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Encyclopedia > Science (journal)
Science
Abbreviated title None
Discipline Interdisciplinary
Language English
Publication details
Publisher AAAS (USA)
Publication history 1880 to present
(3 series of volumes)
Indexing
ISSN 0036-8075
Links

Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious scientific journals.[1][2] The peer-reviewed journal, first published in 1880 is circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is one million people.[3] // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Although most scientific journals focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines. Science places special emphasis on biology and the life sciences because of the expansion of biotechnology and genetics over the past few decades[citation needed]. Science's impact factor for 2006 was 368.08 (as measured by Thomson ISI). This article is about the concept. ... Science policy is usually considered the art of justifying, managing or prioritizing support of scientific research and development. ... This article is about the profession. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The Impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ... The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960. ...


Although it is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly-cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 10% of articles submitted to the editors are accepted for publication and all research articles are subject to peer review before they appear in the magazine. Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


Science is based in Washington, D.C., USA, with a second office in Cambridge, England. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Science was founded by New York journalist John Michaels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. However, the magazine never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March of 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year later and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS.[4] However, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500. Edison redirects here. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor and innovator. ... Samuel Hubbard Scudder was an American entomologist and palaeontologist. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ...


In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900.[5] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in Science included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble.[6] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS.[7] Leland Ossian Howard, Ph. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ...


After Cattell's death, the magazine lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. Physicist and Nobel laureate, Philip Abelson, the co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the peer review process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date.[8] During this time, papers on the Project Apollo missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published.[9] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Philip Hauge Abelson (April 27, 1913 - August 1, 2004) was a physicist, editor of scientific literature, and science writer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Biochemist Daniel Koshland served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd Bloom held that position.[9] Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. ...


Biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000, biochemist Bruce Alberts will take his place in March 2008. [10] Donald Kennedy is an American scientist, public administrator and academic. ... Dr. Bruce Alberts (b. ...


In February 2001, draft results of the human genome were simultaneously published by Nature and Science with Science publishing the Celera Genomics paper and Nature publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project. A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... Celera Genomics (NYSE: CRA) is a business unit of the Applera Corporation that focuses on genetic sequencing and related technologies. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ...


Controversies

An article published in Science in 2002 on the neurotoxicity of the drug MDMA ("ecstasy") caused some controversy when a mix-up of vials caused the paper to be retracted in 2003. (see Neurotoxicity of MDMA controversy) MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street names ecstasy or XTC (for more names see the full list), is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts... Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA[1] (ecstasy) is the title of a paper by Dr. George Ricaurte which was published in the leading journal Science and was later retracted. ...


Science encountered another controversy in 2006 when papers by Hwang Woo-Suk on cloning human embryos from stem cell research were withdrawn by Seoul National University due to apparent scientific fraud. A committee set up by Science to study the matter found that the journal's procedures had been followed, and the journal could do little in the face of deliberate fraud. The committee recommended that papers received should henceforth be classified as non-controversial or controversial; controversial papers should be looked at more thoroughly. Science also suggested that Nature may want to take up the same standards it was adopting.[11] Hwang Woo-suk (황우석) (born 29 January 1953) is a South Korean biomedical scientist. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... Not to be confused with the University of Seoul. ... Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ...


Kennedy defended the peer review system, pointing out that catching fraud would require "costly and offensive oversight on the vast majority of scientists in order to catch the occasional cheater".[12]


Availability

Online versions of full-text archive articles are not generally made available to the public. Full text is available online to AAAS members from the main journal website. Individual and institutional subscriptions are also available for a fee (though it is significantly less expensive to simply join the AAAS and receive the magazine for free). The Science website also gives free access to some articles (principally original research articles and editorials) as well as the complete table of contents of the current and past issues, a year after their publication. Access to all articles on the Science website is free if the request comes from an IP address of a subscribing institution. Articles older than 5 to 6 years are available via JSTOR and recent articles older than 12 months are available via ProQuest. JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ... ProQuest Company is an Ann Arbor, Michigan based company specializing in microfilm and electronic publishing. ...


The Science website also gives access to Knowledge Environments, such as the Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment (STKE) and the Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE). Knowledge Environments are an attempt to utilize internet-based technologies to enhance access to scientific information and improve the effectiveness of information transfer. The Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE) is an online scientific resource provided by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which also publishes the journal SCIENCE. History and Organization The American Association for the Advancement of Science established a collaboration with Stanford University Libraries and The...


See also

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... This article concerns problems with a paper, Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (ecstasy) that appeared in the leading journal Science, treated as a case study in scientific method. ... The Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE) is an online scientific resource provided by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which also publishes the journal SCIENCE. History and Organization The American Association for the Advancement of Science established a collaboration with Stanford University Libraries and The... The Breakthrough of the Year is an annual award made by the journal Science for the most significant development in scientific research. ...

References

  1. ^ AAAS - AAAS News Release
  2. ^ AAAS Annual Report-Science
  3. ^ AAAS, "What is AAAS?"
  4. ^ AAAS, "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS Origins: 1848-1899", 2004
  5. ^ AAAS, "150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS AAAS and Science: 1900–1940", 2004
  6. ^ AAAS and Science: 1900-1940. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  7. ^ AAAS - History and Archives. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  8. ^ AAAS and the Maturing of American Science: 1941-1970. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  9. ^ a b Change and Continuity: 1971 to the Present. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  10. ^ Bruce Alberts Named New Editor-in-Chief of Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  11. ^ "Handle with care", The Economist, 2006-11-30. Retrieved on 2007-08-05. 
  12. ^ Kennedy, Donald (13 January 2006). "Good News-and Bad". Science 311 (5758): 145. doi:10.1126/science.1124498. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Don't dumb me down | Science | Guardian Unlimited (2036 words)
Often, a front page science story will emerge from a press release alone, and the formal academic paper may never appear, or appear much later, and then not even show what the press reports claimed it would (www.badscience.net/?p=159).
This misrepresentation of science is a direct descendant of the reaction, in the Romantic movement, against the birth of science and empiricism more than 200 years ago; it's exactly the same paranoid fantasy as Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, only not as well written.
And humanities graduates in the media, who suspect themselves to be intellectuals, desperately need to reinforce the idea that science is nonsense: because they've denied themselves access to the most significant developments in the history of western thought for 200 years, and secretly, deep down, they're angry with themselves over that.
Science journalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (271 words)
Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism, which uses the art of reporting to convey information about science topics to a public forum.
Science journalists often, but not always, have advanced training in the particular scientific disciplines that they cover — they may have been scientists or, for example, medical doctors, before becoming journalists — or have at least exhibited talent in writing about science subjects.
In recent years, the amount of scientific news has grown rapidly with science playing an increasingly central role in society, and interaction between the scientific community and news media has increased.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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