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Encyclopedia > Schools of Buddhism

There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. An extensive list of historical schools is given below according to lineage. Surviving schools can be roughly grouped under the categories of Theravāda, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna. Theravāda and Mahāyāna share common methods as sutric schools, while Vajrayāna can be seen as a tantric school. Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Sutra (सूत्र) in Sanskrit is derived from the verb siv-, meaning to sew (these words, including English to sew and Latinate suture, all derive from PIE *syÅ«-). It literally means a rope or thread, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms... Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ...

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Nikaya schools

See also: early Buddhist schools Nikaya Buddhism is a general term for those schools of Buddhism that accept only the class of sutras collected in the Pāli Canon as authentic. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...


The initial split between Sthaviravāda and Mahāsaṃghika occurred about 100 years after Buddha's death, due to differing views concerning the rigidity of monastic rules. A stone image of the Buddha. ...

An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, traditionally a Buddhist symbol of good luck, on his chest. Ananda, the Buddha's disciple, appears in the background. This statue is from Hsi Lai Temple.
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An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, traditionally a Buddhist symbol of good luck, on his chest. Ananda, the Buddha's disciple, appears in the background. This statue is from Hsi Lai Temple.
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Influence of the early schools on later schools in other countries:
The following later schools used the Vinaya of the Dharmaguptaka: This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... A right-facing Swastika in decorative Hindu form For the town in Ontario, see Swastika, Ontario. ... Ananda(Ch:阿難) was one of many principal disciples of the Buddha, a devout attendant and was renowned as the Ananda was the first cousin of the Buddha, and was devotedly attached to him. ... Covering 15 acres, Hsi Lai Temple is the second largest Buddhist temple in the United States. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means one who has awakened. It is derived from the verbal root budh, meaning to awaken or to be enlightened, and to comprehend. It is written in devanagari script as Hindi: and pronounced as... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddharta Gautama. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... -1... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... // Before Common Era Trad. ... Sthaviravāda (Sanskrit. ... The Pudgalavāda or Personalist school of Buddhism broke off from the orthodox Sthaviravāda (elders) school around 280 BCE. The Sthaviravādins interpreted the doctrine of anatta to mean that, since there is no true self, all that we think of as a self (i. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Sthaviravāda (Sanskrit. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Dharmaguptaka are one of the eighteen schools of early Buddhism. ... The Vatsīputrīya sect of Buddhism is an offshoot of the Vibhajyavāda that arose during the reign of Aśoka. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... The Pudgalavāda or Personalist school of Buddhism broke off from the orthodox Sthaviravāda (elders) school around 280 BCE. The Sthaviravādins interpreted the doctrine of anatta to mean that, since there is no true self, all that we think of as a self (i. ... The Sarvastivada (roughly, Proclaiming that all exist) --a reference to one of the distinguishing doctrines of the school, the existence of dharmas in all of the three times (past, present, and future). ... The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... // Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Mahāsaṃghika (Majority) sect of Buddhism was formed in the first Buddhist schism around 320 BCE. It split from the Sthaviravāda (Elders) school. ... The Ekavyahāraka school of Buddhism split from the Mahāsaṃghikas during the reign of Aśoka. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... The Golulaka (Cinder) sect of Buddhism split from the Mahāsaṃghika during the reign of Aśoka. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... The Prajñaptivāda (Conceptualist) school of Buddhism split from Golulikas in late third century BCE. The Prajñaptivādins were early articulators of the two truths doctrine that is so important to Mahāyāna Buddhism, where it is usually found in the tension between upāya and prajñā. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... The Caitika school of Buddhism split from Mahāsaṃghaka in the middle of the first century BCE. It later gave rise to the Apara Śaila and Uttara Śaila schools. ... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The Roman... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The Dharmaguptaka are one of the eighteen schools of early Buddhism. ...

Other influences on later schools: Gyeyul is the Korean name applied to a branch of Buddhism that specializes in the study of monastic discipline, or Vinaya. ... The Ritsu (律宗) school of Buddhism is one of the six schools of Nara Buddhism in Japan, noted for its use of the Vinaya textual framework of the Dharmaguptaka, one of the early schools of Buddhism. ...

  • The Japanese Jojitsu is considered an offshoot of Sautrantika
  • The Chinese/Japanese Kusha school is considered an offshoot of Sarvastivada, influenced by Vasubandhu.

The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... The Sarvastivada (roughly, Proclaiming that all exist) --a reference to one of the distinguishing doctrines of the school, the existence of dharmas in all of the three times (past, present, and future). ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ...

Theravada schools

The different schools in Theravada often emphasize different aspects (or parts) of the Pali Canon and the later commentaries, or differ in the focus on (and recommended way of) practice. There are also significant differences in strictness or interpretation of the Vinaya. Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ...

The Sangharaja Nikaya is a tradition of Theravada Buddhism, located in Bangladesh. ... The Mahasthabir Nikaya is a Bengali order of Buddhist monks. ... Vipassanā (Sanskrit: vipasyanā) is the practice of Insight Meditation. ... Mahāsi Sayādaw (1904-1982) was a famous Burmese Buddhist monk and meditation master who had a significant impact on the teaching of Satipatthana Vipassana meditation in the West and throughout Asia. ... The Siam Nikaya is a monastic order within Sri Lanka, located most predominantly around the city of Kandy. ... The Amarapura Nikaya is a Sri Lankan monastic fraternity (a lineage of ordained monks) founded in 1800. ... Ramanna Nikaya (or Ramanya Nikaya) is one of the most orthodox Buddhist orders in Sri Lanka. ... Dhammakaya Tradition In the rapidly-changing social climate of Thailand over the past three decades, the Dhammakaya Movement has been one of only a few religious establishments whose work has attempted to keep pace with the changing spiritual demands of Thai society. ... Thammayut Nikaya (Pali), literally Those adhering strictly to the monastic dicipline, also known in the West as the Thai Forest Tradition, is an order of Theravada Buddhist monks in Thailand. ... The Thai Forest Tradition is a loosely organized movement within Thai Theravadin Buddhism, emphasizing meditation and strict adherance to the vinaya over intellectual persuits. ... Venerable Ajahn Chah Subhatto (Chao Khun Bodhinyanathera) (alternatively Achaan Chah, occasionally with honorific titles Luang Por and Phra) (1918, Thailand – 1992), was one of the greatest meditation masters of the twentieth century. ...

Mahāyāna schools

Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Madhyamaka is a Buddhist philosophical tradition that asserts that all phenomena are empty of self-nature or essence (Sanskrit: Svabhāva), that they have no intrinsic, independent reality apart from the causes and conditions from which they arise. ... Prasangika is a sub-school of Madhyamaka Buddhism that holds the method of logical consequence (prasanga) to be the only valid method of demonstrating the nature of the Two Truths to opponents in debate. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Chittamatra). ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Dharma-character school (Chinese: 法相宗 pinyin fa xiang zong) is the pejorative name for a stream of thought that represented the Indian Yogācāra system of thought in East Asia. ... Dharma-character school (Chinese: 法相宗 pinyin fa xiang zong) is the pejorative name for a stream of thought that represented the Indian Yogācāra system of thought in East Asia. ... Sanlun or literally Three Treatise School was a Chinese school of Buddhism based upon the Indian Madhyamaka tradition, founded by Nagarjuna. ... Sanlun or literally Three Treatise School was a Chinese school of Buddhism based upon the Indian Madhyamaka tradition, founded by Nagarjuna. ... Daśabhūmikā (Sanskrit. ... Huayan (華嚴, Pinyin: huáyán, Sanskrit: Avatamsaka) or Flower Garland is a tradition of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy that flourished in China during the Tang period. ... Hwaeom is the name of the Korean transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism. ... Kegon ([kegõɴ], or in some dialects, [keŋõɴ]) is the name of the Japanese transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism, via the Korean Hwaeom tradition. ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... Caodong (Chinese 曹洞宗) is a Chinese Zen Buddhist sect founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his Dharma_heirs in the 9th century. ... For the vegetable, see Celosia. ... The dry garden at Ryoan-ji, a Rinzai Zen temple in Kyoto. ... ÅŒbaku (Japanese. ... Fuke Zen (Japanese: 普化禅) was a branch of Zen Buddhism which existed in Japan from the 13th century until the late 19th century. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Jodo can mean: A Japanese martial art that uses the jo, a four-foot long wooden staff, see Jojutsu. ... Jōdo Shinshū (淨土眞宗 True Pure Land School), also known as Shin Buddhism, is a branch of Pure Land Buddhism which was founded in Japan by the monk Shinran. ... Tiantai (天台宗, Wade-Giles: Tien Tai) is one of the thirteen schools of Buddhism in China and Japan, also called the Lotus Sutra School because of its emphasis on the supremacy of that scripture. ... Cheontae Korean name Hangul: 천태 Hanja: 天台 Korean descendant of the Chinese Buddhist sect Tiantai. ... Tendai-shÅ« (天台宗) is a Japanese school of Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school. ... Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派 Nichiren-kei sho shÅ«ha) is a branch of Buddhism based on the orignal Shakyamuni Buddhas final teaching, The Lotus Sutra, and stemming from its interpretation by the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ... Nichiren Shu (日蓮宗, lit. ... Nichiren ShōshÅ« (日蓮正宗) is a branch of Nichiren Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ... . Nipponzan Myōhōji is a neo-religious movement to emerge fron the Nichiren sect of Japanese Buddism (founded 1947) The community reveres the Lotus-Sūtra (jap. ... Soka Gakkai International or SGI is the umbrella organization for affiliate lay organizations in over 190 countries practicing a form of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin. ...

Tantric schools

see also: Vajrayāna Subcategorised according to predecessors A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ...

Tibetan Buddhism — formerly (and incorrectly) also called Lamaism, after their religious gurus known as lamas — is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century. ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century. ... The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The name of the Sakya (lit. ... The Jonang or Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism was founded in the early 14th century by Sherab Gyeltsen, a monk trained in the Sakyapa school. ... The Kadampa (Bka-gdams-pa) Tradition was a Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist school. ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Kagyu (Wylie transliteration: Bka-brgyud) school (known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school) is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... The Shangpa Kagyu is a relatively obscure sub-sect of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Karma Kagyu is the largest lineage of the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Drukpa is a major sect within the Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Drigung Kagyu or Drikung Kagyu or is one of the eight minor lineages of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Rimé movement (Wylie: Ris-Med) is a Buddhist school of thought founded in Eastern Tibet during the late 19th century largely by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, the latter of whom is often respected as the founder proper. ... Mikkyō (密教; literally secret teachings, often translated as esoteric Buddhism) is a Japanese term that refers to the esoteric Vajrayana practices of the Shingon Buddhist school and the related practices that make up part of the Tendai school. ... Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ... Tendai-shÅ« (天台宗) is a Japanese school of Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school. ... Tiantai (天台宗, Wade-Giles: Tien Tai) is one of the thirteen schools of Buddhism in China and Japan, also called the Lotus Sutra School because of its emphasis on the supremacy of that scripture. ... Tantric can refer to: Tantric yoga, also known as tantra The Louisville, KY hard rock band Tantric This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also

Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... Northern Buddhism and Southern Buddhism are geographical terms sometimes used to describe the styles of Buddhism practiced outside of India. ...

References

Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57062-002-4.


Warder, A.K. (1970). Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.


External links

  • Mahayana vs. Theravada: a Multiform Comparison
  • The Sects of the Buddhists by T.W. Rhys Davids, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1891. pp.409-422

  Results from FactBites:
 
Buddhist Studies: Schools of Buddhism (976 words)
The two major schools of Buddhism, Theravada and the Mahayana, are to be understood as different expressions of the same teaching of the historical Buddha.
This school admits the human characteristics of the Buddha, and is characterised by a psychological understanding of human nature; and emphasises a meditative approach to the transformation of consciousness.
The ideal of the Mahayana school, therefore, is that of the Bodhisattva, a person who delays his or her own enlightenment in order to compassionately assist all other beings and ultimately attains to the highest Bodhi.
Buddhism 101 - Schools of Buddhism and Further Developments - free Suite101 course (1006 words)
Buddhism is not a singular entity, but is composed of several schools.
The purpose of this exercise is not to champion an “orthodox” Buddhism, but to show that all religions are in flux, and that the idea of orthodoxy is never clear cut (and sometimes completely irrelevant).
Both schools insist that their form of Buddhism is a more accurate version of the teachings espoused by the Buddha – however, despite their disagreements, these two schools actually shared monasteries in the beginning of their existence.
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