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Encyclopedia > Science Fiction
Science-fiction books, magazines, film, TV, gaming and fannish material

Science fiction (abbreviated SF or sci-fi with varying punctuation and capitalization) is a broad genre of fiction that often involves speculations based on current or future science or technology. Science fiction is found in books, art, television, films, games, theatre, and other media. In organizational or marketing contexts, science fiction can be synonymous with the broader definition of speculative fiction, encompassing creative works incorporating imaginative elements not found in contemporary reality; this includes fantasy, horror, and related genres.[1] There are two television channels named Sci-Fi: a British satellite television channel; see Sci Fi channel (United Kingdom) a United States television channel; see Sci Fi channel (United States) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links SFStack2. ... Image File history File links SFStack2. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... “Horror story” redirects here. ...


Science fiction differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation). Exploring the consequences of such differences is the traditional purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas".[2]Science fiction is largely based on writing entertainingly and rationally about alternate possibilities[3] in settings that are contrary to known reality.


These may include:

  • A setting in the future, in alternative time lines, or in a historical past that contradicts known facts of history or the archeological record
  • A setting in outer space, on other worlds, or involving aliens[4]
  • Stories that involve technology or scientific principles that contradict known laws of nature[5]
  • Stories that involve discovery or application of new scientific principles, such as time travel or psionics, or new technology, such as nanotechnology, faster-than-light travel or robots, or of new and different political or social systems[6]

Contents

Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Green people redirects here. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Psionics is a term used mostly in fiction and games to denote a variety of paranormal psychic abilities, especially those that are under a persons conscious control. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communications and travel are staples of the science fiction genre. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...

Definitions

For more details on this topic, see Definitions of science fiction.

Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty by stating that "science fiction is what we point to when we say it".[7], a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography; you don't know what it is, but you know it when you see it.[8]Vladimir Nabokov argued that if were we rigorous with our definitions, Shakespeare's play The Tempest would have to be termed science fiction.[9] Main article: Science fiction Science fiction includes such a wide range of themes and subgenres that it is notoriously difficult to define. ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... Porn redirects here. ... This page is about the novelist. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ...


According to science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein, "a handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."[10] Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science Fiction is the improbable made possible."[11]Lester Del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado– or fan- has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction."[12] Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... -1... Rodman Edward Rod Serling (December 25, 1924 – June 28, 1975) was an American screenwriter, most famous for his science fiction anthology television series, The Twilight Zone. ... Lester del Rey (Ramon Felipe Alvarez-del Rey) (June 2, 1915 - May 10, 1993) was an American science fiction author and editor. ...


Forrest J. Ackerman publicly used the term "sci-fi" at UCLA in 1954,[13] though Robert A. Heinlein had used it in private correspondence six years earlier.[14] As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies" and with low-quality pulp science fiction.[15][16][17] By the 1970s, critics within the field such as Terry Carr and Damon Knight were using "sci-fi" to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction,[18] and around 1978, Susan Wood and others introduced the pronunciation "skiffy." Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers."[19] David Langford's monthly fanzine Ansible includes a regular section "As Others See Us" which offers numerous examples of "sci-fi" being used in a pejorative sense by people outside the genre.[20] Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916 in Los Angeles, California) is a legendary science fiction fan and collector of science fiction-related memorabilia. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... The King of the Bs, Roger Corman, produced and directed The Raven (1963) for American International Pictures. ... This article is about inexpensive fiction magazines. ... Terry Carr (February 19, 1937 - April 7, 1987) was a science fiction author and editor. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... Susan Joan Wood (August 22, 1948[1]-November 12, 1980[2] was a Canadian author, critic, and science fiction fan, born in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Skiffy is a pejorative term used by science fiction readers to refer to the sub-genre of other-media science fiction (usually film or television) that is noted for its lack of understanding of science and/or science fiction terms, poor quality, low budget and cliché-ridden writing. ... David Langford David Rowland Langford (born April 10, 1953, in Newport, Monmouthshire) is a British author, editor and critic, largely active within the science fiction field. ... An ansible is a hypothetical machine, capable of superluminal communication, and used as a plot device in science fiction literature. ...


History

For more details on this topic, see History of science fiction.

As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to science fiction as literature began to emerge from the 13th century (Ibn al-Nafis, Theologus Autodidactus)[21] to the 17th century (the real Cyrano de Bergerac with "Voyage de la Terre à la Lune" and "Des états de la Lune et du Soleil") and the Age of Reason with the development of science itself, Voltaire's "Micromégas" was one of the first, together with Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels.[22] Following the 18th century development of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science fiction novel;[23] later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon.[24] More examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers like Jules Verne and H. G. Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society.[25] In the late 19th century the term "scientific romance" was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott. The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon. This article is about science fiction literature. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... This article is about the historical figure. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Micromégas is a short story written in the Eighteenth Century by the French philosopher and satirist Voltaire. ... For other uses, see Gullivers Travels (disambiguation). ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... This article is about the novel. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... This article is about the French author. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Scientific romance is an archaic name for what is now known as the Science Fiction genre. ... For various uses of the term Flatlander, see Flatlander (disambiguation) Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions is a 1884 novella by Edwin Abbott Abbott, still popular among mathematics and computer science students, and considered useful reading for people studying topics such as the concept of other dimensions. ... Edwin Abbott Abbott Edwin Abbott Abbott (December 20, 1838 – October 12, 1926), English schoolmaster and theologian, is best known as the author of the mathematical satire and religious allegory Flatland (1884). ... William Olaf Stapledon (May 10, 1886 – September 6, 1950) was a British philosopher and author of several influential works of science fiction. ...


In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine.[26] In the late 1930s, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and a critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City in a group called the Futurians, including Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith Merril, and others.[27] Other important writers during this period included Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, and A. E. Van Vogt. Campbell's tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress.[26] This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines like Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode. Pulp magazines, often called simply the pulps, were inexpensive text fiction magazines widely published in the 1920s through the 1950s. ... Hugo Gernsback (August 16, 1884 - August 19, 1967) was an inventor and magazine publisher who also wrote science fiction and whose publication included the first science fiction magazine. ... First issue of Amazing Stories, art by Frank R. Paul Amazing Stories magazine, sometimes retitled Amazing Science Fiction, was first published in April 1926 in New York City, thereby becoming the first magazine devoted exclusively to publishing stories in the genre presently known as science fiction (SF). ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Futurians were an influential group of science fiction fans, many of whom became editors and writers as well. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... Donald Allen Wollheim (October 1, 1914 – November 2, 1990) was a science fiction writer, editor, and publisher. ... Frederik George Pohl, Jr. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ... Judith Josephine Grossman (January 21, 1923 - September 12, 1997), who took the pen-name Judith Merril about 1945, was an American and then Canadian science fiction writer, editor and political activist. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... The Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through the 1950s, was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide public attention and many classic science fiction stories were published. ... The Puppet Masters by Robert A. Heinlein in Galaxy, Sept. ...


In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers like William S. Burroughs. In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R. Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, while a group of writers, mainly in Britain, became known as the New Wave.[22] In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF.[28] Ursula K. Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction.[29] Beats redirects here. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American science fiction author. ... Samuel Ray Delany, Jr. ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, teleplays, essays, and criticism. ... New Wave science fiction was characterised by a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously literary or artistic sensibility previously comparatively alien to the science fiction aesthetic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsələ ˌkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ...


In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the traditional optimism and support for progress of traditional science fiction.[30] Star Wars helped spark a new interest in space opera,[31] focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy. C. J. Cherryh's detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers.[32] Emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, as well as a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes. Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence.[33] The television series Star Trek: The Next Generation began a torrent of new SF shows,[34] of which Babylon 5 was among the most highly acclaimed in the decade.[35][36] Concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge's novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors. Television shows like Buffy the Vampire Slayer and films like The Lord of the Rings created new interest in all the speculative genres in films, television, computer games, and books. Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... C. J. Cherryh (born September 1, 1942) is the slightly modified working name of United States science fiction and fantasy author Carolyn Janice Cherry, the sister of artist David A. Cherry. ... Green people redirects here. ... This is a list of environmental issues that is due to human activity. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Post scarcity or post-scarcity describes a hypothetical form of economy or society, often explored in science fiction, in which things such as goods, services and information are free, or practically free. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... The Diamond Age or, A Young Ladys Illustrated Primer is a postcyberpunk novel by Neal Stephenson. ... Lois McMaster Bujold (November 2, 1949, Columbus, Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy works. ... The Vorkosigan Saga is a series of science fiction novels and short stories by Lois McMaster Bujold, most of which concern Miles Vorkosigan, a disabled aristocrat from the planet Barrayar who heads his own private mercenary fleet at the age of just seventeen. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... Vernor Steffen Vinge (IPA: ) (born February 10, 1944) is a mathematician, computer scientist and science fiction author who is best known for his Hugo award-winning novels A Fire Upon the Deep and A Deepness in the Sky, as well as for his 1993 essay The Technological Singularity, in which... Marooned in Realtime is a murder mystery and time-travel science fiction novel by Vernor Vinge, about a small group of people who are the only survivors of a technological singularity. ... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ...


Innovation

For more details on this topic, see innovation.

While SF has provided criticism of developing and future technologies, it also produces innovation and new technology. The discussion of this topic has occurred more in literary and sociological than in scientific forums. Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between science fiction film and the technological imagination. Technology does impact how artists portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to science by broadening imagination. While more prevalent in the beginning years of science fiction with writers like Isaac Asimov, Robert A. Heinlein, Frank Walker and Arthur C. Clarke, new authors like Michael Crichton still find ways to make the currently impossible technologies seem so close to being realized.[37]This has also been documented in the field of nanotechnology with University of Ottawa Professor José Lopez's article "Bridging the Gaps: Science Fiction in Nanotechnology." Lopez links both theoretical premises of science fiction worlds and the operation of nanotechnologies.[38] Vivian Sobchack is a noted cinema and media scholar and theorist as well as a cultural critic. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... There have been a number of people named Frank Walker: Frank Comerford Walker, former chairman of the Democratic National Committee Frank Walker (Australian politician), former Member of the Australian House of Representatives This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... For the university in Ottawa, Kansas, see Ottawa University. ...


Subgenres

For more details on this topic, see Science fiction genre.

Authors and filmmakers draw on a wide spectrum of ideas, but marketing departments and literary critics tend to separate such literary and cinematic works into different categories, or "genres", and subgenres.[39] These are not simple pigeonholes; works can be overlapped into two or more commonly-defined genres, while others are beyond the generic boundaries, either outside or between categories, and the categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism differ considerably. A science fiction genre is a division (genre) of science fiction. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ...


Hard SF

Main article: Hard science fiction

Hard science fiction, or "hard SF", is characterized by rigorous attention to accurate detail in quantitative sciences, especially physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, or on accurately depicting worlds that more advanced technology may make possible. Many accurate predictions of the future come from the hard science fiction subgenre, but numerous inaccurate predictions have emerged as well. For example, Arthur C. Clarke accurately predicted (and invented the concept of) geostationary communications satellites,[40] but erred in his prediction of deep layers of moondust in lunar craters.[41] Some hard SF authors have distinguished themselves as working scientists, including Robert Forward, Gregory Benford, Charles Sheffield, and Geoffrey A. Landis,[42] while mathematician authors include Rudy Rucker and Vernor Vinge. Other noteworthy hard SF authors include Hal Clement, Joe Haldeman, Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle, Kim Stanley Robinson, Robert J. Sawyer, and Stephen Baxter. Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ... Robert Lull Forward commonly known as Robert L. Forward (August 15, 1932 - September 21, 2002) was a United States physicist and science fiction writer. ... Gregory Benford (born January 30, 1941 in Mobile, Alabama) is an American science fiction author and physicist who is on the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Irvine. ... Charles Sheffield (June 25, 1935 – November 2, 2002), was an English-born mathematician, physicist and science fiction author. ... Geoffrey A. Landis emerged in the late 1980s as one of the foremost scientist-writers in the science fiction genre. ... Rudy Rucker, Fall 2004, photo by Georgia Rucker. ... Vernor Steffen Vinge (IPA: ) (born February 10, 1944) is a mathematician, computer scientist and science fiction author who is best known for his Hugo award-winning novels A Fire Upon the Deep and A Deepness in the Sky, as well as for his 1993 essay The Technological Singularity, in which... Harry Clement Stubbs (May 30, 1922 - October 29, 2003), better known by the pen name Hal Clement, was an American science fiction writer, a leader of the subgenre hard science fiction. ... Joseph William Haldeman is an American science fiction author. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jerry Eugene Pournelle, Ph. ... For the late American actress, see Kim Stanley. ... Robert J. Sawyer is a Canadian hard science fiction writer, born in Ottawa in 1960 and now resident in Mississauga. ... Stephen Baxter (born in Liverpool, 13 November 1957) is a British hard science fiction author. ...

Image File history File links TheLeftHandOfDarkness1stEd. ... Image File history File links TheLeftHandOfDarkness1stEd. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsələ ˌkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ...

Soft and Social SF

See also: Soft science fiction and Social science fiction

The description "soft" science fiction may describe works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology. Noteworthy writers in this category include Ursula K. Le Guin and Philip K. Dick.[26][43] The term can describe stories focused primarily on character and emotion; SFWA Grand Master Ray Bradbury is an acknowledged master of this art.[44] Some writers blur the boundary between hard and soft science fiction - for example Mack Reynolds's work focuses on politics but anticipated many developments in computers, including cyber-terrorism. Soft science fiction, or soft SF, like its complementary opposite hard science fiction, is a descriptive term that points to the role and nature of the science content in a science fiction story. ... Social science fiction is a term used to describe a subgenre of science fiction concerned less with gadgets and space opera and more with speculation about human society. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... This article is about the social science. ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsÉ™lÉ™ ËŒkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... Reynolds Mission to Horatius (1968), the first original novel based on the television show Star Trek Mack Reynolds (Dallas McCord Reynolds) (November 11, 1917 - January 30, 1983) was an American science fiction writer. ... Cyber-terrorism is the leveraging of a targets computers and information technology, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption. ...


Related to Social SF and Soft SF are the speculative fiction branches of utopian or dystopian stories; The Handmaid's Tale, Nineteen Eighty-Four, and Brave New World are examples. Satirical novels with fantastic settings such as Gulliver's Travels may be considered speculative fiction. See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... The Handmaids Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, first published by McClelland and Stewart in 1985. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gullivers Travels (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links A book cover for Neuromancer by William Gibson. ... Image File history File links A book cover for Neuromancer by William Gibson. ... For the 1988 video game, see Neuromancer (video game). ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ...

Cyberpunk

See also: Cyberpunk and Steampunk

The Cyberpunk genre emerged in the early 1980s; the name is a portmanteau of "cybernetics" and "punk"[45] , and was first coined by author Bruce Bethke in his 1980 short story "Cyberpunk".[46] The time frame is usually near-future and the settings are often dystopian. Common themes in cyberpunk include advances in information technology and especially the Internet (visually abstracted as cyberspace), (possibly malevolent) artificial intelligence, enhancements of mind and body using bionic prosthetics and direct brain-computer interfaces called cyberware, and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments. Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements, and the protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes. Noteworthy authors in this genre are William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson. The 1982 film Blade Runner is commonly accepted as a definitive example of the cyberpunk visual style.[47] Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... For the comic book and the anthology, see Steampunk (comics) and Steampunk (anthology). ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ... AI redirects here. ... Bionics (also known as Biomimetics, Biognosis or Biomimicry, a short form of Biomechanics - from the Greek word bios - pronounced vios - which means life, and the word mechanics) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Cyberware is a relatively new and unknown field. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Bruce Sterling, see Bruce Sterling (disambiguation). ... Pat Cadigan (born 1953) is an American born science fiction author, whose work is sometimes described as part of the cyberpunk movement, although she does not classify herself in that way. ... Rudy Rucker, Fall 2004, photo by Georgia Rucker. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ...


Time Travel

See also: Time travel in fiction

Time travel stories have antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries, and this subgenre was popularized by H. G. Wells's novel The Time Machine. Stories of this type are complicated by logical problems such as the grandfather paradox.[48] Time travel is a popular subject in novels, and in television series, either as individual episodes within more general science fiction series (for example, "The City on the Edge of Forever" in Star Trek and "Babylon Squared" in Babylon 5, or as one-off productions such as The Flipside of Dominick Hide. Poster for Back to the Future (1985). ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ... The grandfather paradox is a paradox of time travel, first described by the science fiction writer René Barjavel in his 1943 book Le Voyageur Imprudent (The Imprudent Traveller).[1] The paradox is this: Suppose a man traveled back in time and killed his biological grandfather before the latter met the... The City on the Edge of Forever is the penultimate episode of the first season of Star Trek. ... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... Babylon Squared is an episode from the first season of the science-fiction television series Babylon 5. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... The Flipside Of Dominick Hide is a British television play which has attained cult status. ...


Alternate history

See also: Alternate history

Alternate history stories are based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently. These stories may use time travel to change the past, or may simply set a story in a universe with a different history from our own. Classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the American Civil War and The Man in the High Castle, by Philip K. Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II. The Sidewise Award acknowledges the best works in this subgenre; the name is taken from Murray Leinster's early story "Sidewise in Time". Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Bring the Jubilee, by Ward Moore is a 1953 alternate history novel set in a United States in which the Confederacy won the American Civil War (in the novel referred to as The War of Southern Independence). ... Ward Moore (August 10, 1903 - January 28, 1978) was the working name of American author Joseph Ward Moore. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Man in the High Castle is a 1962 alternate history novel by science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Sidewise Award for Alternate history was established in 1995 to recognize the best alternate history stories and novels of the year. ... Murray Leinster (June 16, 1896 in Norfolk, Virginia- June 8, 1975) was a nom de plume of William Fitzgerald Jenkins, an award-winning American writer of science fiction and alternate history. ...


Military SF

See also: Military science fiction

Military science fiction is set in the context of conflict between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; the primary viewpoint characters are usually soldiers. Stories include detail about military technology, procedure, ritual, and history; military stories may use parallels with historical conflicts. Heinlein's Starship Troopers is an early example, along with the Dorsai novels of Gordon Dickson. Joe Haldeman's The Forever War is a critique of the genre, a Vietnam-era response to the World War II-style stories of earlier authors.[49] Prominent military SF authors include David Drake, David Weber, Jerry Pournelle, S. M. Stirling, and Lois McMaster Bujold. Baen Books is known for cultivating military science fiction authors.[50] Television series within this subgenre include Battlestar Galactica and Stargate SG-1. The popular Halo videogame and novel series is another prominent modern example. Starship Troopers by Robert A. Heinlein is a well-known example of military science fiction. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... For other uses, see Starship Troopers (disambiguation). ... The Childe Cycle is an unfinished series of science fiction novels by Gordon R. Dickson. ... Gordon Rupert Dickson (November 1, 1923 - January 31, 2001) was a Canadian science fiction author. ... Joseph William Haldeman is an American science fiction author. ... For the related comic series of the same name, see The Forever War (comics). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... David Drake David Drake (born September 24, 1945) is a successful author of science fiction and fantasy literature. ... Honor Harrington from Honor Among Enemies cover, by David Mattingly. ... Jerry Eugene Pournelle, Ph. ... Stephen Michael Stirling is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Lois McMaster Bujold (November 2, 1949, Columbus, Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy works. ... Baen Books logo Baen Books is an American publishing company established in 1983 by SF publishing industry long-timer Jim Baen (1943–2006). ... This article is about all the media that use the name Battlestar Galactica. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... The Halo universe is a fictional setting for the video games Halo: Combat Evolved, Halo 2, the future games Halo 3 and Halo Wars, and the books related to the Halo series. ...


Other SF Genres

See also: New Wave (science fiction), Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, Christian science fiction, Space opera, and Science fiction Western

New Wave science fiction was characterised by a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously literary or artistic sensibility previously comparatively alien to the science fiction aesthetic. ... Apocalyptic fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction (or, in some cases, the more general category speculative fiction) that is concerned with the end of civilization through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ... Christian science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, in which a Christian theme or message is expressed through the plot and storyline. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... A science fiction Western is a work of fiction which has elements of science fiction in a Western setting. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Related genres

Speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror

For more details on this topic, see Speculative fiction.

The broader category of speculative fiction[51] includes science fiction, fantasy, alternate histories (which may have no particular scientific or futuristic component), and even literary stories that contain fantastic elements, such as the work of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth. For some editors, magic realism is considered to be within the broad definition of speculative fiction.[52] Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Borges redirects here. ... John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American novelist and short-story writer, known for the postmodernist and metafictive quality of his work. ... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements or illogical scenarios appear in an otherwise realistic or even normal setting. ...

Cover design for The Lord of the Rings by JRRT. This work is copyrighted. ... Cover design for The Lord of the Rings by JRRT. This work is copyrighted. ... This article is about the novel. ...

Fantasy

Main article: Fantasy literature

Fantasy is closely associated with science fiction, and many writers, including Robert A. Heinlein, Poul Anderson, Larry Niven, C. J. Cherryh, C. S. Lewis, Jack Vance, Terry Pratchett, Roger Zelazny, and Lois McMaster Bujold have worked in both genres, while writers such as Anne McCaffrey and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that appear to blur the boundary between the two related genres.[53] The authors' professional organization is called the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA).[54] SF conventions routinely have programming on fantasy topics,[55][56][57] and fantasy authors such as J. K. Rowling and J. R. R. Tolkien (in film adaptation) have won the highest honor within the science fiction field, the Hugo Award.[58] Some works show how difficult it is to draw clear boundaries between subgenres, for example Larry Niven's The Magic Goes Away stories treat magic as just another force of nature and subject to natural laws which resemble and partially overlap those of physics. Authors and readers often make a distinction between fantasy and SF.[citation needed] In general, science fiction is the literature of things that might someday be possible, and fantasy is the literature of things that are inherently impossible.[11] Magic and mythology are popular themes in fantasy.[59] Some narratives are described as being essentially science fiction but "with fantasy elements." The term "science fantasy" is sometimes used to describe such material.[60] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... C. J. Cherryh (born September 1, 1942) is the slightly modified working name of United States science fiction and fantasy author Carolyn Janice Cherry, the sister of artist David A. Cherry. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... John Holbrook Vance (born August 28, 1916 in San Francisco, California) is generally described as an American fantasy and science fiction author, though Vance himself has reportedly objected to such labels. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... Lois McMaster Bujold (November 2, 1949, Columbus, Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy works. ... Anne Inez McCaffrey (born April 1, 1926) is an American science fiction author best known for her Dragonriders of Pern series. ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was an American author of fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, often with a feminist outlook. ... Science Fiction Writers of America, or SFWA (pronounced // or //), was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight. ... The definition of a fantasy author is somewhat diffuse, and a matter of opinion - Jules Verne considered H. G. Wells to be a fantasy author - and there is considerable overlap with science fiction authors and horror fiction authors. ... Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE[1] (born 31 July 1965),[2] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is a British writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a feature film. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Warlocks Era (The Magic Goes Away) The fictional setting of Larry Nivens logical (as opposed to high) fantasy series. ... Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse Magic in fiction is the endowing of fictional characters or objects with magical powers. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagners Die Walküre: the magic sword, such as Nothung, is a common fantasy trope. ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ...

Frankenstein (1931) film poster
Frankenstein (1931) film poster

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Frankenstein is a 1931 science fiction film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and very loosely based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. ...

Horror fiction

Main article: Horror fiction

Horror fiction is the literature of the unnatural and supernatural, with the aim of unsettling or frightening the reader, sometimes with graphic violence. Historically it has also been known as "weird fiction." Although horror is not per se a branch of science fiction, many works of horror literature incorporates science fictional elements. One of the defining classical works of horror, Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, is a fully-realized work of science fiction, where the manufacture of the monster is given a rigorous science-fictional grounding. The works of Edgar Allan Poe also helped define both the science fiction and the horror genres.[61] Today horror is one of the most popular categories of films.[62] “Horror story” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... Graphic violence is the depiction of violence in media such as film, television, and video games. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ...


Mystery fiction

Main article: Mystery fiction

Works in which science and technology are a dominant theme, but based on current reality, may be considered mainstream fiction. Much of the thriller genre would be included, such as the novels of Tom Clancy or Michael Crichton, or the James Bond films.[63]Modernist works from writers like Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick, and Stanisław Lem have focused on speculative or existential perspectives on contemporary reality and are on the borderline between SF and the mainstream.[64]According to Robert J. Sawyer, "Science fiction and mystery have a great deal in common. Both prize the intellectual process of puzzle solving, and both require stories to be plausible and hinge on the way things really do work."[65] Isaac Asimov, Anthony Boucher, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate mystery elements in their science fiction, and vice versa. Mystery fiction is a distinct subgenre of detective fiction that entails the occurrence of an unknown event which requires the protagonist to make known (or solve). ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... This article is about the spy series. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... StanisÅ‚aw Lem ( , September 12, 1921 – March 27, 2006) was a Polish science fiction, philosophical and satirical writer. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Robert J. Sawyer is a Canadian hard science fiction writer, born in Ottawa in 1960 and now resident in Mississauga. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Anthony Boucher (August 21, 1911 - April 29, 1968) [1] was an American science fiction editor and writer of mystery novels and short stories. ... Walter Mosley Walter Mosley (born January 12, 1952) is a prominent American novelist, most widely recognized for his crime fiction. ...


Superhero fiction

Main article: Superhero fiction

Superhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings with much higher than usual physical or mental prowess, generally with a desire or need to help the citizens of their chosen country or world by using his or her powers to defeat natural or superpowered threats. Many superhero fiction characters involve themselves (either intentionally or accidentally) with science fiction and fact, including advanced technologies, alien worlds, time travel, and interdimensional travel; but the standards of scientific plausibility are lower than with actual science fiction. Authors of this genre include Stan Lee (co-creator of Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, and the Hulk); Marv Wolfman, the creator of Blade for Marvel Comics, and The New Teen Titans for DC Comics; Dean Wesley Smith (Star Trek , Smallville, Spider-Man, and X-Men novels) and Superman writers Roger Stern and Elliot S! Maggin. This is a subgenre of fiction that deals with superheroes, supervillians, super-powered humans, aliens, or mutants, and their adventures. ... For the fictional character of this name, see Stan Lee (Judge Dredd character). ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... This article is about the superheroes. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... Look up Hulk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Hulk may refer to: Hulk (comics), a comic book superhero in the Marvel Comics universe Hulk (film), a 2003 film based on the comic book character, directed by Ang Lee Hulk (ship), a type of ships Hulk (roller coaster), a roller coaster... Cover to Crisis on Infinite Earths #1, which was written by Wolfman. ... A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ... The Teen Titans (also The New Teen Titans, The New Titans, and The Titans) is a team of comic book superheroes in the DC Comics universe. ... Dean Wesley Smith is a science fiction author, known primarily for his Star Trek novels, movie novelizations, and other novels of licensed properties such as Smallville, Spider-Man, X-Men, Aliens, Roswell, Men in Black, and Quantum Leap. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Smallville is an American television series created by writer/producers Alfred Gough and Miles Millar, and was initially broadcast by The WB. After its fifth season, the WB and UPN merged to form The CW, which is the current broadcaster for the show in the United States. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... The Hobgoblin character co-created by Stern. ... Elliot S! Maggin is an American writer. ...


Literature

References to the most noteworthy science fiction books and authors are included here.


Authors

See also: List of science fiction authors

      External link: Locus 1977 All-Time Best Author Poll Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate, or did not work in that genre. ...


Novels and shorter literary forms

This page lists a broad variety of science fiction novels (and novel series)--some old, some new; some famous, some obscure; some well-written, some ill-written--and so may be considered a representative slice of the field. ... The Hugo Awards are given annually for the best science fiction or fantasy works. ... This is a non-comprehensive list of short stories with significant science fiction elements. ... The Hugo Awards are given annually for the best science fiction or fantasy works. ... Winners of the Hugo Award for best novelette. ... The Hugo Awards are given annually for the best science fiction or fantasy works. ...

Non-fiction, anthologies, and magazines

Winners of the Hugo Award for best non-fiction book. ... The Hugo Awards are given annually by members of the World Science Fiction Convention for the best science fiction or fantasy works. ...

Critical Assessments and Reading Lists

Fandom and community

For more details on this topic, see Science fiction fandom.

Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas... the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large."[66] Members of this community, "fans", are in contact with each other at conventions or clubs, through print or online fanzines, or on the Internet using web sites, mailing lists, and other resources. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... For more information on fans of football (soccer), see Football (soccer) culture. ... Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of science fiction and fantasy. ... A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. ...


SF fandom emerged from the letters column in Amazing Stories magazine. Soon fans began writing letters to each other, and then grouping their comments together in informal publications that became known as fanzines.[67] Once they were in regular contact, fans wanted to meet each other, and they organized local clubs. In the 1930s, the first science fiction conventions gathered fans from a wider area.[68] Conventions, clubs, and fanzines were the dominant form of fan activity, or "fanac", for decades, until the Internet facilitated communication among a much larger population of interested people. Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of science fiction and fantasy. ...


Awards

For more details on this topic, see List of science fiction awards.

Among the most respected awards for science fiction are the Hugo Award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society at Worldcon, and the Nebula Award, presented by SFWA and voted on by the community of authors. One notable award for science fiction films is the Saturn Award. It is presented annually by The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films. The genre of Science Fiction has a number of recognition awards for authors, editors and illustrators. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... The World Science Fiction Society is an unincorporated literary society whose purpose is to promote interest in Science Fiction. ... The Nebula is an award given each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), for the best science fiction/fantasy fiction published in the United States during the two previous years (see rolling eligibility below). ... The Saturn Award is an award presented annually by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films to honor the top works in science fiction, fantasy, and horror in film, television, and home video. ...


There are national awards, like Canada's Aurora Award, regional awards, like the Endeavour Award presented at Orycon for works from the Pacific Northwest, special interest or subgenre awards like the Chesley Award for art or the World Fantasy Award for fantasy. Magazines may organize reader polls, notably the Locus Award. The Prix Aurora Awards are given out annually for the best Canadian science fiction and fantasy literary works from that year, and are awarded in both English and French. ... The Endeavour Award announced annually at OryCon in Portland, Oregon is awarded to a distinguished SCIENCE FICTION or FANTASY BOOK written by a Pacific Northwest author or authors and published in the previous year. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... The Chesley Awards were established in 1985 by the Association of Science Fiction and Fantasy Artists to recognize individual works and achievements during a given year. ... First awarded in 1975, the World Fantasy Awards are handed out annually at the World Fantasy Convention (WFC) to recognize outstanding achievement in the field of fantasy. ... The Locus Awards are presented to winners of Locus Magazines annual readers poll, which was established in the early 70s specifically to provide recommendations and suggestions to Hugo Awards voters. ...


Conventions, clubs, and organizations

For more details on this topic, see Science fiction conventions.
See also: :Category:science fiction organizations
Pamela Dean reading at Minicon
Pamela Dean reading at Minicon

Conventions (in fandom, shortened as "cons"), are held in cities around the world, catering to a local, regional, national, or international membership. General-interest conventions cover all aspects of science fiction, while others focus on a particular interest like media fandom, filking, etc. Most are organized by volunteers in non-profit groups, though most media-oriented events are organized by commercial promoters. The convention's activities are called the "program", which may include panel discussions, readings, autograph sessions, costume masquerades, and other events. Activities that occur throughout the convention are not part of the program; these commonly include a dealer's room, art show, and hospitality lounge (or "con suites").[69] Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of science fiction and fantasy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sfcon-reading-ddb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sfcon-reading-ddb. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Media fandom is a fannish term invented in the late 1970s to describe the collective fandoms for contemporary television shows and movies. ... Filk is a musical culture, genre, and community tied to science fiction/fantasy fandom, active since the early 1950s if concentrated primarily since the mid-1970s. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ...


Conventions may host award ceremonies; Worldcons present the Hugo Awards each year. SF societies, referred to as "clubs" except in formal contexts, form a year-round base of activities for science fiction fans. They may be associated with an ongoing science fiction convention, or have regular club meetings, or both. Most groups meet in libraries, schools and universities, community centers, pubs or restaurants, or the homes of individual members. Long-established groups like the New England Science Fiction Association and the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society have clubhouses for meetings and storage of convention supplies and research materials.[70]The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) was founded by Damon Knight in 1965 as a non-profit organization to serve the community of professional science fiction authors.[54] Fandom has helped incubate related groups, including media fandom,[71] the Society for Creative Anachronism,[72] gaming,[73] filking, and furry fandom.[74] It has been suggested that World Science Fiction Society be merged into this article or section. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... The New England Science Fiction Association, NESFA, is a science fiction club, founded in 1967. ... The Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society or LASFS is a private club in North Hollywood, California, a suburb of Los Angeles, California. ... Science Fiction Writers of America, or SFWA (pronounced // or //), was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... Media fandom is a fannish term invented in the late 1970s to describe the collective fandoms for contemporary television shows and movies. ... Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. ... This article is about gamers - people who play games. ... Filk is a musical culture, genre, and community tied to science fiction/fantasy fandom, active since the early 1950s if concentrated primarily since the mid-1970s. ... Some furry fans create and wear costumes, commonly known as fursuits, of their characters. ...


Fanzines and online fandom

For more details on this topic, see Science fiction fanzine.
See also: Category:Science fiction websites

The first science fiction fanzine, "The Comet", was published in 1930.[75] Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying. Subscription volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing. Modern fanzines are printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email. The best known fanzine (or "'zine") today is Ansible, edited by David Langford, winner of numerous Hugo awards. Other fanzines to win awards in recent years include File 770, Mimosa, and Plokta.[76]Artists working for fanzines have risen to prominence in the field, including Brad W. Foster, Teddy Harvia and Joe Mayhew; the Hugos include a category for Best Fan Artists.[76]The earliest organized fandom online was the SF Lovers community, originally a mailing list in the late 1970s with a text archive file that was updated regularly.[77] In the 1980s, Usenet groups greatly expanded the circle of fans online. In the 1990s, the development of the World-Wide Web exploded the community of online fandom by orders of magnitude, with thousands and then literally millions of web sites devoted to science fiction and related genres for all media.[70] Most such sites are small, ephemeral, and/or very narrowly focused, though sites like SF Site offer a broad range of references and reviews about science fiction. A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... The hectograph or gelatin duplicator is a printing process which involves transferring from an original sheet prepared with special inks to a gelatin pad. ... Mimeograph machine The Mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to Mimeo), or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ... A spirit duplicator or ditto machine was a low-volume printing method used mainly by schools and churches. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... A zine—an abbreviation of the word fanzine, and originating from the word magazine[1][2]—is most commonly a small circulation, non-commercial publication of original or appropriated texts and images. ... An ansible is a hypothetical machine, capable of superluminal communication, and used as a plot device in science fiction literature. ... David Langford David Rowland Langford (born April 10, 1953, in Newport, Monmouthshire) is a British author, editor and critic, largely active within the science fiction field. ... File 770 is named for the party in Room 770 at the 1951 Worldcon science fiction convention that upstaged the convention. ... For other uses, see Mimosa (disambiguation). ... Plokta is a science fiction fanzine, first published in 1996. ... Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist. ... A file archiver combines a number of files together into one archive file, or a series of archive files, for easier transportation or storage. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... SF Site is a webzine located at www. ...


Fan fiction

For more details on this topic, see Fan fiction.
See also: Fan fiction terminology

Fan fiction, known to aficionados as "fanfic", is non-commercial fiction created by fans in the setting of an established book, film, or television series.[78]This modern meaning of the term should not be confused with the traditional (pre-1970s) meaning of "fan fiction" within the community of fandom, where the term meant original or parody fiction written by fans and published in fanzines, often with members of fandom as characters therein ("faan fiction"). Examples of this would include the Goon stories by Walt Willis. In the last few years, sites have appeared such as Orion's Arm and Galaxiki, which encourage collaborative development of science fiction universes. In some cases, the copyright owners of the books, films, or television series have instructed their lawyers to issue "cease and desist" letters to fans. Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ... The community surrounding modern fan fiction has generated a considerable amount of slang and jargon over the past several decades. ... A non-commercial enterprise is work that values other considerations above and beyond that of making a profit. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... A science fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. ... Walter Alexander Willis (1919-1999) was a well-known Irish science fiction fan, resident in Belfast. ... Orions Arm (or OA for short) is an online science fiction world-building project, founded by M. Alan Kazlev. ... Galaxiki is a web-based, free content virtual community web 2. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Science fiction

A science fiction genre is a division (genre) of science fiction. ... The following is a list of science fiction themes. ... SF Site is a webzine located at www. ... SFX is a British science fiction magazine, published every four weeks. ... This is a list of projects related to digital libraries. ... Skiffy is a pejorative term used by science fiction readers to refer to the sub-genre of other-media science fiction (usually film or television) that is noted for its lack of understanding of science and/or science fiction terms, poor quality, low budget and cliché-ridden writing. ...

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ N. E. Lilly (2002-03). What is Speculative Fiction?. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  2. ^ Marg Gilks, Paula Fleming and Moira Allen (2003). Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas. WritingWorld.com.
  3. ^ Del Rey, Lester (1979). The World of Science Fiction: 1926-1976. Ballantine Books, 5. ISBN 0-345-25452-x. 
  4. ^ Sterling, Bruce. "Science fiction" in Encyclopædia Britannica 2008 [1]
  5. ^ Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Writer's Digest Books, 17. ISBN 0-89879-416-1. 
  6. ^ Hartwell, David G. (1996). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Tor Books, 109-131. ISBN 0-312-86235-0. 
  7. ^ Knight, Damon Francis (1967). In Search of Wonder: Essays on Modern Science Fiction. Advent Publishing, Inc., pg xiii. ISBN 0911682317. 
  8. ^ Glassy, Mark C.. The Biology of Science Fiction Cinema. ISBN 0-7864-0998-3. 
  9. ^ Nabokov, Vladimir Vladimirovich (1973). Strong opinions. McGraw-Hill, pg. 3 et seq. ISBN 0070457379. 
  10. ^ Heinlein, Robert A.; Cyril Kornbluth, Alfred Bester, and Robert Bloch (1959). "Science Fiction: Its Nature, Faults and Virtues". The Science Fiction Novel: Imagination and Social Criticism, University of Chicago: Advent Publishers. 
  11. ^ a b Rod Serling. The Twilight Zone, "The Fugitive".
  12. ^ Del Rey, Lester (1980). The World of Science Fiction 1926-1976. Garland Publishing. 
  13. ^ (2000) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  14. ^ www.jessesword.com/sf/view/210. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  15. ^ Whittier, Terry (1987). Neo-Fan's Guidebook. 
  16. ^ Scalzi, John (2005). The Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies. 
  17. ^ Ellison, Harlan (1998). "Harlan Ellison's responses to online fan questions at ParCon". Retrieved on 2006-04-25, 2006.
  18. ^ John Clute and Peter Nicholls, ed. (1993). ""Sci fi" (article by Peter Nicholls)". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK, 
  19. ^ John Clute and Peter Nicholls, ed. (1993). ""SF" (article by Peter Nicholls)". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK, 
  20. ^ Ansible. David Langford.
  21. ^ Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World).
  22. ^ a b "Science Fiction". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  23. ^ John Clute and Peter Nicholls (1993). "Mary W. Shelley". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK, Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  24. ^ Poe, Edgar Allan. The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, Volume 1, "The Unparalleled Adventures of One Hans Pfaal". Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  25. ^ "Science Fiction". Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. (2006). Microsoft, Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  26. ^ a b c Agatha Taormina (2005-01-19). A History of Science Fiction. Northern Virginia Community College. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  27. ^ Resnick, Mike (1997). "The Literature of Fandom". Mimosa (#21). Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  28. ^ SF TIMELINE 1960-1970. Magic Dragon Multimedia (2003-12-24). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  29. ^ Browning, Tonya (1993). "A brief historical survey of women writers of science fiction". Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  30. ^ Philip Hayward (1993). Future Visions: New Technologies of the Screen. British Film Institute, 180-204. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  31. ^ Allen Varney (2004-01-04). Exploding Worlds!. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  32. ^ Vera Nazarian (2005-05-21). Intriguing Links to Fabulous People and Places.... Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  33. ^ Shards of Honor. NESFA Press (2004-05-10). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  34. ^ Scott Cummings (2006-09-21). Star Trek: The Next Generation. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  35. ^ David Richardson (1997-07). "Dead Man Walking". Cult Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  36. ^ Nazarro, Joe. "The Dream Given Form". TV Zone Special (#30). 
  37. ^ Sheila Schwartz (1971). Science Fiction: Bridge between the Two Cultures. The English Journal. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  38. ^ Jose Lopez (2004). Bridging the Gaps: Science Fiction in Nanotechnology. Hyle. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  39. ^ An Interview with Hal Duncan. Del Rey Online (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  40. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, 1917-. Pegasos (2000). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  41. ^ Chester, Tony (2002-03-17). "A Fall of Moondust". Concatenation. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  42. ^ Fraknoi, Andrew (2003-02-11). "Teaching Astronomy with Science Fiction: A Resource Guide". Astronomy Education Review. National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  43. ^ Hartwell, David G. (1996-08). Age of Wonders. Tor Books. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  44. ^ Maas, Wendy (2004-07). Ray Bradbury: Master of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Enslow Publishers. 
  45. ^ Stableford, Brian (2006). Science Fact and Science Fiction: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis Group LLC, 113. 
  46. ^ It was later refined by William Gibson's book, Neuromancer which is credited for envisioning cyberspace. Published in the November 1983 issue of Amazing Science Fiction Stories; Bethke, Bruce. Cyberpunk. Infinity Plus. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  47. ^ James O'Ehley (1997-07). SCI-FI MOVIE PAGE PICK: BLADE RUNNER - THE DIRECTOR'S CUT. Sci-Fi Movie Page. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  48. ^ Time Travel and Modern Physics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2000-02-17). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  49. ^ Henry Jenkins (1999=07-23). Joe Haldeman, 1943-. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  50. ^ Website Interview with Toni Weisskopf on SF Canada. Baen Books (2005-09-12). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  51. ^ Science Fiction Citations. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  52. ^ Aeon Magazine Writer's Guidelines (2006-04-26). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  53. ^ Anne McCaffrey. tor.com (1999-08-16). Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  54. ^ a b Information About SFWA. Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
  55. ^ Peggy Rae Sapienza and Judy Kindell (2006-03-23). Student Science Fiction and Fantasy Contest. L.A.con IV. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  56. ^ Steven H Silver (2000-09-39). Program notes. Chicon 2000. Retrieved on 2001-01-16.
  57. ^ Carol Berg. Links, "Conventions and Writers' Workshops". Retrieved on 2001-01-16.
  58. ^ The Hugo Awards By Category. World Science Fiction Society (2006-07-26). Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
  59. ^ Robert B. Marks (1997-05). "On Incorporating Mythology into Fantasy, or How to Write Mythical Fantasy in 752 Easy Steps". Story and Myth. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  60. ^ Elkins, Charles (1980-11). "Recent Bibliographies of Science Fiction and Fantasy". Science Fiction Studies. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  61. ^ David Carroll and Kyla Ward (1993-05). "The Horror Timeline, "Part I: Pre-20th Century"". Burnt Toast (#13). Retrieved on 2001-01-16. 
  62. ^ Chad Austin. Horror Films Still Scaring – and Delighting – Audiences. North Carolina State University News. Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
  63. ^ Utopian ideas hidden inside Dystopian sf. False Positives (2006-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  64. ^ Glenn, Joshua (2000-12-22). "Philip K. Dick (1928-1982)". Hermenaut (#13). Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  65. ^ McBride, Jim (1997-11). "Spotlight On... Robert J. Sawyer". Fingerprints (November 1997). Crime Writes of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 
  66. ^ von Thorn, Alexander (2002-08). "Aurora Award acceptance speech".
  67. ^ Wertham, Fredric (1973). The World of Fanzines. Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press. 
  68. ^ Fancyclopedia I: C - Cosmic Circle. fanac.org (1999-08-12). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  69. ^ Lawrence Watt-Evans (1000-03-15). What Are Science Fiction Conventions Like?. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  70. ^ a b Mike Glyer (1998-11). "Is Your Club Dead Yet?". File 770. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 
  71. ^ Robert Runte (2003). History of sf Fandom. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  72. ^ Origins of the Middle Kingdom. Folump Enterprises (1994). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  73. ^ Ken St. Andre (2006-02-03). History. Central Arizona Science Fiction Society. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  74. ^ Patten, Fred (2006). Furry! The World's Best Anthropomorphic Fiction. ibooks. 
  75. ^ Rob Hansen (2003-08-13). British Fanzine Bibliography. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  76. ^ a b Hugo Awards by Category. World Science Fiction Society (2006-07-26). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  77. ^ Keith Lynch (1994-07-14). History of the Net is Important. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  78. ^ (2003) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved on 2007-01-17. 

References

  • Barron, Neil, ed. Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction (5th ed.). (Libraries Unlimited, 2004) ISBN 1-59158-171-0.
  • Clute, John Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley, 1995. ISBN 0-7513-0202-3.
  • Clute, John and Peter Nicholls, eds., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. St Albans, Herts, UK: Granada Publishing, 1979. ISBN 0-586-05380-8.
  • Clute, John and Peter Nicholls, eds., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin's Press, 1995. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
  • Disch, Thomas M. The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of. Touchstone, 1998.
  • Reginald, Robert. Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, 1975-1991. Detroit, MI/Washington, DC/London: Gale Research, 1992. ISBN 0-8103-1825-3.
  • Weldes, Jutta, ed. To Seek Out New Worlds: Exploring Links between Science Fiction and World Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0-312-29557-X.
  • Westfahl, Gary, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders (three volumes). Greenwood Press, 2005.
  • Wolfe, Gary K. Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Glossary and Guide to Scholarship. Greenwood Press, 1986. ISBN 0-313-22981-3.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Science fiction
  • Science Fiction (Bookshelf) at Project Gutenberg
  • SF Hub - resources for science-fiction research
  • Science fiction fanzines (current and historical) online
  • List of science fiction and fantasy E-zines

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Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... Peter Nicholls is an Australian-born writer. ... The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction is a reference work on science-fiction. ... John [Frederick] Clute is a Canadian born author and critic who lives in Britain. ... Peter Nicholls is an Australian-born writer. ... The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction is a reference work on science-fiction. ... Thomas M. Disch Thomas Michael Disch (Born February 2, 1940) is an American science fiction author and poet. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Science fiction comics such as 2000 AD feature a selection of regular comic strips with a Science fiction theme. ... Oct. ... This page lists a broad variety of science fiction novels (and novel series)--some old, some new; some famous, some obscure; some well-written, some ill-written--and so may be considered a representative slice of the field. ... Science fiction film is a film genre that uses speculative, science-based depictions of imaginary phenomena such as extra-terrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, and time travel, often along with technological elements such as futuristic spacecraft, robots, or other technologies. ... This is a list of science fiction films organised chronologically. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_konquest. ... Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate, or did not work in that genre. ... Science fiction has been shaped as a literary genre by both authors and editors. ... Main article: Science fiction Science fiction includes such a wide range of themes and subgenres that it is notoriously difficult to define. ... The genre of Science Fiction has a number of recognition awards for authors, editors and illustrators. ... This article is about science fiction literature. ... A science fiction genre is a division (genre) of science fiction. ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... Soft science fiction, or soft SF, like its complementary opposite hard science fiction, is a descriptive term that points to the role and nature of the science content in a science fiction story. ... Apocalyptic fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction (or, in some cases, the more general category speculative fiction) that is concerned with the end of civilization through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ... The Dying Earth subgenre is a sub-category of science fantasy which takes place at the end of Time, when the Sun slowly fades and the laws of the Universe themselves fail, with the science becoming indistinguishable from magic. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... Comic science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that exploits the genres conventions for comic effect. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The following is a list of science fiction themes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of Artificial intelligence (AI), describing the different futuristic portrayals of fictional artificial intelligence. ... Planets in science fiction are fictional planets that appear in various media, especially those of the science fiction genre, as story-settings or depicted locations. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ... Modern science fiction frequently involves themes of sex, gender and sexuality. ... Poster for Back to the Future (1985). ... Utopian fiction is the creation of an ideal world as the setting for a novel. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of speculative fiction including science fiction and fantasy. ... These are lists of conventions in the genres of Science Fiction/ Fantasy, Anime, Gaming, Comics, Horror and related genres. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Science fiction - The Black Vault Encyclopedia Project (3326 words)
Science fiction is a genre of fiction in which advances in science, or contact with more scientifically advanced civilizations, create situations different from those of both the present day and the known past.
Science fiction has often been concerned with the great hopes people place in science but also with their fears concerning the negative side of technological development; the latter is expressed in the classic theme of the hubristic scientist who is destroyed by his own creation.
Science fiction television dates from at least as early as 1938, when the BBC staged a live performance of the science fiction play R.U.R. The first regularly scheduled SF series to achieve a degree of popularity was Captain Video and his Video Rangers, which ran from 1949 to 1955 on the American DuMont Network.
Definitions of Science Fiction (2881 words)
Science fiction is story-telling, usually imaginative as distinct from realistic fiction, which poses the effects of current or extrapolated scientific discoveries, or a single discovery, on the behavior of individuals of society.
Science fiction is a branch of fantasy identifiable by the fact that it eases the "willing suspension of disbelief" on the part of its readers by utilizing an atmosphere of scientific credibility for its imaginative speculations in physical science, space, time, social science, and philosophy.
Science fiction is that branch of fantasy, which, while not true to present-day knowledge, is rendered plausible by the reader's recognition of the scientific possibilities of it being possible at some future date or at some uncertain point in the past.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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