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Encyclopedia > Sciatic nerve
Nerve: Sciatic nerve
Left gluteal region, showing surface markings for arteries and sciatic nerve.
Latin nervus ischiadicus
Gray's subject #213 960
Innervates Lateral rotator group (except Piriformis and Quadratus femoris), Posterior compartment of thigh
From lumbar plexus and sacral plexus: L4-S3
To tibial nerve, common fibular nerve
Dorlands/Elsevier n_05/12566006

The sciatic nerve (also known as the ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve that runs down the lower limb. It is the longest single nerve in the body. Image File history File links Gray1244. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Lateral rotator group are a group of muscles of the hip consisting of the externus obturator, the internus obturator, the piriformis, the superior gemellus, the inferior gemellus, and the quadratus femoris. ... The piriformis (from Latin piriformis = pear shaped) is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb. ... The Quadratus femoris muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The posterior fascial compartment of the thigh contains the knee flexors and hip extensors: biceps femoris semitendinosus semimembranosus The muscles here (except for the short head of the biceps femoris) are the hamstrings. ... Grays Fig. ... In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... The common peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve; external popliteal nerve; peroneal nerve), about one-half the size of the tibial nerve, is derived from the dorsal branches of the fourth and fifth lumbar and the first and second sacral nerves. ... Elseviers logo. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... In humans, the lower limb is an anatomical term for the limb that is attached to the pelvic girlde, what is commonly referred to as the leg. ...


The sciatic supplies nearly the whole of the skin of the leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh, and those of the leg and foot.

Contents

Anatomical course

The nerve enters the lower limb by exiting the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, below the Piriformis muscle. The pelvis (pl. ... The greater sciatic foramen is bounded, in front and above, by the posterior border of the hip bone; behind, by the sacrotuberous ligament; and below, by the sacrospinous ligament. ... The piriformis (from Latin piriformis = pear shaped) is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb. ...


It descends between the greater trochanter of the femur and the tuberosity of the ischium, and along the back of the thigh to about its lower third, where it divides into three large branches, the tibial and common peroneal nerves. This division may take place at any point between the sacral plexus and the lower third of the thigh. When it occurs at the plexus, the common peroneal nerve usually pierces the Piriformis muscles. Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... Posteriorly the Superior ramus of the ischium forms a large swelling, the tuberosity of the ischium, which is divided into two portions: a lower, rough, somewhat triangular part, and an upper, smooth, quadrilateral portion. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... The common peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve; external popliteal nerve; peroneal nerve), about one-half the size of the tibial nerve, is derived from the dorsal branches of the fourth and fifth lumbar and the first and second sacral nerves. ... The piriformis (from Latin piriformis = pear shaped) is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb. ...


In the upper part of its course, the nerve rests upon the posterior surface of the ischium, the nerve to the Quadratus femoris, the Obturator internus and Gemelli; it is accompanied by the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and the inferior gluteal artery, and is covered by the Gluteus maximus. The nerve to quadratus femoris is a nerve that provides innervation to the quadratus femoris and gemellus inferior muscles. ... The obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis. ... Gemelli is a pasta in the shape of a spiral tube. ... The Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (small sciatic nerve) is distributed to the skin of the perineum and posterior surface of the thigh and leg. ... The inferior gluteal artery (sciatic artery), the larger of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the hypogastric, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh. ... The gluteus maximus is the largest of the gluteus muscles which are located in the buttock. ...


Lower down, it lies upon the Adductor magnus, and is crossed obliquely by the long head of the Biceps femoris. The Adductor magnus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The biceps femoris, as its name implies, has two heads. ...


Branches

The nerve gives off articular and muscular branches.

  • The articular branches (rami articulares) arise from the upper part of the nerve and supply the hip-joint, perforating the posterior part of its capsule; they are sometimes derived from the sacral plexus.
  • The muscular branches (rami musculares) are distributed to the following muscles of the lower limb: Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, and Adductor magnus. The nerve to the short head of the Biceps femoris comes from the common peroneal part of the sciatic, while the other muscular branches arise from the tibial portion, as may be seen in those cases where there is a high division of the sciatic nerve.

The muscular branch eventually gives off the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the (lower) leg. The tibial nerve goes on to innervate muscles of the foot. Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The biceps femoris, as its name implies, has two heads. ... The Semitendinosus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Semimembranosus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Adductor magnus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... The Common peroneal nerve is a branch of the Sciatic nerve. ...


Pathology

Pain caused by a compressed or damaged sciatic nerve is called sciatica. Sciatica is pain caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that are branches of the sciatic nerve. ...


Additional images

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Sciatica | Sciatic Nerve | Pinched Nerve | Sciatic Nerve Pain | Siatica (0 words)
The sciatic nerve (commonly misspelled cyatic nerve or siatic nerve) is the largest nerve in your body, which starts in the low back and travels all the way down your legs to the bottom of your feet.
Frequently sciatic nerve pain is a result of the joints in your lower spine being misaligned and putting pressure or stretching on the nerve roots as they come off from your spine.
Chiropractic care is efficient at correcting misalignment in the spine and thereby reducing the pinched nerve commonly associated with sciatic nerve damage.
Dr. Koop - Sciatic Pain- Health Encyclopedia and Reference (846 words)
Sciatica is the inflammation of the sciatic nerve, usually marked by pain and tenderness along the course of the nerve on through to the thigh and leg.
Sciatic pain usually starts in the buttocks and extends down the rear of the thigh and lower leg to the sole of the foot and along the outer side of the lower leg to the top of the foot.
Several nerve roots leave the spinal cord and exit through holes in the sacrum to combine and form the sciatic nerve, which then passes between layers of the buttock muscles into the deep muscles of the back of the thigh.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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