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Encyclopedia > School
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Students in Rome, Italy.
Students in Rome, Italy.
This article is about centralized locations for group learning. For the article about the concept of "schooling," see education. For other uses of the word "school," see School (disambiguation).

A school is an institution where students learn from teachers; the word school can also refer to a building where such learning occurs. In most systems of formal education, students progress through a series of schools: primary school, secondary school, and possibly University or vocational school. A school may be also dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. In home schooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside of a traditional school building. Schoolhouse icon Source: [1] Original source: [2], now defunct (archive: [3]) According to [4] (defunct; archive: [5]), this image is considered public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Raphael, The school of Athens (detail) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) coordinates: 41°54′N 12°29′E Time Zone: UTC+1 Administration Subdivisions 19 municipi Province Rome Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni ( The Union ) Characteristics Area 1,285 km² Population 2,547,677 (2005 estimate) Density 1983... School can mean: School - an educational institution School (discipline) - The term school can be used in circumstances that describe people with common characteristics in what they do, a school of painting, or a school of thought School (biology) - The term school is used in biology (see swarm) School (song) - Song... Students attending a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, meaning to direct ones zeal at; hence a student is one who directs zeal at a subject. ... A teachers room in a Japanese middle school, 2005. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also sometimes referred to as a trade school or career college, is one operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... Homeschooling (also called home education) is the education of children at home and in the community, in contrast to education in an institution such as a public or parochial school. ... As opposed to the computer-based training of the 1980s, the term e-learning refers to computer-enhanced training. ...

Contents


Regional varieties

In the United Kingdom, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions, and these can, for the most part, be divided into primary schools (sometimes further divided into infant school and junior school), and secondary schools. School performance is monitored by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A Junior School is most commonly a school for pupils aged 7-11 in the United Kingdom. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Her Majestys Inspectorate of Education is a body with responsibility for overseeing standards in education in Scotland. ...


In North America, the term school can refer to any institute of education, at any level, and covers all of the following: preschool (for toddlers), kindergarten, elementary school, middle school (also called intermediate school or junior high school, depending on specific age groups and geographic region), senior high school, college, university, and graduate school. In the US, school performance through high school is monitored by each state's Department of Education. Many of the earlier public schools in the United States were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom. Beginning in the 1920s, one-room schools were consolidated into multiple classroom facilities with transportation increasingly provided by kid hacks and school buses. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A nursery school is a school for the education of very young children (generally five years of age and younger). ... A male toddler A female toddler A toddler is a child between the ages of one and three years old, although some may consider a toddler to be between two and five. ... A kindergarten in Afghanistan. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The term college (Latin collegium) is most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A graduate school or grad school is a school that awards advanced degrees, with the general requirement that students must have earned an undergraduate (bachelors) degree. ... This article is about the country in North America. ... Department of Education may refer to any of several government agencies: United Kingdom Department for Education and Skills (until 1996 named Department of Education) Scottish Education Department United States United States Department of Education United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Many U.S. states also have their own... Williamson School was a one-room school in Blanch, Caswell County, North Carolina One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland and Ireland in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Horse-drawn kid hacks were an early form of school bus A kid hack was a horse-drawn vehicle used for transporting children to school in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

In much of continental Europe, the term school usually applies to primary education, with primary schools that last between six and nine years, depending on the country. It also applies to secondary education, with secondary schools often divided between Gymnasiums and vocational schools, which again depending on country and type of school take between three and six years. The term school is rarely used for tertiary education, except for some upper or high schools (German: Hochschule) which are more accurately translated as colleges. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 379 KB) Summary Madrassa in Serrekunda, Gambia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 379 KB) Summary Madrassa in Serrekunda, Gambia. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Primary or elementary education consists of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A gymnasium (pronounced /gim-/ as opposed to /jim-/) is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also sometimes referred to as a trade school or career college, is one operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... The term college (Latin collegium) is most often used today to denote an educational institution. ...


School sizes and structures

School in rural Sudan, 2002

The size and scope of schools varies depending on the resources and goals of the communities that provide for them. A school might be simply an outdoor meeting spot where one teacher comes to instruct a few students, or, alternatively, a large campus consisting of hundreds of buildings and tens of thousands of students and educators. Image File history File linksMetadata Village_school_in_Northern_Bahr_el_Ghazal,_Sudan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Village_school_in_Northern_Bahr_el_Ghazal,_Sudan. ... The Universitätscampus Wien, Austria ( details) Campus (plural: campi) is Latin for field or open space. English gets the words camp and campus from this origin. ...


The basic unit of a school building is generally the classroom, where the act of instruction takes place. Other places typically found in schools include: A university classroom with permanently-installed desk-chairs and green chalkboards. ...

  • a cafeteria or canteen where students eat lunch.
  • an athletic field, gym, and track for students participating in sports or physical education.
  • an auditorium where student theatrical or musical productions can be staged and where all-school events such as assemblies are held.
  • an office where the administrative work of the school is done.
  • a library
  • specialist classrooms including laboratories for science education.

Boarding schools, where students live full-time amongst their peers, will also include dormitories. One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ... Canteen has several different meanings: Canteen (place), a private cafe, restaurant, or cafeteria at a school, office, or military base. ... Lunch is a meal that is taken in the early afternoon. ... Modern indoor gymnasium with pull-down basketball hoops Gym, a shortened form of gymnasium, refers to facilities intended for indoor sports or exercise. ... Physical instruction at the U.S. Naval Training Station, Newport, RI, 1917 In most educational systems, physical education (PE), also called physical training (PT) or gym, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes the learning medium of large-muscle activities in a play or movement exploration setting. ... An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... OFFICE WORK IS SHITE!! NEVER WORK IN ONE! end of. ... A modern-style library in Chambéry In the traditional sense of the word, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A boarding school is a self-contained educational total institution where students not only study but where some or all students may live. ... A typical American college dorm room A dormitory or dorm is a place to sleep. ...


School ownership and operation

Most modern states consider it a duty of the government to provide at least a basic education to the children of its citizens. For this reason, many schools are owned or funded by states. Private schools are those which are operated independently from the government. Private schools usually rely on fees from families whose children attend the school for funding; however, sometimes such schools also receive government support (see charter schools). Many private schools are affiliated with a particular religion; these are known as parochial schools. A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern a society, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. ... In the United States, a charter school is a school that is created via a legal charter. ... A parochial school is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ...


In the United Kingdom most schools are publicly funded and known as state schools or maintained schools in which tuition is provided free. There are also private schools or independent schools that charge fees. Some of the most selective and expensive private schools are known as public schools, a usage that can be confusing to speakers of North American English. In North American usage, a public school is one that is publicly funded or run. State school is an expression used in the United Kingdom and other countries apart from the United States to distinguish schools provided by the government from public schools which are in fact private institutions. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... The term public school has two contrary meanings: In England, one of a small number of prestigious historic schools open to the public which normally charge fees and are financed by bodies other than the state, commonly as private charitable trusts; here the word public is used much as in... The term public school has different (and in some cases contradictory) meanings due to regional differences. ...


History and development of schools

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location runs parallel to the development of unified, modern cultural identity. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Schools existed as far as back as Roman times if not earlier (see roman school). In music history, the Roman School was a group of composers active in Rome from the mid-16th to the mid-17th centuries, most famous for their sacred music and polished polyphony; the most famous was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. ...


As part of its religious indoctrination campaign, Islam was one of the earliest cultures to develop a schooling system in the modern sense of the word.[citation needed] Islam put a lot of emphasis on knowledge and therefore had to develop a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge in purpose built structures. At first the mosque combined both religious performance and learning activities, by the tenth century, however, the Seljuks introduced the first school, or Madrassa as it was called in Arabic, a proper school built independently from the mosque. They were also the first to make the school or Madrassa system a public domain under the control of the caliph. The Nizamiyya madrasa is considered by consensus of scholars to be the earliest surviving school, built towards 1066 CE by Emir Nizam Al-Mulk. [citation needed]


Under the Ottomans, learning was given a new dimension as towns of Bursa and Edirne took over as the main centres of learning respectively. The Ottoman system of Kulliye, a building complex containing a mosque, a hospital, madrassa, and public kitchen and dining areas, was indeed revolutionary making the leaning accessible to a wider public though its free meals, health care and sometimes free accommodation. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ...


The nineteenth century historian, Scott holds that a remarkable correspondence exists between the procedure established by those institutions and the methods of the present day. They had their collegiate courses, their prizes for proficiency in scholarship, their oratorical and poetical contests, their commencements and their degrees. In the department of medicine, a severe and prolonged examination, conducted by the most eminent physicians of the capital, was exacted of all candidates desirous of practising their profession, and such as were unable to stand the test were formally pronounced incompetent. [citation needed] // Places In the United States Fort Scott, Kansas Great Scott Township, Minnesota Scott, Arkansas Scott, Louisiana Scott, New York Scott, Wisconsin (several places) Scott, Ohio Scott AFB, Illinois Scott City, Kansas Scott City, Missouri Scott County, disambiguation Scott Lake, Florida Scott Township, Minnesota Scott Township, Pennsylvania (several places) Outside the...


The law student was interested in an authorization, called ijaza; covering a field of knowledge, that of law, as well as in a license to teach it and issue legal opinions, called ijazat al-tadris wa 'l-fatwa, which he obtained from one master-juris consult.[citation needed]


The word Baccalaurea in French or International Baccalaureate in English was derived from Arabic Bihaqqi Al-Riwayah, the first known written warrant to be given from a teacher to his student.[citation needed]


In Europe during the Middle Ages and much of the Early Modern period, the main purpose of schools (as opposed to universities) was to teach the Latin language. This led to the term grammar school which in the United States is used informally to refer to a primary school but in the United Kingdom means a school that selects entrants on their ability or aptitude. Following this, the school curriculum has gradually broadened to include literacy in the vernacular language as well as technical, artistic, scientific and practical subjects. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... A grammar school is a type of school found in some English-speaking countries; some of which date back to earlier than the 16th century. ...


The one-room schoolhouse is an icon of 19th century rural life in the United States. Williamson School was a one-room school in Blanch, Caswell County, North Carolina One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland and Ireland in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


School security

The safety of staff and students is increasingly becoming an issue for school communities. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre, many school administrators in the United States have created plans to protect students and staff in the event of a school shooting (Some also taking measures such as installing metal detectors). Other security concerns faced by schools include bomb threats and the presence of gangs. Staff and students evacuate Columbine High School shortly after the shooting. ... A school massacre is an incident of attempted mass murder, involving at least one actual death, that occurs at a school. ... A U.S. Army soldier uses a metal detector to search for weapons and ammunition in Iraq Metal detectors use electromagnetic induction to detect metal. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ...


Bullying is also an issue of concern in many schools. A bully is an individual who tends to torment others, either through verbal harassment or physical assaults, or through more subtle methods of coercion. ...


Online schools

For more details on this topic, see Cyberschool.

The rise of internet and the new technologies at the start of the 21st century has meant a new type of school that uses the internet to impart lessons. Online schools also can provide support to traditional schools, as in the case of the School Net Namibia The following schools are the most popular online schools now: Cyberschool is an education program in which normal curriculum is taught in an online forum, instead of inside of a classroom. ... School Net Namibia is a nonprofit provider of internet service, hardware and training to the nations schools. ...

The Art Institute Online (commonly abbreviated AiO) is the online branch of the Art Institute of Pittsburgh. ... DeVry University is a for-profit system of full and part-time career colleges and Technical colleges in the United States and Canada offering a variety of Associates degrees, Bachelors of Arts or Bachelors of Technology degrees at the undergraduate levels up through Masters degrees, and... Liberty University is a Christian liberal arts university in Lynchburg, Virginia. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

Schools in popular culture

Schools in the new age are becoming a larger and larger driving force in popular culture. It is not unheard of to hear of schools coming together to perform large tasks for current world events. Schools and schoolchildren are frequently portrayed in fiction and the media, ranging from Harry Potter and Grange Hill to Battle Royale. See List of fictional schools The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ... Cover of the first book in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone (British version) Harry Potter is an immensely popular series of fantasy novels by British writer J. K. Rowling. ... Grange Hill is a British childrens television drama series which is shown on BBC One. ... Battle Royale is a novel written by Japanese author Koushun Takami. ... While real schools and universities are often prominently featured in works of fiction, this is a list of schools and universities which are entirely fictional, even though some of them are modeled after real world institutions. ...


References

  • Nakosteen, M. (1964). ‘History of Islamic origins of Western Education A.D 800-1350’, University of Colorado Press, Boulder, Colorado,
  • Dodge, B. (1962). ‘Muslim Education in the Medieval Times’, The Middle East Institute, Washington D.C.
  • Makdisi, G. (1980). ‘On the origin and development of the college in Islam and the West’, in Islam and the Medieval West, ed. Khalil I. Semaan, State University of New York Press
  • Ribera, J. (1928). ‘Disertaciones Y Opusculos’, 2 vols. Madrid

See also

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 News stories from Wikinews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

Schools - edit
By age group: Primary school / Elementary schoolJunior high school / Middle school • Secondary school / High school

By funding: Free educationPrivate schoolPublic schoolIndependent schoolIndependent school (UK)Grammar schoolCharter school This is a list of universities, colleges and other educational institutions providing higher education (meaning tertiary, quaternary or in some cases post-secondary education). ... This is a list of lists of schools, sorted by country. ... This is a list of songs about school. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... School in literature Christine Anlauff: Good morning, Lehnitz F. Anstey: Vice Versa Louis Auchincloss: The Rector of Justin Alan Bennett: The History Boys E.R. Braithwaite: To Sir, with Love Sasthi Brata: My God Died Young Anthony Buckeridge: Jennings Goes to School Frances Hodgson Burnett: Sara Crewe (aka A Little... Primary or elementary education consists of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Middle school, (Intermediate/Junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Free education is a policy stance in politics that ensures education for its citizens up to a certain level. ... Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. ... The term public school has different (and in some cases contradictory) meanings due to regional differences. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... An Independent school in the United Kingdom is a school that relies for all or most of its funding on non-governmental sources. ... A grammar school is a type of school found in some English-speaking countries; some of which date back to earlier than the 16th century. ... In the United States, a charter school is a public school that is created via a legal charter. ...


By style of education: Day schoolFree schoolAlternative schoolParochial schoolBoarding schoolCyberschool • K-12 A day school is an institution where children are given educational instruction only during the day and after which children return to their homes. ... A free school (or free skool) is a decentralized network in which skills, information, and knowledge are shared without hierarchy and the institutional environment of formal schooling. ... In education, the phrase alternative school usually refers to a school based on a non-traditional, new, or non-standard educational philosophy. ... A parochial school (or faith school) is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ... A boarding school is a school where some or all students not only study but also live, amongst their peers but away from their home and family. ... Cyberschool is an education program in which normal curriculum is taught in an online forum, instead of inside of a classroom. ... K-12 (Pronounced Kay through twelve or just Kay twelve) is the North American designation for primary and secondary education. ...


By scope: Compulsory educationComprehensive schoolVocational schoolUniversity-preparatory schoolUniversity Compulsory education is education which is required by the government, usually at the national level. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that accepts pupils of all abilities. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also sometimes referred to as a trade school or career college, is one operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
@School provides online primary school education for learning on the internet (850 words)
In the United Kingdom, the National Curriculum begins at the age of five, and primary schools are required to cover English, mathematics, history, geography, science, technology, physical education, music, and art.
In England and Wales, children start school at four or five years old, depending on the policy of the school and the local education authority, and spend seven years in primary schools before transferring to secondary school at the age of 11.
Discipline varies from one school to another, although, in general, young children are expected to respect school rules, such as lining up, tidying up after lessons, and undressing and dressing themselves for physical education classes, in an attempt to promote independence and resourcefulness.
UNESCO >> WebWorld | UNESCO/IFLA School Library Manifesto (797 words)
School library services must be provided equally to all members of the school community, regardless of age, race, gender, religion, nationality, language, professional or social status.
Where the school library shares facilities and/or resources with another type of library, such as a public library, the unique aims of the school library must be acknowledged and maintained.
The school librarian is the professionally qualified staff member responsible for planning and managing the school library, supported by as adequate staffing as possible, working together with all members of the school community, and liaising with the public library and others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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