laws), such as the Informatics Law.
  5. National private and non-for-profit associations and foundations, via statutory mechanisms or donations by private individuals or companies. An example is the Banco do Brasil Foundation
  6. Funding by other nations, international organizations and multilateral institutions, such as Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank, UNESCO, UNDP, World Health Organization, World Wildlife Foundation, Kellog's Foundation, Melissa and Bill Gates Foundation, US National Science Foundation, Volkswagen Foundation, just to name a few of the more important ones in the history of Brazilian science and technology.

Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... São Paulo is a state in Brazil. ... Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo, or FAPESP) is a public foundation located in São Paulo, Brazil, with the aim of providing grants, funds and programs to support research, education and innovation of... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The State University of Campinas (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, shorlty Unicamp) is one of the public universities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. ... The Rockefeller Foundation is a charitable organization that operates out of New York City. ... The Ford Foundation is a US charitable foundation created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty and promote international understanding (see mission statement). ... The Inter-American Development Bank, for four decades, has supported Latin American and Caribbean economic/social development and regional integration by lending mainly to public institutions. ... The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency responsible for supporting basic science research mainly by providing research funding. ...

Timeline

  • 1916: Creation of the Brazilian Society of Sciences, later Brazilian Academy of Sciences
  • 1917: Beginning of the publication of the Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  • 1920: Foundation of the University of Brazil, current Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
  • 1923: Creation of the Brazilian Society of Chemistry (SBCh)
  • 1923: Foundation of the Radio Society, first radio broadcasting station of Brazil
  • 1924: Creation of the Brazilian Association of Education
  • 1925: Institution of the Einstein Prize, in reason of his visit to Brazil
  • 1930: Creation of the National Institute of Weights and Standards
  • 1934: Creation of the University of São Paulo
  • 1935: Creation of the University of the Federal District
  • 1948: Creation of the Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science (SBPC)
  • 1949: Creation of the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF)
  • 1951: Creation of the National Research Council (CNPq)
  • 1952: Creation of the National Institute for Amazon Research - INPA
  • 1956: Creation of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN
  • 1961: Creation of the National Institute of Space Research - INPE
  • 1962: Creation of the São Paulo State Foundation for Research Support (FAPESP)
  • 1967: Creation of FINEP (National Agency for Financing Research and Projects)

1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... The Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Portuguese: Academia Brasileira de Ciências or ABC) is the national academy of Brazil. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP) is one of the three public universities funded by the State of São Paulo. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year—i. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...

Important universities

The State University of Campinas (Universidade Estadual de Campinas, shorlty Unicamp) is one of the public universities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. ... The University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo, USP) is one of the three public universities funded by the State of São Paulo. ... The Universidade Federal do Paraná (Federal University of Paraná) was founded in 1912, in Curitiba. ... The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul is among the largest federal university of Brazil, where public universities are usually the most qualified institutions. ... The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ) is the largest federal university of Brazil, where state-owned colleges are the best and most qualified institutions. ...

Research institutes

Instituto Butantan is a Brazilian biomedical research center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretary of Health. ... The Eldorado Research Institute (In Portuguese: Instituto de Pesquisas Eldorado) is a non-profit research, development and innovation institution located in Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. ... Instituto Oswaldo Cruz is a scientific institution for research and development in biomedical sciences located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... Categories: Stub ...

Scientific societies

The Brazilian Academy of Sciences (Portuguese: Academia Brasileira de Ciências or ABC) is the national academy of Brazil. ... Created in November 1983 in Campinas, during the First Brazilian Congress on Health Informatics, this professional society has the mission of promoting the development and the interchange of ideas and results in the fields devoted to the information technologies applied to the health sciences (Medical informatics, Telemedicine, Bioinformatics, etc. ...

Important Brazilian scientists and technologists


  Results from FactBites:
 
Delegação Permanente do Brasil junto à UNESCO (4689 words)
Modern science in Brazil started mainly under the influence of the Brazilian Academy of Science (from 1916 on) and afterwards, particularly in the fourth and fifth decades of last century, under the spell of a group of brilliant young researchers trained at the University of São Paulo.
Consequently, as elsewhere in the developing world, the local industry participation in science and technology and on their applications, within a market newly oriented to the appropriation and creation of highly innovative processes, was extremely limited.
The second remark is that our dreams of using science and technology to promote human peace and progress, to alleviate misery and its trail of disease and famine, are on the march.
Brazil Science and Technology - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, ... (803 words)
Brazil's effort to strengthen its scientific base attracted international attention and was considered an example of how a country might move from underdevelopment, poverty, and international dependency to economic growth, better living standards, and self-reliance.
Science and technology in Western Europe, and more recently in the United States, developed along two parallel and mutually reinforcing lines: as part of a broader scientific culture, linked to education, the development of modern professions, and a growing and prestigious scientific community; and as part of the increasingly effective industrial and military establishments.
They introduced modern technology but little of modern science in their universities and other similar institutions; and most of their investments in technology were made in industrial firms, rather than in large, isolated governmental agencies, including the military sector.
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