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Encyclopedia > Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel

Active 1923–1945
Country Nazi Germany
Type Paramilitary
Size 38 Divisions (1945)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Julius Schreck (1925–1926)

Joseph Berchtold (1926–1927)
Erhard Heiden (1927–1929)
Heinrich Himmler (1929–1945)
Karl Hanke (1945)
Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... // SS is an abbreviation made notorious by its Nazi association Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Due to almost universal association of this abbreviation with Nazi history many organizations with the same initials refrain from using it. ... Image File history File links Flag_Schutzstaffel. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Julius Schreck in 1933 Julius Schreck (July 13, 1898 – May 16, 1936) was an early Nazi Party member and also the first commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS). ... Joseph Berchtold (March 6, 1897-August 23, 1962), a former stationary salesman succeeded Julius Schreck as Reichsführer-SS in 1926. ... Erhard Heiden (February 23, 1901-September 1933) was an early member of the Nazi Party and the third commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS). ... Himmler redirects here. ... Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 - 8 June 1945) was a Nazi Party official who served as Gauleiter of Lower Silesia from 1940 to 1945. ...

The Schutzstaffel   (German for "Protective Squadron"), abbreviated SS- or Runic "SS" (Runic)- was a major Nazi military organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. The SS grew from a small paramilitary unit to an elite force that served as the Führer's "Praetorian Guard," the Nazi Party's "Shield Squadron" and a force with as much political influence as the regular German armed forces. Built upon the Nazi racist ideology, the SS, under Heinrich Himmler's command, was primarily responsible[citation needed] for the crimes against humanity perpetrated by the Nazis during the Second World War. Image File history File links De-Schutzstaffel. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Himmler redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Initially smaller than the Ernst Röhm's Sturmabteilung (Storm Troopers abbreviated SA), the SS grew in size and power due to its exclusive loyalty to Hitler, as opposed to the SA, which was seen as semi-independent and a threat to Hitler's hegemony over the party. Under Himmler, the SS selected members according to the "Aryan" racist ideology. Developing elite police and military units such as the Waffen SS, Himmler also used the SS to develop an order of men claimed to be superior in racial purity and abilities than other Germans and national groups, the model for the Nazi vision of a "master race." During the World War, SS units operated alongside the Army and in the final stages of the war, exercised dominance over the Army to eliminate perceived threats to Hitler's power while implementing his strategies despite the increasingly failing war effort. Ernst Julius Röhm, also known as Ernst Roehm in English (Munich November 28, 1887 – July 2, 1934) was a German military officer, and the commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung — the SA. // Röhm was one of three children of Julius Röhm and his wife Emilie... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the... Recruitment poster of the Waffen-SS. (Enlistment at the age of 17) The Waffen-SS (German for Armed SS, literally Weapons SS) was the combat arm of the Schutzstaffel or SS. It was founded in Germany in 1939 after the SS was split into two units [1] but the title...


The SS was responsible for the vast majority of war crimes perpetrated under the Nazi regime, including the Holocaust. As part of its race-centric functions, the SS oversaw the isolation and displacement of Jewish people from the populations of Germany and conquered territories, seizing their assets and imprisoning them in concentration camps and ghettos where they would be used as slave labor, pending extermination. Chosen to implement the Nazi "Final Solution" for Jews and other groups deemed "inferior," the SS carried out the enslavement, torture and killing of approximately twelve million people. Most victims were Jews and/or Slavs, but a significant number of victims included homosexuals, Catholics, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, journalists, Communists and German civilians who were seen as threats to the regime. Foreseeing Nazi defeat in the war, a significant number of SS personnel organized their escape to South American nations. Many others were captured and prosecuted by Allied authorities at the Nuremberg Trials for war crimes, and absconding SS criminals were the targets of police forces in various Allied nations, post-war Germany, Austria and Israel. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or a member of the Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... The Rroma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...

Contents

Background

The SS was established in 1925 as a personal guard unit for Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ("Die Schutz-Staffel der NSDAP" [Shield Squadron of the NSDAP]). Under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler between 1929 and 1945, the SS grew from a small paramilitary formation to become one of the largest and most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany. The Nazis regarded the SS as an elite unit, the party's "Praetorian Guard," with all SS personnel (originally) selected on the principles of racial purity and unconditional loyalty to the Nazi Party. Himmler redirects here. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...


In contrast to the black-uniformed Allgemeine-SS, the political wing of the SS, the military wing, the Waffen-SS evolved into a second German army within the Wehrmacht, operating in tandem with the regular German army, the Heer. The Waffen-SS gained a reputation for barbarity; its units helped wipe out resistance in both the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the Warsaw Uprising, and perpetrated the Malmedy massacre near the Belgian town of Malmedy during the Battle of the Bulge in 1944. The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Belligerents Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Ludwig Hahn Odilo Globocnik Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman Marek... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ...


The SS was distinguished from other branches of the German military, the Nazi party, and German state officials by its own rank structure, unit insignia, and uniforms. The all-black SS uniform was designed by SS-Oberführer Prof. Karl Diebitsch and Walter Heck (graphic designer) and made by Hugo Boss, some workers being prisoners of war forced into labor.[1] (The SS also developed its own field uniforms, including the first widespread use of camouflage.) Throughout the existence of the German SS, the organization maintained a unique set of ranks and insignia that differentiated it from other branches of the German military, German state, and the Nazi Party. ... SS unit insignia was a form of uniform insignia used by the S.S. between the years of 1932 and 1945. ... Uniforms of the SS Ordnertroops (Allgemeine SS) SS uniform refers to the various uniforms worn by the units and departments of the Schutzstaffel between the years 1925 and 1945. ... For the clothing company, see Hugo Boss AG. Hugo Ferdinand Boss (1885 - 1948) was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss AG. hello, pooey true that, cuh. ...


As the Nazi party monopolized political power in Germany, key government functions such as law enforcement were absorbed into the SS, while many SS organizations became the de facto government agencies. To maintain the political power of the Nazi party, the SS was given authority to establish and run the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the security and intelligence service, and the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo), the secret police, effectively putting the SS above the law. The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the SS, was the chief architect of the Final Solution. The SS Einsatzgruppen death squads, formed by Himmler, murdered many civilian non-combatants, mostly Jews, in the countries occupied by Germany during World War II. Himmler was responsible for establishing and operating concentration camps and extermination camps in which millions of inmates died of systematic mass gassing, inhumane treatment, overwork, malnutrition, or medical experiments. After the war, the judges of the Nuremberg Trials declared part of the SS, the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) a criminal organization responsible for the implementation of racial policies of genocide and committing war crimes and crimes against humanity. This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A death squad is an extra-judicial group whose members execute or assassinate persons they believe to be politically unreliable or undesirable. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


History

Origins

The group was first formed in 1923 as a company of the Sturmabteilung (SA), stormtroopers, tasked with protecting senior leaders of the Nazi Party at rallies, speeches, and other public events. Commanded by Emil Maurice, and known as the Stabswache (Staff Guard), they were nicknamed the "Brown Shirts" according to their dress. The original group consisted of eight men and was modeled after the Erhardt Naval Brigade, a violent Freikorps of the time. The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... Emil Maurice (January 19, 1897–February 6, 1972) was an early member of the Nazi Party. ... The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, which may be loosely translated as Adolf Hitlers SS bodyguard regiment, was a unit of the SS. It was a Waffen SS security and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during World War II. The Leibstandarte started life... The Marinebrigade Ehrhardt was a Freikorps group of around 6,000 men formed by Korvettenkapitän Hermann Ehrhardt in the Aftermath of World War I, also known as II Marine Brigade or the Ehrhardt Brigade. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ...


After the failed 1923 Putsch by the Nazi Party, the SA and the Stabswache were abolished, yet they returned in 1925. At that time, the Stabswache was reestablished as the Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler, tasked with the personal protection of Hitler at Nazi Party functions and events. That same year, the Stosstrupp was expanded to a national level, and renamed as the Schutzstaffel (SS). The new SS was delegated to be a protection company of various Nazi Party leaders throughout Germany. The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund...


Development

Between 1925 and 1929, the SS was considered merely a battalion of the SA and numbered no more than 280 personnel. On January 6, 1929, Adolf Hitler appointed Heinrich Himmler as the leader of the SS, and by the end of 1932, the SS had 52,000 members. By the end of the next year, it had over 209,000 members. Himmler's expansion of the SS was based on models from other groups, such as the Knights Templar and the Italian Blackshirts. According to SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS, Karl Wolff, it was also based on the model from the Society of Jesus of absolute obedience to the Pope. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... SS-Obergruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski SS-Obergruppenführer patch SA-Obergruppenführer insignia Obergruppenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA. Translated as Senior Group Leader, the rank of SA-Obergruppenführer was held by... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Karl Wolff (2nd from the right) together with, from left to right: Heinrich Himmler (far l. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...

The black cap with a Totenkopf of the SS
The black cap with a Totenkopf of the SS

Before 1932, the SS wore the same uniform as the SA, with the exception for a black tie and a black cap with a Totenkopf, skull and bones, ("death's head") symbol on it. Later, they adopted a black uniform, designed by Hugo Boss and then, just before the war, a dove-grey uniform. The Waffen ("armed") SS wore a field-grey (feldgrau) uniform similar to the regular army, or Reichsheer. During the war, Waffen-SS units wore a wide range of camouflage uniforms (Platanenmuster, Telo Mimetico, Erbsenmuster etc.), while their feldgrau uniforms became largely indistinguishable from those of the Heer, save for the insignia. In 1945, the SS adopted the Leibermuster disruptive pattern that inspired many forms of modern battle dress. This article is about the military symbol. ... A cap is a form of headgear. ... This article is about the military symbol. ... For the clothing company, see Hugo Boss AG. Hugo Ferdinand Boss (1885 - 1948) was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss AG. hello, pooey true that, cuh. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Feldgrau is the name of the color of the German army uniform from the late nineteenth century to 1945. ... The German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given the combined armed forces of the German Empire, also known as the Imperial Army (Reichsheer) or Imperial German Army. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... A six-colour camouflage print pattern developed by the Third Reich in February 1945. ... Battle Dress was the specific title of a military uniform adopted by the British Army in the late 1930s and worn until the 1960s. ...

The inscription reads:Meine Ehre heißt Treue English : My honour is called loyalty
The inscription reads:
Meine Ehre heißt Treue
English : My honour is called loyalty

Their motto was "Meine Ehre heißt Treue ("My honour is called loyalty.") The SS rank system was unique in that it did not copy the terms used by the Wehrmacht's branches (army, airforce, navy), but instead used the ranks established by the post-WW I Freikorps and taken over by the SA. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1680 pixel, file size: 1,019 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Schutzstaffel Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1680 pixel, file size: 1,019 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Schutzstaffel Metadata This file contains... Throughout the existence of the German SS, the organization maintained a unique set of ranks and insignia that differentiated it from other branches of the German military, German state, and the Nazi Party. ...


Heinrich Himmler, together with his right-hand man, Reinhard Heydrich, consolidated the power of the organization. In 1931, Himmler gave Heydrich the assignment to build an intelligence and security service inside the SS, which became the Sicherheitsdienst (SD). By the time World War II began, the number of members rose to 250,000, and the Waffen-SS was formed in December 1940, expanding the earlier armed SS troops who had fought in Poland and France in 1939-40, to serve as part of the Wehrmacht, Germany's regular armed forces. The SS also received control of the Gestapo in 1934, and, that same year, Adolf Hitler had given the SS jurisdiction over all concentration camps. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


Postwar activity

According to Simon Wiesenthal, towards the end of World War II, a group of former SS officers went to Argentina and set up a Nazi fugitive network code-named ODESSA, (an acronym for Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, "Organization of the former SS members"), with ties in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the Vatican, operating out of Buenos Aires. ODESSA allegedly helped Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele, Erich Priebke, and many other war criminals find postwar refuge in Latin America. Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who hunted down Nazi war criminals, after surviving the Holocaust. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979) was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Argentinian citizen and water company worker Ricardo Klement was discovered to be Adolf Eichmann in the 1950s, by former Jewish Dachau worker Lothar Hermann, whose daughter, Sylvia, became romantically involved with Klaus Klement (born Klaus Eichmann in 1936 in Berlin). He was captured by the Israeli Secret Service, Mossad, in a suburb of Buenos Aires on May 11, 1960, and tried in Jerusalem on April 11, 1961, where he explicitly declared that he had abdicated his conscience in order to follow the Führerprinzip (the 'leader principle' or superior orders). For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Josef Mengele, disguised as a member of the regular German infantry was captured and released by the Allies, oblivious of who he was. He was able to go and work in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1949 and to Altos, Paraguay, in 1959 where he was discovered by Nazi hunters. From the late 1960s on, he exercised his medical practice in Embu, a small city near São Paulo, Brazil, under the identity of Wolfgang Gerhard, where in 1979, he suffered a stroke while swimming and drowned. Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979) was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ...


The British writer Gitta Sereny (born in 1921 in Hungary), who conducted interviews with SS men, considers the story about ODESSA untrue and attributes the escape of notorious SS members to postwar chaos, an individual bishop in the Vatican, and the Vatican's inability to investigate the stories of those people who came requesting help. Gitta Sereny (born March 13, 1921) is a Hungarian-born British biographer, historian and journalist whose writing focuses mainly on the Holocaust and abused children. ...


In the modern age, several neo-Nazi groups claim to be successor organizations to the SS. There is no single group, however, that is recognized as a continuation of the SS, and most such present-day organizations are loosely organized with separate agendas. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


Translation and naming

Upon the creation of the SS, the correct term was Schutzstaffeln der NSDAP. Schutzstaffeln is the plural form of Schutzstaffel, i.e., "Protective Squadrons". The NSDAP is the abbreviation for Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, or National Socialist German Workers' Party, the official name of the Nazi Party. The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ...


"S.S." became the actual name of the organization after it became an independent organization within the Nazi party in 1934. References to Schutzstaffeln der NSDAP were not used after this time by the SS itself. At the Nuremberg Trials, the term Schutzstaffeln was used as a name for the entire organization. In the modern age, "S.S." or simply "SS" has become the most accurate transliteration. For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


The SS before World War II

1925–1928

In early 1925, the SS was a single, eight-man company that was Adolf Hitler's personal bodyguard. In September, all local NSDAP offices were ordered to create body guard units of no more than ten men apiece. By 1926, six SS-Gaus were established, supervising all such units in Germany. In turn, the SS-Gaus answered to the SS-Oberleitung, the headquarters unit. The SS-Oberleitung answered to the office of the SA Chief of Staff, clearly establishing the SS as a subordinate unit of the Sturmabteilung. The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...


Between 1926 and 1928, the SS command Gaus were as follows:

  • SS-Gau Berlin Brandenburg
  • SS-Gau Franken
  • SS-Gau Niederbayern
  • SS-Gau Rheinland-Süd
  • SS-Gau Sachsen

1929–1931

In 1929, the SS-Oberleitung was expanded and reorganized into the SS-Oberstab with five main offices, as listed below:

  • Abteilung I: Administration
  • Abteilung II: Personnel
  • Abteilung III: Finance
  • Abteilung IV: Security
  • Abteilung V: Race

At the same time, the SS-Gaus were expanded into three SS-Oberführerbereiche as listed below

  • SS-Oberführerbereiche Ost
  • SS-Oberführerbereiche West
  • SS-Oberführerbereiche Süd

Each SS-Oberführerbereiche contained several SS-Brigaden, which in turn were divided into regiment-sized SS-Standarten.


1931–1933

In 1931, as the SS began to increase its membership to over 100,000, the organization was again restructured beginning with the SS-Oberleitung, which was replaced by the SS-Amt, divided into five sections as follows:

  • Section I: Headquarters Staff
  • Section II: Personnel Office
  • Section III: Administration Office
  • Section IV: SS Reserves
  • Section V: SS Medical Corps

In addition to the SS-Amt, the SS-Rasseamt (Race Office) and Sicherheitsdienst Amt (Office of the SD) were established as two separate offices on an equal footing with the Headquarters Office.


At the same time that the SS Headquarters was being reorganized, the SS-Oberführerbereichen were replaced with five SS-Gruppen, listed as follows:

  • SS-Gruppen Nord
  • SS-Gruppen Ost
  • SS-Gruppen Süd
  • SS-Gruppen Südost
  • SS-Gruppen West

The lower levels of the SS remained unchanged between 1931 and 1933; however, it was during this time that the SS began to establish its independence from the Sturmabteilung (SA), which the SS was still considered merely a sub-organization and answerable to the SA Chief of Staff.


1933–1934

Following Adolf Hitler's assumption of power in Germany, the SS became regarded as a state organization and a branch of the established government. The Headquarters Staff, SD, and Race Office became full-time paid employees, as did the leaders of the SS-Gruppen and some of their command staffs. The rest of the SS were considered part-time volunteers, and in this concept the Allgemeine-SS came into being. The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ...


By the autumn of 1933, Adolf Hitler's personal bodyguard (previously SS-Standarten 1 situated in Munich) had been called to Berlin to replace the Army Chancellery Guard as protectors of the Chancellor of Germany. By the start of 1934, the SS guard in Berlin had taken on the name of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH), and would later become the first division in the Order of Battle of the Waffen-SS. The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (Lifeguard Standarte of the SS Adolf Hitler) was a Waffen SS guard and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during the Second World War. ...


1934–1936

Following the Night of the Long Knives, the SS again underwent a massive reorganization. The SS-Gruppen were renamed as SS-Oberabschnitt, and the former SS Headquarters and command offices were reorganized into eight SS-Hauptämter. The SS-Hauptamt offices would eventually grow from 8 to 12 by 1944 and remained unchanged in their names until the end of World War II and the fall of the SS. For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ...


On April 20, 1934, (as a prelude to the Night of the Long Knives), the SS took control of the Gestapo, which had previously been a state office of Prussia. The Gestapo was placed under the command of the new Sicherheitspolizei, which was a combined office of both the Gestapo and SD. The Sicherheitspolizei would eventually become part of the much larger RSHA in 1939. is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The Sicherheitspolizei (security police) was a term used in Nazi Germany to described the combined forces of the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst (the SD) between 1934 and 1939. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ...


By mid-1934, the SS had taken control of all concentration camps from the SA, and a new organization, the SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) had been established as the SS Concentration Camp Service. The original SS-TV was organized into six Wachtruppen at each of Germany's major concentration camps. The Wachtruppe were expanded in 1935 into Wachsturmbann and again in 1937 into three main SS-Totenkopfstandarten. This structure would remain unchanged until 1941, when a massive labor and death camp system in the occupied territories necessitated the concentration camps to be placed under the Waffen-SS into three main divisions of Labor Camps, Concentration Camps, and Death Camps. A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


The early Waffen-SS can trace its origins to 1934 in the SS-Verfügungstruppe. Established as a military company of the SS, the Verfügungstruppe grew into three SS Divisions which would, along with the Leibstandarte, become part of the Waffen-SS in 1941.


1936–1939

In 1936, the SS absorbed all of Germany's regular police forces and formed the Ordnungspolizei and the Kriminalpolizei. These two organizations would later be folded into the RSHA just prior to the start of World War II. Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... Kriminalpolizei is the usual designation of the criminal investigation services in the police forces of Germany, Austria and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ...


In 1939, from the existing Totenkopfverbände was formed the SS Division Totenkopf composed of former members of the Concentration Camp service. The Totenkopf division would later become a division of the Waffen-SS. SS-Division Totenkopf Kampfgruppe Eicke 3. ...


Austrian SS

The Austrian branch of the SS developed in 1934 as a covert force to influence the Anschluss with Germany which would occur in 1938. The early Austrian SS was led by Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart. The Austrian SS was technically under the command of the German SS and Heinrich Himmler but acted independently concerning Austrian affairs. German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was the highest ranking SS leader to face trial. ... Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich, officially (German) Arthur Seyß-Inquart) (July 22, 1892 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ...


Austrian SS men were organized under the same manner as the Allgemeine-SS but operated as an underground organization, in particular after 1936 when the Austrian government declared the SS an illegal organization. The Austrian SS used the same rank system as the regular SS, but rarely used uniforms or identifying insignia. Photographic evidence indicates that Austrian SS men typically would wear a swastika armband on civilian clothes, and then only at secret SS meetings. The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ...


After 1938, when Austria was annexed by Germany, the Austrian SS was completely incorporated into the regular SS. Most of the Austrian SS was folded into Oberabschnitt Donau with a new concentration camp at Mauthausen opened under the authority of the SS Death's Head units. The Mauthausen parade ground – a view towards the main gate Mauthausen (known from the summer of 1940 as Mauthausen-Gusen) grew to become a large group of Nazi concentration camps that were built around the villages of Mauthausen and Gusen in Upper Austria, roughly 20 km east of the city...


Cultural differences between Austrian and German SS men were present to the end of World War II, even though in theory the two countries contributed to a single SS. The issue was highlighted in 1943, when Austrian SS commanders were responsible for heavy losses in the first days of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and charged with negligence. Jürgen Stroop, the Higher SS and Police Leader in Warsaw, overturned several courts martial sentences since it was believed that Austrian members of the SS might rebel against the German officers who passed the sentences. Belligerents Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Ludwig Hahn Odilo Globocnik Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman Marek... Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto...


A notable figure of the Austrian SS included Amon Göth, who was portrayed in the film Schindler's List by Ralph Fiennes. Göth had joined the Austrian SS in 1930 and was an underground member to 1938, after which he entered the Concentration Camp service. Amon Leopold Göth (or Goeth; November 12, 1908 – September 13, 1946) was a Hauptsturmführer of the SS and was the commandant of the Nazi concentration camp at PÅ‚aszów, Poland. ... This article is about the movie. ...


The SS during World War II

Norwegian SS recruiting poster, featuring an SS ski battalion, looking for Norwegian volunteers to serve on the Eastern Front.

The war helped Himmler transform his empire into undoubtedly the most powerful political and economic force in Nazi Germany, and by 1944, the SS had grown into a vast and complex organization. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1085, 154 KB)German propaganda poster, featuring SS ski battalion. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1085, 154 KB)German propaganda poster, featuring SS ski battalion. ... Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 - May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


SS and police leaders

Main article: SS and Police Leader

The most powerful men in the SS were the SS and Police Leaders, divided into three levels: Regular Leaders, Higher Leaders, and Supreme Leaders. Such persons normally held the rank of SS-Gruppenführer or above and answered directly to Heinrich Himmler in all matters pertaining to the SS in their area of responsibility. Thus, SS and Police Leaders bypassed all other chains of command. In Himmler's grand dream of the SS, the SS and Police Leaders were eventually to become SS-Governors of the Lebensraum which would be ruled by SS-Lords, protected by SS-Legions, and worked and lived in by SS-Peasant Warriors. Higher SS and Police Leaders were senior Nazi Party officials that commanded large units of the SS during and prior to the Second World War. ... Higher SS and Police Leaders were senior Nazi Party officials that commanded large units of the SS during and prior to the Second World War. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal           (German for habitat or literally living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ...


SS offices

With the creation of the Waffen-SS in 1940, the SS organizational structure evolved into two distinctly different branches: the general SS (Allgemeine-SS) and military SS (Waffen-SS). By 1944, all activities of the organization within and outside Germany were managed by twelve main offices: Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...

  • Hauptamt Persönlicher Stab Reichsführer-SS (Personal Staff of the Reich Leader SS)
  • SS Hauptamt (Main Administrative Office of the SS)
  • SS Führungshauptamt (Administrative and Supply Department of the Allgemeine-SS and Waffen-SS)
  • Hauptamt SS Gericht (Office of SS Legal Matters)
  • SS Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt, RuSHA (SS Office of Race and Settlement)
  • SS Personalhauptamt (SS Personnel Office)
  • Reichssicherheitshauptamt RSHA (Reich Central Security Office)
  • Hauptamt Ordnungspolizei (Office of the Order Police)
  • Wirtschafts und Verwaltungshauptamt, WVHA (Economics and Administration Office)
  • Hauptamt Dienststelle Heissmeyer (SS Education Office)
  • Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, VOMI (Main Office for Ethnic Germans)
  • Reichskommissariat für die Festigung des deutschen Volkstums (Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement)

The Einsatzgruppen were under the overall command of the RSHA. Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ... The SS-Hauptamt (translated as SS Head Office) was the central command office of the German Schutzstaffel (SS). ... The SS-Führungshauptamt (SS-FHA) was the operational headquarters of the SS. It was responsible for the administration of Officer Schools (Junkerschulen), Medical services, logistics, and rates of pay. ... The Allgemeine-SS was the name for the General SS (as in generic or basic SS) which consisted of part-time mustering SS formations created under the Nazi Party between 1925 and 1945. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ... Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... The SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt or WVHA (also SS-WVHA) was the Economics and Administrative Department of the SS. It was formed in March 1942 under the command of Oswald Pohl and evolved to five main divisions (German: Ämter or Amtsgruppe): Amt A, Finance, Law and Administration Amt B, Supply, Administration... The SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt or WVHA (also SS-WVHA) was the Economics and Administrative Department of the SS. It was formed in March 1942 under the command of Oswald Pohl and evolved to five main divisions (German: Ämter or Amtsgruppe): Amt A, Finance, Law and Administration Amt B, Supply, Administration... The Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle (commonly translated as the Ethnic Germans Welfare Office or Main Office for Ethnic Germans) was an SS institution, founded in 1937; it was also commonly known by the nickname VoMi. The organization reported to the SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Lorenz. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ...


Allgemeine-SS

Main article: Allgemeine-SS

The Allgemeine-SS (the "General SS") refers to a non-combat branch of the SS. The Allgemeine-SS formations were divided into Standarten, organized into larger formations known as Abschnitte and Oberabschnitte. The Allgemeine-SS members were considered more or less reservists, and many Allgemeine-SS personnel served in other branches of the German military, the Nazi Party, or the Waffen-SS. For those who served in the Waffen-SS, it was a standard practice to hold separate SS ranks for both the Allgemeine-SS and the Waffen-SS. The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ... The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Throughout the existence of the German SS, the organization maintained a unique set of ranks and insignia that differentiated it from other branches of the German military, German state, and the Nazi Party. ...


SS Cavalry Corps

The SS Cavalry Corps (German: Reiter-SS) comprised several Reiterstandarten and Reiterabschnitte that were equestrian riding groups founded to attract the German upper class and nobility into the SS. In the 1930s, the SS Cavalry Corps was considered as a starting point for a military branch of the SS, but this idea was phased out with the rise of the SS-Verfügungstruppe, which would later become known as the Waffen-SS. By 1941, the SS-Cavalry Corps was little more than a social club with most of the serious cavalry officers having transferred to combat units in the Waffen-SS. A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... The SS-Verfügungstruppe (combat support force) (short: SS-VT) was created in 1934 from the merger of various Nazi and right-wing paramilitary formations. ...


Germanic-SS

Main article: Germanic-SS

The Germanic-SS was an SS-modeled structure formed in occupied territories and allied countries. The main purpose of the Germanic-SS was enforcement of Nazi racial doctrine and anti-semitic policies. Denmark and Belgium were the two largest participants in the Germanic-SS program. Germanic-SS members wore their own uniforms with a modification of SS rank titles and insignia. All Germanic-SS units answered to the SS headquarters in Germany. The Germanic SS (Germanische-SS) was the collective name given to paramilitary groups which arose in conquered and subject nations of Nazi Germany between 1939 and 1945 and which were modeled on designs of the German Schutzstaffel (SS). ... The Germanic SS (Germanische-SS) was the collective name given to paramilitary groups which arose in conquered and subject nations of Nazi Germany between 1939 and 1945 and which were modeled on designs of the German Schutzstaffel (SS). ... Throughout the existence of the German SS, the organization maintained a unique set of ranks and insignia that differentiated it from other branches of the German military, German state, and the Nazi Party. ...


Concentration camp service

Main article: SS-Totenkopfverbände

After 1934, the running of Germany's concentration camps was placed under the total authority of the SS and an SS formation known as the SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), under the command of Theodor Eicke. Known as the "Death's Head Units", the SS-TV was first organized as several regiments, each based at one of Germany's major concentration camps, the largest of which was at Dachau. In 1938, the Totenkopfverbände expanded into a military division with the establishment of the Totenkopf division, which by 1941 would become a full division within the Waffen-SS. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 124 × 152 pixelsFull resolution (124 × 152 pixel, file size: 10 KB, MIME type: image/png) The coat of arms of the SS Division Totenkopf File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... ... Theodor Eicke (October 17, 1892 - February 26, 1943) was a Nazi official, SS-Obergruppenführer, commander of the SS-Division (mot) Totenkopf of the Waffen-SS and one of the key figures in the establishment of concentration camps in Nazi Germany. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp in 1997 Dachau was a Nazi German concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany, located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 miles) northwest of Munich... SS-Division Totenkopf Kampfgruppe Eicke 3. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...


In 1939, with the start of World War II, the Totenkopfverbände began a large expansion that eventually would develop into three branches covering each type of concentration camp the SS operated. By 1944, there existed three divisions of the SS-TV, those being the staffs of the concentration camps proper in Germany and Austria, the labor camp system in occupied territories, and the guards and staffs of the extermination camps in Poland that were involved in the Holocaust. “Shoah” redirects here. ...

The corpses of 2 SS Totenkopfverbände guards killed soon after the liberation of Ohrdruf concentration camp.
The corpses of 2 SS Totenkopfverbände guards killed soon after the liberation of Ohrdruf concentration camp.

In 1942, for administrative reasons, the guard and administrative staff of all the concentration camps became full members of the Waffen-SS. In addition, to oversee the large administrative burden of an extensive labor camp system, the concentration camps were placed under the command of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt (WVHA). Oswald Pohl commanded the WVHA, while Richard Glücks served as the Inspector of Concentration Camps. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (959 × 658 pixel, file size: 597 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The bullet-ridden bodies of two SS guards who were killed in the Ohrdruf concentration camp soon after the liberation. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (959 × 658 pixel, file size: 597 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The bullet-ridden bodies of two SS guards who were killed in the Ohrdruf concentration camp soon after the liberation. ... The SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) — the Skull or Deaths Head Formations — were made up of Nazi Germanys camp guards. ... The SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt or WVHA (also SS-WVHA) was the Economics and Administrative Department of the SS. It was formed in March 1942 under the command of Oswald Pohl and evolved to five main divisions (German: Ämter or Amtsgruppe): Amt A, Finance, Law and Administration Amt B, Supply, Administration... The SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt or WVHA (also SS-WVHA) was the Economics and Administrative Department of the SS. It was formed in March 1942 under the command of Oswald Pohl and evolved to five main divisions (German: Ämter or Amtsgruppe): Amt A, Finance, Law and Administration Amt B, Supply, Administration... Richard Glücks (April 22, 1889 – May 10, 1945) was a high-ranking Nazi official. ...


By 1944, with the concentration camps fully integrated with the Waffen-SS and under the control of the WVHA, a standard practice developed to rotate SS members in and out of the camps, based on manpower needs and also to give assignments to wounded Waffen-SS officers and soldiers who could no longer serve in front-line combat duties. This rotation of personnel is the main argument that nearly the entire SS knew of the concentration camps, and what actions were committed within, making the entire organization liable for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt or WVHA (also SS-WVHA) was the Economics and Administrative Department of the SS. It was formed in March 1942 under the command of Oswald Pohl and evolved to five main divisions (German: Ämter or Amtsgruppe): Amt A, Finance, Law and Administration Amt B, Supply, Administration... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


Death squads

Main article: Einsatzgruppen

The Einsatzgruppen were special units of the SS that were formed on an 'as-needed' basis under the authority of the Sicherheitspolizei and later the RSHA, whose Supreme Commander was Himmler. The first Einsatzgruppen were created in 1938 for use during the Anschluss of Austria and again in 1939 for the annexation of Czechoslovakia. The original purpose of the Einsatzgruppen was to 'enter occupied areas, seize vital records, and neutralize potential threats'. In Austria and Czechoslovakia, the activities of the Einsatzgruppen were mainly limited to Nazification of local governments and assistance with the establishment of new concentration camps. In 1939, however, the Einsatzgruppen were reactivated and sent into Poland to exterminate the Polish elite, so that there would be no leadership to form a resistance to German occupation. In 1941, the Einsatzgruppen reached their height when they were sent into Russia to begin large-scale extermination and genocide of "undesirables" such as Jews, Gypsies, and communists. A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... The Sicherheitspolizei (security police) was a term used in Nazi Germany to described the combined forces of the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst (the SD) between 1934 and 1939. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Order Police

In 1936, the SS absorbed the regular German police forces and incorporated all local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies into the Ordnungspolizei. SS-Oberstgruppenführer Adolf Von Assenbach became commander of the Ordnungspolizei (known as the Orpo), and Heinrich Himmler became Chief of the German Police. By 1944, the Orpo had also absorbed minor law enforcement agencies such as the Postal Police, Railway Security Police, Water Protection Police, and even night watchmen who were considered state employees. The Ordnungspolizei had a separate system of Orpo ranks and it was possible for Orpo members to hold dual status in both the SS and the Orpo. In 1944, all Orpo Police Generals gained equivalent Waffen-SS rank so that they would be treated as military officers, instead of police officials, if captured by the Allies. The Orpo also maintained a military division, considered part of the Waffen-SS as well as a number of Police Regiments which performed security duties under the authority of the RSHA. Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... SS-Oberstgruppenführer Collar Insignia Oberstgruppenführer was the highest commissioned SS rank with the exception of Reichsführer-SS, which was a special rank held by Heinrich Himmler. ... The Ranks and insignia of the Ordnungspolizei developed in 1936 after the incorporation of Germanys regular police forces in the SS. Ordnungspolizei Rank Titles Ordnungspolizei ranks were based on local police titles and were considered a separate system from the ranks of the SS. It was also possible for... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ...


SS Medical Corps

The first units of the SS Medical Corps began to appear in the 1930s. Within each SS-Sturmbann (battalion), there existed one company of SS personnel whose duty was to serve as medical support personnel to the rest of the SS battalion.


Known as the Sanitätsstaffel, these formations were originally small units under the command of local SS leaders. After 1931, however, the SS formed a headquarters office known as Amt V, which was the central office for SS medical units. At this same time, a special SS unit was formed known as the Röntgensturmbann SS-HA, or the Hauptamt X-Ray Battalion. This formation comprised 350 full time SS personnel who toured Germany offering X-ray diagnostics to any SS member. While the Röntgensturmbann was an independent office, the local Sanitätsstaffel were under dual command of both the SS Medical Office (Amt V), and the leaders of the various SS-Sturmbann and Standarten. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


When the Nazis came to power in 1933, the SS was reorganized and an office of the SS Surgeon General was established. Commanding by an SS-Obergruppenführer, the SS Surgeon General was a member of the personal staff of the Reichsführer-SS, with the SS Medical Corps, as a whole, losing the status of a headquarters office. This was an important development in changing the nature of service for members of the SS Medical Corps. SS-Obergruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski SS-Obergruppenführer patch SA-Obergruppenführer insignia Obergruppenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA. Translated as Senior Group Leader, the rank of SA-Obergruppenführer was held by... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ...


By 1935, the SS Medical Corps was considered an 'auxiliary duty', and all members of the medical corps were also attached to regular SS formations. To denote medical corps status, the SS authorized a serpent crest to be worn on the collar patches of SS unit insignia. Since SS Medical Corps members could now serve in any branch of the SS, this expansion allowed medical professionals to join every SS office and participate in a variety of duties. SS unit insignia was a form of uniform insignia used by the S.S. between the years of 1932 and 1945. ...


Between 1935 and 1938, the SS Medical Corps began to serve a more sinister purpose, with SS doctors serving in concentration camps and engaging in a variety of human medical experiments. SS doctors were also called upon, in 1936, to assist with Germany's euthanasia program against the mentally disabled and physically handicapped. For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ...


When World War II began in 1939, the SS Medical Corps extended itself in the Armed wing of the SS which would, by 1941, be known as the Waffen-SS. Waffen-SS doctors were highly trained both in medical skills and combat tactics with many such doctors receiving high combat awards.


It was also during World War II that SS doctors reached their height with human medical experiments, the most notorious of which occurred at Dachau concentration camp and Auschwitz. Such experiments ranged from vivisections, sterilization experiments, infectious disease research, freezing experiments, as well as many other excruciating medical procedures often performed without anesthetic. This period of time also saw the work of one of the most notorious SS doctors in history, Doctor Josef Mengele, who served as Head Medical Officer of Auschwitz and was responsible for daily gas chamber selections as well as brutal experiments on human twins. The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp in 1997 Dachau was a Nazi German concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany, located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 miles) northwest of Munich... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979) was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ...


In 1945, after the surrender of Germany, the SS was declared an illegal criminal organization by the Allies. SS doctors, in particular, were marked as war criminals due to the wide range of human medical experimentation which had been conducted during World War II as well as the role SS doctors had played in the gas chamber selections of the Holocaust. Relatively few SS doctors, however, were ever brought to justice with such figures as Josef Mengele escaping to Argentina while still other SS doctors returned to civilian practice in Germany under assumed names or, in some cases, even their original identities. “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Auxiliary SS

The Auxiliary-SS (SS mannschaft or "wiking") was an organization that arose in 1945 as a last ditch effort to keep concentration camps running. Auxiliary-SS members were not considered regular SS personnel, but were conscripted members from other branches of the German military, the Nazi Party, and the Volkssturm. Such personnel wore a distinctive twin swastika collar patch and served as camp guard and administrative personnel until the surrender of Germany. Auxiliary SS Patch (Released by US National Archives) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... With torn picture of his Führer beside his clenched fist, a dead Bataillionsführer (general) of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city hall, Leipzig, Germany. ...


Helferin Corps

The SS-Helferinnenkorps, translated literally as 'Women Helper Corps', comprised women volunteers who joined the SS as auxiliary personnel. Such personnel were not considered actual SS members, since SS membership was closed to women.


The Helferin Corps maintained a simple system of ranks, mainly SS-Helfer, SS-Oberhelfer, and SS-Haupthelfer. Members of the Helferin Corps were assigned to a wide variety of activities such as administrative staff, supply support personnel, and female guards at concentration camps.


Waffen-SS

Main article: Waffen-SS

The organization of Waffen-SS had three suborganizations: Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...

  • Hitler's personal bodyguard (German: Leibstandarte)
  • The Death's-Head Battalions (German: Totenkopfverbände) that administered the concentration camps.
  • The Combat Support Force, (German: Verfügungstruppe Up to 39 divisions in World War II that served as elite combat troops alongside the regular army Wehrmacht. [2]

In 1941 the overall commander of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, announced that additional Waffel-SS Verfügungstruppe units would be raised from non-German foreign nationals. The goal was to acquire additional manpower from occupied nations. Some of these foreign legions included volunteers from Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway, and the Netherlands. The Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler started life in the early days of the NSDAP as Adolf Hitlers personal elite bodyguard. ... ... The SS-Verfügungstruppe (combat support force) (short: SS-VT) was created in 1934 from the merger of various Nazi and right-wing paramilitary formations. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Himmler redirects here. ...

German prisoners being searched by Red Army soldiers. In the foreground, two dead German soldiers - the one on the right is an SS trooper.
German prisoners being searched by Red Army soldiers. In the foreground, two dead German soldiers - the one on the right is an SS trooper.

The military component of the Waffen-SS was formed in 1940.[citation needed] Since the Waffel-SS was formally considered a branch of the German military, it was financed by the German government while remaining under the command of the SS headquarters. During WWII, the Waffen SS grew to 38 divisions, the most famous of which are Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH), the SS Division Das Reich, the SS Division Totenkopf and the 12th SS Panzerdivision Hitlerjugend. The Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler started life in the early days of the NSDAP as Adolf Hitlers personal elite bodyguard. ... SS-Division Verfügungstruppe SS-Division Deutschland SS-Division Reich SS-Division Das Reich 2. ... SS Division Totenkopf (Deaths Head or Skull) is also known as 3. ...


The Waffen-SS also maintained several "Foreign Legions" made up of personnel from conquered territories and countries allied to Germany. The majority of such personnel wore distinctive a national collar patch and preceded their SS rank titles with the prefix Waffen instead of SS. The racial restrictions were relaxed for these soldiers to the extent that Ukrainian Slavs, Albanians from Kosovo, and Turkic Tatars' units were recruited. The Ukrainians and the Tatars had both suffered persecution under Stalin and their motive appeared to be hatred of Communism rather than belief in National Socialism. The Kosovo Albanians were likely motivated by the chance to exterminate Serbians. One year of Soviet occupation of Baltic countries at the beginning of World War II produced enough volunteers to form Estonian and Latvian SS formations. However, occupied countries as Greece, Lithuania and Poland never formed any Waffen-SS legions (in Greece, the Fascist organisation ESPO was creating one Greek division, but the plans were abandoned after its leader was assassinated). Foreign Legion is a title which has been used by a small number of units of foreign volunteers. ... SS unit insignia was a form of uniform insignia used by the S.S. between the years of 1932 and 1945. ... Throughout the existence of the German SS, the organization maintained a unique set of ranks and insignia that differentiated it from other branches of the German military, German state, and the Nazi Party. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about the people. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Soviet redirects here. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


A similar formation was the Indische Freiwilligen Infanterie Regiment 950 (also known at various stages as the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion der Waffen-SS and Azad Hind Fauj.) See also the Tiger Legion and Indian National Army. During World War II, the Tiger Legion was a unit of the German Wehrmacht made up of men from India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second...


The Legion Freies Indien, or Indische Freiwilligen Infanterie Regiment 950 was created in August 1942, chiefly from disaffected Indian soldiers of the British Indian Army, captured by the Axis in North Africa. Many, if not most, of the Indian volunteers who switched sides to fight with the German Army and against the British were strongly nationalistic supporters of the exiled, anti-British, former president of the Indian National Congress, Netaji (the Leader) Subhash Chandra Bose. A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as...


Ahnenerbe SS

Main article: Ahnenerbe

The Scientific Branch of the SS that was used to provide scientific and archeological proof of Aryan supremacy. The society had deep roots in both the Thule Society and the Vril Society. Formed in 1935 by Himmler and Herman Wirth, the society did not become part of the SS until 1939. Emblem Founded by Heinrich Himmler, Herman Wirth, and Richard Walther Darré on July 1, 1935, as Studiengesellschaft für Geistesurgeschichte‚ Deutsches Ahnenerbe´ e. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ... Vril is a word from a science-fiction novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton titled Vril: The Power of the Coming Race. ... Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 - May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... Herman Wirth, (alternatively referred to as Herman Wirth Roeper Bosch, or Herman Felix Wirthor Hermann) was a Dutch-German lay historian and scholar of ancient religions and symbols. ...


SS and police courts

Background

Bodies of Jewish women who died while on a forced march under SS supervision; 1945
Bodies of Jewish women who died while on a forced march under SS supervision; 1945

Situations arose early in the Nazi regime of SS activities coming into conflict with German law. The first recorded instances, of SS personnel charged with breaking the law through the performance of their duties, was in 1934 at the Dachau concentration camp, when the local town magistrate charged several SS guards with murder after several prisoners were executed without cause or trial. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2126 × 2637 pixel, file size: 835 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2126 × 2637 pixel, file size: 835 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp in 1997 Dachau was a Nazi German concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany, located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 miles) northwest of Munich...


The SS response to the German legal establishment was to petition the Reich Ministry of Justice to pass an act that removed the SS, and all of its members, from the jurisdiction of the civilian courts. This effectively placed the SS 'above the law', and its members could break regular German law without fear of penalty.


For those SS personnel who committed acts that were illegal even by SS standards, the SS established a series of SS and Police Courts. The SS and Police Courts were the only authority that could try SS personnel for criminal behavior and were under the authority of the Hauptamt SS Gericht.


Court types

The different SS and Police Courts were as follows:

  • SS- und Polizeigericht: Standard SS and Police Court for trial of SS officers and enlisted men accused of minor and somewhat serious crimes
  • Feldgerichte: Waffen-SS Court for court martial of Waffen-SS military personnel accused of violating the military penal code of the German Armed Forces.
  • Oberstes SS- und Polizeigericht: The Supreme SS and Police Court for trial of serious crimes and also any infraction committed by SS Generals.
  • SS- und Polizeigericht z.b. V.: The Extraordinary SS and Police Court was a secret tribunal that was assembled to deal with highly sensitive issues which were desired to be kept secret even from the SS itself.

The one exception to the SS and Police Courts jurisdiction involved members of the Allgemeine-SS who were serving on active duty in the regular Wehrmacht. In such cases, the SS member in question was subject to regular Wehrmacht military law and could face charges before a standard military tribunal. The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was established in the autumn of 1934 to distinguish certain SS members from the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) and SS-Totenkopfverbände (Deaths Head formations). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


See also

Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and well over a million Allgemeine-SS members. ... Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps), the official SS newspaper. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... The Ranks and insignia of the Schutzstaffel were a paramilitary rank system used by the German SS, to differentiate the group from the German military, German state, and the Nazi Party. ...

Notes

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

References

  • Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Gramercy. (ISBN 0-517-10294-3)
  • SS Officer Personnel Files, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
  • Arenhövel, Verlag (1989). Topography of Terror. Berlin: Berliner Festspiele GmbH. (ISBN 3-922912-25-7)
  • Höhne, Heinz. (1969). The Order of the Death's Head, The Story of Hitler's SS. London: Pan Books Ltd.
  • Robert Lewis Koehl (1983). The Black Corps University of Wisconsin Press.
  • International Military Tribunal (referred to as IMT), (1947-1949). Record of the Nuremberg Trials November 14th, 1945 - October 1st, 1946. 42 Vols. London: HMSO.
  • Krausnick, Helmut (editor) Anatomy of the SS State with contributions by Hans Buchheim; Martin Broszat & Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, translated from the German by Richard Barry, Marian Jackson, Dorothy Long, New York : Walker, (1968).
  • Mark C. Yerger: Allgemeine-SS (ISBN 0-7643-0145-4)
  • Andrew Mollo: Pictorial History of the SS (1923 - 1945) (ISBN 0-7128-2174-0
  • Robin Lumsden: The Allgemeine-SS, Vol. 266 (ISBN 1-85532-358-3)

Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... College Park is a city in Prince Georges County, Maryland, USA, United States. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ...

Further reading

  • Robert Lewis Koehl, 1989, "The SS A History 1919-1945", Tempus Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7524-2559-5
  • Sven Hassel, 1969, "SS General", Corgi Books. (Based on the authors World War II experiences. The story takes place in the Russian front esp. during the siege of Stalingrad)

Sven Hassel (born April 19, 1917) is a Danish-born soldier and writer who has written pseudo-autobiographical novels based on his experiences in World War II. // Biography Hassels biography is disputed (see below). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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