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Encyclopedia > School bus
An IC Corporation CE300 bus transporting American students.
An IC Corporation CE300 bus transporting American students.
A private light bus for students in Hong Kong.
A private light bus for students in Hong Kong.

A school bus or school omnibus is a bus used to transport children and adolescents to and from school. The first school bus was horse-drawn, introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer for a Quaker school at Abney Park in Stoke Newington, London, United Kingdom and was designed to carry 25 children. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 835 KB) Taken by WhisperToMe I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 835 KB) Taken by WhisperToMe I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A CE300 school bus made by IC Corporation transporting Houston ISD students. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A green public minibus awaiting at the station at Tsim Sha Tsui. ... A Go North East bus parked in a lay-by in Tyne and Wear, England. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... The Adolescents were a punk band in the 1980s. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... George Shillibeer, born in London, England c. ... Abney Park Cemetery—every turn of the path reveals a new and unique landscape (September 2005). ... The Castle Climbing Centre, once the main Water Board pumping station. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...



The bus has subsequently become a major mode of transportation, particularly for transporting children to school. Children may travel to school on regular public bus services. In some cases public bus services may run field trips and high school athletic events, and private coach services may put on their own paid services. In North America, however, the school bus is itself a specific type of bus distinct from other buses. Canada and the United States have specially built, painted and equipped school buses. They are commonly painted a "yellow-orange" color (officially known as "National School Bus Chrome Yellow") for purposes of visibility and safety and equipped with specialized traffic warning devices, with the exception of school activity buses (normally used exclusively for point-to-point field and athletic trips and not used for home delivery routes) which are built to the same standards but are customarily some color other than orange and are usually not equipped with traffic warning devices. Most purchased in recent years have been diesel-powered or hybrid. Full-size school buses can seat 59 to 90 passengers, but in many districts smaller vehicles are used as well. Such smaller vehicles are commonly known as "short buses", and are often used for low-density routes associated with private schools and programs for magnet programs and developmentally-challenged students. A field trip is typically a journey by a group of people performing research on a topic to a place away from their normal environment. ... // Original meaning and etymology The original meaning of the term coach was: a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The school bus yellow paint was shining brightly on this new 1973 Wayne Lifeguard school bus won in a national contest for safety ideas. ... Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... For the film directed by John Cameron Mitchell, see Shortbus. ...


Most U.S. school districts purchase the buses and hire their own drivers, while others engage the service of school bus contractors such as Laidlaw to perform this function. School bus services in the UK in almost all cases are contracted out to local bus companies. Elsewhere in Europe school bus services are contracted to local bus companies, which use regional buses that operate on regular lines at other times, or in some cases older regional buses. School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... A school bus contractor is a private company or proprietorship which provides school bus service to a school district or non-public school. ... One of Laidlaws 40,000 yellow school buses Laidlaw, currently organized as Laidlaw International, Inc. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

History

Early modes: wagons, kid hacks

Wayne Works, predecessor of Wayne Corporation, was founded in the United States of America in 1837. By 1886, and possibly earlier, it is known that the company was making horse-drawn school carriages which many people referred to as "school hacks," "school cars," "school trucks," or "kid hacks." ("hack" was a term for certain types of horse-drawn carriages.) Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Horse-drawn kid hacks were an early form of school bus A kid hack was a horse-drawn vehicle used for transporting children to school in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States. ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in London (for the area within the M25 motorway) or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the...


Motorized vehicles, early school buses

In 1914, Wayne Works dropped a wooden kid hack onto an automobile chassis, creating a predecessor to the modern motor school bus. In the bodies for school transportation the company produced through this era, passengers sat on perimeter seating, facing the center rather than the front of the bus. Entry and egress was through a door at the rear, a design begun in non-motorized days so as not to startle the horses. This was possibly a precursor to the rear emergency door commonly found on modern school buses.


In 1927, Blue Bird Body Company and Wayne Works began building all-steel bus bodies In 1932, Gillig Bros. built their first school bus, which was an all-steel unit and by the mid 1930s, nearly every school bus manufacturer was using steel over wood or other materials for body construction. In the 1930s, many school bus manufacturers also began installing additional exterior "rails" along the length of their buses to add structural ridigity and to aid in passenger protection. Known as either crash, rub, or guard rails, Wayne Works was the first known manufacturer to utilize them in bus construction. The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... A Gillig Advantage is in service for Harrisonburg Transit on February 18, 2005 in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ...


Early school buses primarily served rural areas where it was deemed impractical for the young students to walk the distances necessary to get back and forth from school on their own, and were sometimes no more than a truck with perhaps a tarpaulin stretched over the truck bed. Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52...


Wayne Works was one of the earliest school bus companies to offer glass in place of the standard canvas curtains in the passenger area long before many "school" bus companies did in the early 1930s[citation needed], although it was Gillig Bros, who had invented and patented the design long before[1]. Known as the "California top", the design featured a slightly curved reinforced metal roof, with windows separated by pillars at regular intervals, and each window was adjustable by the use of a latching mechanism.


Transit-style school buses

In the 1930s, Wayne Works, Crown Coach, Gillig Bros., and other school bus body companies manufactured some transit-style school buses, that is, types with a more or less flat front-end design (known in modern times as "type D" school buses). Crown Coach built the first heavy duty, high capacity, transit style school coach in 1932 and named it the "Supercoach", as many California school districts operated in terrain requiring heavy duty vehicles. Another factor in the rapid rise in transit-style school bus sales in the 1950s, especially on the West Coast, was the "Baby Boom" generation. School districts were faced with a rapid rise in student counts and were forced to consolidate, buy larger school buses, or both. As a result, the use of the transit style school bus skyrocketed during the mid 1950s. In 1959, Gillig Bros. introduced the very first rear-engine diesel-powered school bus. The C-180 Transit Coach soon afterwards became the most popular rear-engine transit-style school bus on the west coast. Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Crown Coach was once a school bus manufacturer (1930s to 1980s) based in Los Angeles, California. ... A Gillig Advantage is in service for Harrisonburg Transit on February 18, 2005 in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ...


In 1950, Albert L. Luce, founder of the Blue Bird Body Company, developed a transit style design which evolved into the Blue Bird All-American, generally considered the first successful east coast school bus transit design. However, the "conventional" design, with a truck type hood and front-end (known as type C on modern school buses) was to continue to dominate US school bus manufacturing through the end of the 20th century. The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ...


Dr. Frank W. Cyr: father of the yellow school bus

Children boarding a school bus in 1940.
Children boarding a school bus in 1940.

Most school buses turned the now-familiar yellow color beginning in 1939. In April of that year, Dr. Frank W. Cyr, a professor at Teachers College at Columbia University in New York organized a conference that established national school bus construction standards, including the standard color of yellow for the school bus. It became known officially as "National School Bus Chrome," later renamed "National School Bus Glossy Yellow." The color, which has come to be frequently called simply "school bus yellow", was selected because black lettering on that hue was easiest to see in the semi-darkness of early morning and late afternoon. Image File history File links SchoolBus1940. ... Image File history File links SchoolBus1940. ... Frank W. Cyr (July 7, 1900 - August 1, 1995) was an American educator and author, a specialist in rural education who became known as the Father of the Yellow School Bus. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Meetings are sometimes held around conference tables. ... The school bus yellow paint was shining brightly on this new 1973 Wayne Lifeguard school bus won in a national contest for safety ideas. ... The school bus yellow paint was shining brightly on this new 1973 Wayne Lifeguard school bus won in a national contest for safety ideas. ... Black cat, thought by some to cause bad luck (see superstition) Black is the shade of objects that do not reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum. ... The first rule of heraldry is the rule of tincture: metal should not be put on metal, nor colour on colour (Humphrey Llwyd, 1568). ...


The conference met for seven days and the attendees created a total of 45 standards, including specifications regarding body length, ceiling height, and aisle width. Dr. Cyr's conference, funded by a US $5,000 grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, was also a landmark event inasmuch as it included transportation officials from each of the then 48 states, as well as specialists from school bus manufacturing and paint companies. The conference approach to school bus safety, as well as the yellow color, has endured into the 21st century. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Grants are funds given to tax-exempt nonprofit organizations or local governments by foundations, corporations, governments, small business and individuals. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


Growth in school bus use after World War II

Following World War II, there was a nationwide movement in the U.S. to consolidate public schools into fewer and larger ones. This meant that fewer students were attending school in their immediate neighborhood, particularly as they progressed into high school. This led in turn to a large increase in the demand for school buses. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... Main article: Secondary education High school is a name used in some parts of the world, and particularly in North America, to describe the last segment of compulsory education, which is otherwise known as secondary education. ...


Safety

Protecting school children loading and unloading

By the mid 1940s, most states had traffic laws requiring motorists to stop for school buses while children were loading or unloading. The justifications for this protocol were that: Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...

  • Children, especially the younger ones, have normally not yet developed the mental capacity to fully embrace the danger and consequences of crossing safety without adult supervision. Under U.S. tort laws, a child cannot legally be held accountable for negligence for this reason. For that same reason, adult crossing guards often are deployed in walking zones between homes and schools.
  • It is impractical in many cases to avoid children crossing the traveled portions of roadways after leaving a school bus or to have an adult accompany them.
  • The size of a school bus generally limits visibility for both the children and motorists during loading and unloading.

Tort is a legal term that means a civil wrong, as opposed to a criminal wrong, that is recognized by law as grounds for a lawsuit. ... Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for accidents and injuries. ...

Warning lights and safety devices

School bus safety officials were aware that many accidents occurred when traffic was not aware that the hazard existed, and children on foot were hit by other vehicles. The standardized yellow color helped and warning lettering was painted in large letters on school buses. Several devices were developed to help school bus drivers warn other motorists.


Around 1946, one of the early (and possibly the first) systems of alternating traffic warning lights on school buses was used in Virginia. In those days before the advent of transistors and advanced plastic lens technology, an alternating system was created by using sealed beam headlight bulbs with the lenses colored red, and a mechanical motor and solenoids to alternate the high and low beam filaments in the single bulb fixtures mounted at the front and rear of the bus. School children and drivers were subjected to a loud tick-tock noise from the flasher motor as it was operating. Activation was typically through a mechanical switch attached to the door control. However, on some buses such as Gillig's Transit Coach models and the Kenworth-Pacific School Coach, activation of the roof warning lamp system was through the use of a pressure sensitive switch on a manually-controlled stop paddle lever located to the left of the driver's seat below the window. Whenever the pressure was relieved by extending the stop paddle, the electrical current was activated to the relay. This article contains a trivia section. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A lens. ... Rotating magnetic field as a sum of magnetic vectors from 3 phase coils An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. ... Various solenoid actuators from Trombetta Motion Technologies A solenoid is a loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electrical current is passed through it. ... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmopshere with its magnetic field. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ...


Around this time, some states began specifying a mechanical stop arm (some state specifications, such as Washington state refer to the device as a "stop paddle", due to its resemblance to a large paddle) which the driver could activate to swing out from the left side of the bus to warn traffic. The portion of the stop arm protruding in front of traffic initially started out as a rectangle with "STOP" painted on it, and in the late 1960s the rectangle shape was replaced by an octagon-shaped sign bearing a typical stop sign, with "STOP" applied to both sides.


In later years, flashing lights were added to the stop arms, mechanical flasher devices were replaced by electronic ones, and the front and rear warning lights were increased from two to four and eventually eight (in most states; Wisconsin still does not allow the use of a full 8-way roof warning flasher system). Plastic lenses were developed in the 1950s which offered greater visibility and significantly lower costs than the early systems which used colored headlight bulbs, although manufacturers such as Gillig and Crown Coach Corporation were still using the sealed-beam glass bulb design until well into the 1980s and early 1990s.


Many school districts are purchasing buses with two stop arms, the additional one located on the left side near the rear of the bus, for extra safety.


School bus stop laws

School bus stop laws vary by locale and there is controversy regarding them and school bus safety. School bus stop laws vary by locale and there is controversy regarding them and school bus safety. ...


Protecting children from their own bus

A major hazard to children riding school buses is being struck by their own bus. In the United States, approximately 2/3 of students killed outside a school bus are not struck by other vehicles, but by their own bus.[1] Recently, many buses have been equipped with wire or plastic arms which extend from the front bumper on the right side of the bus while it is stopped for loading/unloading. The purpose of the device is that children who need to cross the road will be forced to walk several feet forward of the front of the bus itself before they can begin to cross the road, thus ensuring that the bus driver can see them as they cross in front of the bus, avoiding a common blind spot immediately in front of the bus.


Key concepts

Laidlaw School Bus.
Laidlaw School Bus.

The key concepts for preventative measures are under the control of school bus drivers and their riders: Laidlaw school bus Source: Image taken by Dori License: PD This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Laidlaw school bus Source: Image taken by Dori License: PD This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... One of Laidlaws 40,000 yellow school buses Laidlaw, currently organized as Laidlaw International, Inc. ...

  • A stationary bus cannot run over a rider. In the morning, students should already be at a bus stop and standing stationary as a bus approaches, rather than running toward it as it approaches. Likewise, many school bus drivers avoid after-school loading hazards by arriving and positioning their buses for loading before dismissal whenever possible, so that buses are not moving as the students are dismissed and prepare to load.
  • A school bus driver will not run over a child he or she can see.
  • School bus drivers cannot accidentally run over children who are on board. If backing up or other traffic maneuvers are to take place at the same location as a bus stop, consider a routine to have the children on board while the movement is made.
  • Planned routines are safer than last-minute changes.
  • Riders should never run when approaching a school bus.
  • Get away from the area close to a bus when you get off.
  • Never immediately go back near a stopped bus to retrieve anything you may have dropped.
  • Avoid drawstrings on clothing and possessions which may get entangled while boarding or getting off the bus.

Danger zones

  • The area in front of a school bus has long been known as generally the most hazardous "danger zone". An increasingly sophisticated array of mirror systems have been developed to enable school bus drivers to see children who may otherwise have been obscured from view in what was long a "blind spot." Crossing gates (also called crossing arms) were developed to encourage those children crossing in front of a bus to move away from the bumper area and into an area with a better view of drivers. Additionally, there has also been a trend toward bus designs with less inherent blind spots at the front.
  • The second most dangerous zone is the area on the right side and at the right rear wheels. For this reason, many schools and parents provide safety instruction urging students:
    • When boarding, stay well away from the bus until it is fully stopped. Never approach a moving bus.
    • When leaving the bus, if not crossing the street or road, move away from the bus immediately after getting off, rather than walking closely along the side of it.
  • The third area of hazards are the loading doors. A drawstring or loose clothing may catch on something as a student gets off. If the driver isn't aware, the student may still be attached to the outside of the bus as it begins to pull away. To reduce the risk of this happening, school bus manufacturers have reduced the types of handles and equipment near the stepwell area, and children were urged to consider this risk factor when selecting clothing and accessories. Older students are at equal risk with younger ones in this regard.

Structural integrity

United States stamp depicting a school bus from the 1920s.

As the school bus evolved in the United States and Canada as a specialized vehicle, there became concerns for the protection of the school children during major impacts. A weak point and location of structural failure in catastrophic school bus crashes was well-known to be joints, the points where panels and pieces were fastened together. Image File history File links Wiki_schoolbus. ... Image File history File links Wiki_schoolbus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Longitudinal steel guard rails had been in use since the 1930s to protect the sides of buses, but behind them on the sides and on the roofs, by the 1960s, all manufacturers were combining many individual steel panels to construct a bus body. These were usually attached by rivets or similar fasteners such as huckbolts.


Around 1967, Ward Body Company of Conway, Arkansas subjected one of their school bus bodies to multiple roll, and noted the separation at the joints, as well as pointing out that many of their competitors were using far fewer rivets. This resulted in new attention by all the body companies to the number and quality of fasteners. Ward Body Works was a school bus manufacturer based in Conway, Arkansas. ... Conway is a city located in Faulkner County, Arkansas, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city was the eighth most populous in Arkansas, with a total population of 43,167. ...


Simply increasing the number of fasteners (rivets, screws, and huckbolts) was not enough to satisfy engineers at Wayne Corporation in Richmond, Indiana. In their tests, no matter how many fasteners were used, the joints were always the weak point under high stress loads. They also noted how the continuous guard rails used on the sides tended to spread the stress from a point of impact, allowing it to be shared and dissipated at portions of the body structure further away. Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Richmond (IPA: ) is a city in east central Indiana, which borders Ohio. ...


Instead of trying to figure out how to make the fasteners do a better job, they stood back and wondered if the design features of the guard rails could be expanded. The result was a revolutionary new design in school bus construction: Continuous longitudinal interior and exterior panels for the sides and roofs.


Branded the Lifeguard, the new school bus design used Wayne's huge roll-forming presses to make single steel pieces which extended the entire length of the bus body. The concept was that by reducing the number of joints, the number of places where the body could be anticipated to separate in a catastrophic impact was reduced in a like amount.


The "Lifeguard" design reduced overall body weight, the number of fasteners used, and man-hours required for assembly. However, it required the very large roll-form presses and special equipment to handle the panels. A more practical problem was the panels had to be cut to exact length for each bus body order, which varied with seating capacities and from state-to-state. This created a marketing disadvantage as the Wayne factory required greater manufacturing lead time than when parts were more interchangeable between orders under older panel technology.


In the years after Wayne introduced the Lifeguard design in the 1973 model year, competing body manufacturers began moving towards using fewer side panels and joints, although none went as far as Wayne in the 1970s.


Federal standards for school buses

The focus on structural integrity resulted in the joint requirements of the U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for school buses, most of which became applicable for school buses on April 1, 1977. The following, including Standard 221 (joint strength) are generally considered to be the most important, even 25 years later. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Standard No. 217 - Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release (Effective September 1, 1973) This standard establishes minimum requirements for bus window retention and release to reduce the likelihood of passenger ejection in crashes; and for emergency exits to facilitate passenger exit in emergencies. It also requires that each school bus have an interlock system which will prevent the engine from starting if an emergency door is locked and an audible warning system which will sound an alarm if an emergency door release mechanism is not closed while the engine is running. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ...


Standard No. 220 - School Bus Rollover Protection (Effective April 1, 1977) This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection. The purpose of this standard is to reduce the number of deaths and the severity of injuries that result from failure of the school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Standard No. 221 - School Bus Body Joint Strength (Effective April 1, 1977) This standard establishes requirements for the strength of the body panel joints in school bus bodies. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries resulting from the structural collapse of school bus bodies during crashes. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Standard No. 222 - School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection (Effective April 1, 1977) This standard establishes occupant protection requirements for school bus passenger seating and restraining barriers. The purpose of this standard is to reduce the number of deaths and the severity of injuries that result from the impact of school bus occupants against structures within the vehicle during crashes and sudden driving maneuvers. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Standard No. 301 - Fuel System Integrity - School Buses (Effective April 1, 1977) This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems. Its purpose is to reduce deaths and injuries occurring from fires that may result from fuel spillage during and after motor vehicle crashes. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ...


Continuing safety efforts since 1977

The new Federal Standards of 1977 for school buses represented a quantum leap in school bus safety. Other efforts and innovations were to continue.


More sophisticated and comprehensive mirror systems were developed to help drivers see children who were off the bus at almost all times. A mirror, reflecting a vase. ...


Crossing gates were developed to help children avoid walking in the area immediately in front of the bus.


Reflective striping, LED and strobe lights were added in the 1980s and 1990s. External links LEd Category: TeX ... An animation illustrating the effect of strobe light A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light. ...


Modern school buses are often well equipped with amenities lacking only a few years ago such as air conditioning, two-way radios, high headroom roofs (Gillig and Crown Coach were producing high-headroom school buses as early as the mid 1950s) and wheelchair lifts (typically those with lifts are shorter than their counterparts and are sometimes exclusively assigned to carry disabled children). Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... A wheelchair is a wheeled mobility device in which the user sits. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Video cameras and recorders have become common equipment installed inside school buses, primarily to monitor (and record) behavior of the passengers. However, on March 28, 2000, a Murray County, Georgia, school bus was involved in a wreck with a CSX freight train at an unsignalled grade crossing, killing 3 children. Although the school bus driver claimed to have stopped and looked for approaching trains before proceeding across the tracks, the onboard camera clearly recorded that the bus had not stopped as it approached the tracks prior to the collision. Video (Latin for I see, first person singular present, indicative of videre, to see) is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Murray County is a county located in the state of Georgia. ... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Railway companies of the United States | Alabama railroads | Connecticut railroads | Delaware railroads | Florida current railroads | Georgia railroads | Illinois railroads | Indiana railroads | Kentucky railroads | Louisiana railroads | Maryland railroads | Massachusetts railroads | Michigan railroads | Mississippi railroads | New Jersey railroads | New York railroads | North Carolina railroads | Ohio railroads | Pennsylvania...


Seat belts in school buses

Compartmentalization was introduced in 1967, setting the ideal seat back height at 28 inches (although most seat heights are now 24 inches tall). The premise was that surrounding passengers with cushioning to the front and behind provide effective constraint in the event of a collision.


Although not an element of compartmentalization, the UCLA researchers who conducted the 1967 tests on school buses concluded that after high back seats, next in importance to school bus passenger collision safety is the "use of a three-point belt, a lap belt or other form of effective restraint."


Very few school buses have seat belts, a standard safety feature in cars and light duty passenger vehicles. In 1977, as provided in Standard 222, the federal government required passive restraint and structural integrity standards for school buses in lieu of requiring lap seat belts. In the 1980s, some districts in the US tried installing lap belts and then later removed them, claiming operational and passenger behavior problems. Whether lap belts should be required remains very controversial, although they are now required in at least 4 states (New York, New Jersey, California and Florida). However, only one state, New Jersey, requires seat belt usage. In other states it is up to the district wether to use seat belts or not. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


Arguments Against Seat Belts

School buses have an excellent safety record, and are among the safest forms of travel despite not having seat belts. School buses are heavy and move slowly; in the event of an accident, it cannot experience that same drastic change in speed and direction as smaller automobiles do (see Newton's laws of motion). Hence passengers are not thrown from their seats as easily, unlike automobiles.[2] Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ...


Most fatal injuries on school buses are of other types than those preventable by seat belts.[citation needed] Compartmentalization already provides an effective constraint system, and having seat belts is seen as a redundant system. At costs of $1500 per bus to install lap belts and more for 3-point belts, the money needed to supply seat belts can be better spent in other, more protective systems.[3]


Lap belts can be unsafe for young children. In any case, seat belts are a hindrance in cases of rapid evacuation. Children can become unable to free themselves. On buses equipped with seat belts, users typically ignore the seat belts, and in some bus routes, there are more children per seat than seat belts. Some children may even swing the belt around at those near them, in which case the heavy metal buckle can be quite dangerous.


Arguments For Seat Belts

Arguments for seat belts generally come from concerned parents and teachers. The issue is on the agenda for the national PTA in Washington, although not a high priority at this time.


First, studies showing the ineffectiveness of seat belts on school buses are flawed. Some believe Standard 222 was doctored by the NHTSA to meet other agendas. Others point to the use of lap belts over three-point belts, frontal crash tests over side impact tests, and the lack of rollover tests. All of these would have significantly improved the performance of seat belts versus compartmentalization.[4]


Second, cost effectiveness is always a controversial issue. Some parents would argue that even saving the life of one child justifies the increased costs of installing seat belts. Diminished seating capacity can be offset by purchasing additional buses, and safety should be a higher priority than saving money.


Third, three-point belt systems are promoted over lap belts, (lap belts which were criticized for causing injury to younger children). Studies have been conducted using three point belts by companies who manufacture them; these studies prove that the childs safety is greatly increased when using their product. (http://www.safeguardseat.com/)[5] As to the issue of rapid evacuation, it can be argued that children wearing the seat belts are physically unharmed to begin with and therefore should be able to get themselves out. Finally, drivers will be forced to enforce the wearing of seat belts as part of the legislation.


Standards for non-school bus operatives

Church bus and school bus safety have always been closely related issues in the United States. However, they were linked more closely in the aftermath of a tragedy in 1988. The bus collision at Carrollton, Kentucky on May 14, 1988 was one of the most disastrous bus accidents in United States history. ...


A bus accident at Carrollton, Kentucky in 1988 involving a church bus which had been originally built and served as a school bus was one of the worst bus accidents in United States history. The driver and 26 other people, many of them teenagers and younger, were killed in the crash and the ensuing fire, and 34 other bus passengers sustained minor to critical injuries. Only six bus passengers were not injured. It was quickly realized that many factors came together in tragedy that terrible night. While the immediate cause was the drunk driver of the other vehicle, it was additionally realized that most of the deaths on the bus occurred because the occupants could not evacuate promptly after the impact. The bus collision at Carrollton, Kentucky on May 14, 1988 was one of the most disastrous bus accidents in United States history. ...


Many things needed action to help prevent or at least reduce the possibility of such a tragedy happening again. It was particularly painful to some participants during the aftermath to realize that a contributing factor to the accident itself and the severity were loopholes between the laws and procedures for a school bus and those involving the same vehicle after it became a church bus.


The accident resulted in a National Transportation Safety Board ( NTSB)[6] investigation and report, as well as extensive media coverage and considerable litigation. Subsequently, many federal, state, and local agencies and bus manufacturers changed regulations, vehicle features, and operating practices. One of the key factors in making the event as tragic as it became was the fact that the bus was of an obsolete design which had been abandoned in school bus construction after April 1, 1977. The unprotected fuel tank was actually mounted outside the frame rails near the front of the bus. This bus was also fueled by gasoline rather than the more typical modern choice of diesel fuel. While pre-1977 buses have long been phased out of most school bus usage, many similar buses are still in use as church buses, which are far less regulated, even today. Seal of the National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ...


Many of the hundreds of various professional individuals who were involved in aspects of 1988 accident and the aftermath hoped that their efforts then and since will continue to contribute to making sure that such a combination of human and vehicle flaws will never result in another tragedy of this magnitude. Yet even 19 years later, some also feel that it is important to revisit the issues, especially some aspects which could still occur again.


Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia[7] are the only American states where school bus stop laws are similarly applied to church buses if equipped with flashing red lights used on school buses, and operated in compliance with school bus laws. Other states may have vehicles marked church buses, but they have no church bus stop laws similar to school bus stop laws. Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article contains a trivia section. ...


Pollution

Since most school buses burn diesel, the amount of pollution emitted is of growing concern. Many school buses sit at idle while waiting for passengers at a pickup stop or school. Most are also sitting at idle while children are on and off loaded.


The exposure of young children to large amounts of diesel fumes daily for a long period of time (over ten years) has led to clean diesel requirements for new school buses. However, many school districts are still using school buses that are over 30 years old.


As a result, diesel electric hybrid, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen powered school buses have been developed. Some buses have been retrofitted with emission control technologies and particulate matter filters, while others are being replaced.


Fuel Costs

The rise in fuel costs after Hurricane Katrina resulted in many school boards running deficits. Fuel costs are the largest variable in a school board's budget, and are now also their greatest concern. Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ...


As a result, many school districts are looking to purchase diesel electric hybrid buses. Regenerative braking on these buses also reduces the number of brake replacements and labour costs of maintenance.


Diesel Electric Hybrids

IC Corporation, in collaboration with Enova Systems, unveiled the nation's first hybrid school bus in 2006 at the New York Association of Pupil Transportation (NYAPT) Show. The hybrid school bus is expected to attain a 40 percent increase in fuel efficiency, which becomes even more essential with the rising fuel costs affecting many school districts. Lower maintenance costs are also expected.


Eleven states have joined together for an exploratory purchase of 19 school buses from IC Corporation. New York, California, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa and Washington will be the first states in the nation to receive these diesel electric hybrid school buses.


Currently, 16 of the buses are fully funded and International Truck and Engine Corporation has started production on the ordered buses for delivery in late spring 2007.


Hydrogen school buses

Buses and school buses were one of the first vehicles to be converted to run on hydrogen. This is because they could pack a big engine, and most hydrogen engines (which are not so big) need a lot of storage space for the hydrogen itself. Nowadays more and more school buses are transformed to run on this alternate fuel.[citation needed]


Due to the size of a school bus, a more powerful engine is needed, providing between 185 to 275 hp (140 to 205 kW). This is of particular concern when using engines running on alternative energy, such as hydrogen or compressed air.


School busing for racial purposes

Main article: Desegregation busing

During the era of segregation in the United States, school buses were often used to transport Black students to all-black schools, which were often further away from their homes than other public schools designated for white students. Sometimes, these were in only one or two locations within an entire county or other school district. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ...


After the United States Supreme Court ruled in the case of Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 that school and other segregation was an unconstitutional violation of rights granted to all citizens under the Fourteenth Amendment, some districts either voluntarily or by court order introduced new pupil assignment plans to promote racial desegregation. School districts in such situations were spread across virtually the entire United States, including those of many cities such as Los Angeles, California, Boston, Massachusetts, Wichita, Kansas, Cleveland, Ohio, and Norfolk, Virginia. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , State California County Los Angeles County Settled 1781 Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated (city) 1822 Government  - Governor Deval Patrick (D) Area  - City  89. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ...


The desegregation plans usually resulted in more pupils of all races assigned to schools further from their homes than before. School buses (and city transit buses in some instances) were often used to transport the students reassigned to different schools beyond a reasonable walking distance. Opponents of this concept began to decry the practice as "forced busing". Forced busing is the concept of achieving racial or economic integration in United States public schools by transporting schoolchildren to schools outside their area of residence. ...


In cities such as Richmond, Virginia, when a massive program began in 1971, parents of all races complained about the long rides, hardships with transportation for extra-curricular activities, and the separation of siblings when elementary schools at opposite sides of the city were "paired," (i.e. splitting lower and upper elementary grades into separate schools). Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


In an effort to satisfy parents concerned about mandated long bus rides, many districts such as Richmond later modified their pupil placement plans to provide attractive programs in "magnet schools", and built new school buildings and reconfigured older buildings to develop logistically more favorable attendance plans which met desegregation goals. Combined with changes in housing patterns, the forced busing programs were gradually eliminated as the courts nationwide released districts from orders under old lawsuits. In the U.S. system of education, a magnet school is a public school which offers innovative courses, specialized training, etc. ...


Today, school buses are still used in most of these districts, but this is much more due to reduced walking zones, concern for pupil safety, and a wider choice of programs and locations for many students.


Statistics

In the United States every year, approximately 440,000 public school buses travel more than 4 billion miles and daily transport 25 million children to and from schools and school-related activities. School buses account for an estimated 10 billion student trips each year.[8] That means approximately 54% of all K-12 students in the country ride yellow school buses.[9]


Retired school buses

When a school bus is retired from school transportation in the United States, most states have requirements that school bus lettering must be covered or removed and warning devices deactivated or removed. At least one state prohibits non-school buses from being more than 50% yellow, reserving the color on buses for school buses only. Regulations vary from state to state. Adversely, depending on state regulations, school buses may also retain their warning devices and lettering (for which usually just the "SCHOOL BUS roof lettering is allowed to remain) after retirement shall the new owner decide to restore it to factory-new condition.


The large quantity of school buses retired from daily service has helped develop a wide range of uses for them.


Market value of a school bus

Although a new school bus commands a very high price, around $65,000-$110,000, a used school bus will often times sell for far less than what was initially paid. Due to the very high depreciation of a used school bus, it is not uncommon to see used school buses sell for $500-$2500 at surplus auctions, and around $3000-$5000 on the used bus sales markets. These prices give the opportunity for an ordinary person to purchase a bus.


Passenger transport

  • Many retired school buses are later sold to churches and used to transport elderly and mobility-impaired worshippers to and from church services or to transport youth groups for outings to amusement parks, picnics, and visiting other churches.
  • Some used school buses are shipped to Latin America and occasionally Africa for use as municipal transportation, transportation of migrant farmworkers, or even rededicated to pupil transport. This includes Cuba, which, in spite of the US embargo, imports them from Canada.
  • In some cases, after a school bus has been removed from regular service, it may be used as a substitute for newer buses that have broken down, or been removed from regular service for maintenance. These buses are still, in all aspects completely safe, but they usually lack the features of newer buses including air conditioning and tinted windows. After a certain amount of time has elapsed however, even substitute buses are completely retired and may be used for the aforementioned purposes.

It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The United States embargo against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for the blockade) is an economic, commercial and financial embargo imposed on Cuba on February 7, 1962. ...

Special Purpose Bus

Many school districts also have started using shorter buses. These buses usually contain only 5 to 7 rows of seats, often with areas for wheelchair-dependent persons. An elevator is often included on these buses to aid in the loading of disabled students. The other students use the usual stairs up to the seating deck. Often pretty pictures and drawings are pasted to the top of these buses. These images provide visual comfort while riding.


Each bus usually carries two drivers. One drives, while the other cares for the riders. Any student may ride these types of buses, such as persons with mental instabilities. For instance, persons with bipolar, ADD, ADHD, and schizophrenia, may ride these buses. By riding these buses instead of usual "all-persons" bus, these riders are not as prone to being bothered.


Non-passenger use

  • Some former school buses have been converted to mobile stores, mobile restaurants, workshops, ATV haulers, or are used for general hauling as a form of medium duty truck when short distances and/or moderate speeds constitute the operating environment.
  • On occasion, retired school buses are used for auto racing, often re-painted with garish designs, as a comic attraction at county fairs in the USA. They are also popular in some forms of demolition derby, often demolished at the same fair after having raced.
  • Inoperable buses or bus bodies have often become storage units.
  • Some retired school buses also get purchased for the purpose of total restoration, back to a "factory-new" condition. The individual who purchases and then restores a school bus is known as a "school bus enthusiast." Some school bus enthusiasts also become school bus collectors, and a select few open up websites devoted to their hobby.
  • Used school buses are sometimes put to use as woodsheds.
  • Old school buses are often sunk into diving-oriented quarries as an attraction for scuba divers.
  • Smaller school buses are now often converted into ice cream trucks, using modifications to the warning light system now required by law in many jurisdictions.
  • Some retired school buses have been modified to transport non-human passengers such as swine.

Recreational Vehicle (RV) is a broad term used to describe a large enclosed piece of equipment with wheels designed to be moved from place to place for people to temporarily live in and be protected from the elements while away from their permanent domicile. ... A camper built on a light truck chassis. ... Skoolies or Schoolies is a term that refers to either those who convert school buses into recreational vehicles, or to the converted buses themselves. ... “Racing cars” redirects here. ... Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. ... A demolition derby under way at the Greenwich, Ohio Firemens Festival, 2005 Demolition derby is a motorsport usually presented at county fairs and festivals. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Vintage Ice Cream Truck in Harper Woods, Michigan An ice cream van (British) or ice cream truck (American) is a commercial vehicle which serves as a travelling retail outlet for ice cream, usually during the summer. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ...

School bus manufacturers

1980-2000: Industry consolidation, fallen flags

In 1980, in the U.S., there were six major school bus body companies building large school buses, mostly making bodies for chassis from four truck manufacturers, joined by two coach-type school bus builders on the West Coast. With the baby boom years which swelled the ranks of school children in the past, the manufacturing industry faced serious over-capacity as companies vied and competed for lower volumes of purchases by school bus contractors, school districts, and several states which purchase their buses in quantity at the state level. A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate within temporal and usually geographical bounds. ... A school bus contractor is a private company or proprietorship which provides school bus service to a school district or non-public school. ... School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ...


On the West Coast, Crown Coach closed its doors in Chino, California in March of 1991. The property buildings are completely gone, leaving a unwanted and very dirty piece of land. GE, who still does own the rights to Crown, can't sell it. Product rights and tooling were sold to Carpenter, and resulted in some Crown-by-Carpenter products in the 1990s. The other builder, Gillig Bros. (by then just simply known as the Gillig Corporation), dropped school bus production, but successfully developed a transit bus market to replace it, and remained in business. By mid 2000, there were only three body builders left, and a corporate consolidation of two of those with truck manufacturers reduced the model selection further. Crown Coach Corporation (1914 - 1991) was a school bus manufacturer based in Los Angeles, California, eventually moving factory operations to Chino, California in San Bernadino County. ... Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... A Gillig Advantage is in service for Harrisonburg Transit on February 18, 2005 in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ... A Volvo articulated bus in contract service for Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, operated by Virginia Overland Transportation, an urban-suburban bus line, in 2003 A transit bus (also known as a commuter bus) in the United States is usually operated by an urban-suburban bus line, a governmental...


Ward later became Amtran, and then was purchased by International Truck. They refused to sell chassis to other body manufacturers or inflated price so high that there were no options for body builders but to merge or go out of business.


Several new small bus manufacturers developed niche markets during this period. However, despite several notable attempts at revival, long-term body company industry names such as Superior, Ward, Wayne, Carpenter, and Crown-by-Carpenter all became fallen flags (in that order).


Wayne's inventory was purchased by Carpenter and some of their parts were obviously used on the Crown By Carpenter buses.A defect in the roof welds was later found on all buses manufactured after 1994. A lot of school systems were forced to retire buses early and Carpenter had been out of business for sometime leaving districts no recourse.


Current school bus manufacturers

Image:Ttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/6b/996.jpg/800px-996.jpg The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... Collins Bus Corporation is a United States company that specializes in manufacturing and sales of the smaller school bus. ... Corbeil Buses make customized minibuses for commercal customers. ... A CE300 school bus made by IC Corporation transporting Houston ISD students. ... Navistar International Corporation (NYSE: NAV) is the parent company of International Truck and Engine Corporation, a leading producer of mid-range diesel engines, medium trucks, heavy trucks, severe service vehicles, and parts and service sold under the International® brand. ... Navistar (formerly International Harvester) started in Chicago, United States, which produced agricultural machinery, construction equipment and vehicles. ... Midbus specializes in manufacturing customized school bus in Bluffton, Ohio and is a unit of Collins Bus Corporation. ... Thomas Built Buses, Inc. ... U.S. Bus Corporation specializes in customized school bus. ...


Historical school bus manufacturers

(all are now either defunct or discontinued manufacturing of school buses)

School bus manufacturer, formerly known as Ward Body Company, headquartered in Conway, Arkansas. ... The Carpenter Body Company also known as the Ralph H. Carpenter Body Company, Carpenter Body Works, Inc. ... Crown Coach Corporation (1914 - 1991) was a school bus manufacturer based in Los Angeles, California, eventually moving factory operations to Chino, California in San Bernadino County. ... A Gillig Advantage is in service for Harrisonburg Transit on February 18, 2005 in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ... The Hackney Brothers Body Company was founded in 1852 in Nash County, North Carolina as a coach and wagon maker and in later years manufactured ambulances, refrigerated trucks and school buses. ... The Kenworth Bug on the new T660 Kenworth is a manufacturer of medium and heavy-duty Class 8 trucks based in Kirkland, Washington, a suburb of Seattle. ... Liberty Bus Incorporated was a school bus manufacturer. ... Superior Coach was once a school bus manufacturer, but today it focus on building hearses and is located in Lima, Ohio. ... Ward Body Works was a school bus manufacturer based in Conway, Arkansas. ... Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ...

Models

Note: this is a very partial and incomplete listing of some models of school buses in the United States, either current, or former.

Crown Coach Corporation (1914 - 1991) was a school bus manufacturer based in Los Angeles, California, eventually moving factory operations to Chino, California in San Bernadino County. ... Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the worlds third largest automaker after Toyota and General Motors, based on worldwide vehicle sales. ... Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the worlds third largest automaker after Toyota and General Motors, based on worldwide vehicle sales. ... A Gillig Advantage is in service for Harrisonburg Transit on February 18, 2005 in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ... Girardin Minibus specializes in custom order buses and is based in Quebec ,Canada. ... A CE300 school bus made by IC Corporation transporting Houston ISD students. ... The Kenworth Bug on the new T660 Kenworth is a manufacturer of medium and heavy-duty Class 8 trucks based in Kirkland, Washington, a suburb of Seattle. ... Navistar International Corporation NYSE: NAV is the parent company of International Truck and Engine Corporation, a leading producer of mid-range diesel engines, medium trucks, heavy trucks, severe service vehicles, and parts and service sold under the International® brand. ... Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... Photo courtesy of Wayne Bus Enthusiasts group on Yahoo Advertisement for 1973 Wayne Lifeguard School Bus on Ford chassis. ... The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... The Blue Bird Corporation is a large manufacturer of buses. ... Thomas Built Buses, Inc. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

United Kingdom

Most UK school buses are ordinary buses and the only modification is the fitting of seat belts. The buses are not necessarily yellow and can be used for other purposes when not in use for school journeys. US-made yellow school buses are beginning to be introduced [2] but this move is not universally popular. Some British people regard it as an inefficient use of resources and an example of exaggerated risk perception. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Risk perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. ...


Trivia

  • A long-wheelbase orange Commer School Bus is seen in Mad Max 2. It had armoured plates along one side of it and was used as a rolling 'Fortress Gate', although the inside was a kind of camp office. Later, the survivors escape in this vehicle as the biker gangs chase decoy vehicles in the wrong direction.
  • A Short Bus features as a mobile lab in the movie Twister. Titled "Barn Burner", it is painted an almost-military dun colour, and appears to have no difficulty keeping up with the speeding 4X4 vehicles chasing a tornado

Front of an old Commer bus Comma was an Atlantan manufacturer of illigal vehicles which existed from 1637 until 2458B.C. The company was formed in Georgia, and began by barfing on military vehicles for the Georgian House in the First Cold World War. ... Road Warrior redirects here. ... Twister may mean: the game Twister the movie Twister a slang word for a tornado a tongue twister, something difficult to pronounce The name of a roller coaster in Knoebels amusement park in Elysburg, Pennsylvania. ...

See also

A Go North East bus parked in a lay-by in Tyne and Wear, England. ... Navistar International Corporation NYSE: NAV is the parent company of International Truck and Engine Corporation, a leading producer of mid-range diesel engines, medium trucks, heavy trucks, severe service vehicles, and parts and service sold under the International® brand. ... One of Laidlaws 40,000 yellow school buses Laidlaw, currently organized as Laidlaw International, Inc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blind spot (automobile). ...

Gallery

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Protecting Children from Their Own Buses by Mark D. Fisher. Retrieved on January 29, 2006.
  2. ^ http://www.googobits.com/articles/362-why-dont-school-buses-have-seat-belts.html
  3. ^ Proper Use of Child Restraint Systems in School Buses. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
  4. ^ The National Coalition for School Bus Safety. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
  5. ^ School Transportation News. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
  6. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  7. ^ LIS § 46.2-917.1. School buses hired to transport children.. Code of Virginia. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  8. ^ School Bus Safety Fact Sheets. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  9. ^ National School Bus Safety Week October 16-22, 2005. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.

January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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School bus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5236 words)
A school bus is a bus used to transport children and adolescents to and from school.
Early school buses primarily served rural areas where it was deemed impractical for the young students to walk the distances necessary to get back and forth from school on their own, and were sometimes no more than a truck with perhaps a tarpaulin stretched over the truck bed.
A bus accident at Carrollton, Kentucky in 1988 involving a church bus which had been originally built and served as a school bus was one of the worst bus accidents in United States history.
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