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Encyclopedia > Scholasticism

Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 11001500. Scholasticism attempted to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a field of study that includes diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics, in which people ask questions such as whether God exists, whether knowledge is possible, and what makes actions right or wrong. ... Western Illinois University A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctor) in a variety of subjects. ... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The primary purpose of scholasticism was to find the answer to a question or resolve a contradiction. It is most well known in its application in medieval theology but was applied to classical philosophy and other fields of study. It is not a philosophy or theology on its own, but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning.

Contents


Scholastic method

The scholastics would choose a book by a renowned scholar, called auctor, as a subject of investigation, for example the Bible. By reading the book thoroughly and critically, the disciples learned to appreciate the theories of the auctor. Then other documents related to the source document would be referenced, such as Church councils, papal letters, anything written on the subject, be it ancient text or contemporary. The points of disagreement and contention between these multiple sources would be written down. These individual sentences or snippets of text are called sententiae. For example, the Bible contains apparent contradictions for Christians, such as the laws regarding what foods are kosher, and these contradictions have been examined by scholars ancient and contemporary, so a scholastic would gather all the arguments about the contradictions, looking at it from all sides with an open mind. The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their... Sententiae is a free and open source project, established on April 19, 2003, based on user-edited quotations in all languages. ...


Once the sources and points of disagreement had been laid out, through a series of dialectics the two sides of an argument would be made whole so that they would be found to be in agreement and not contradictory. This was done in two ways. In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ...


First, through philological analysis. Words were examined and it would be argued they could have more than one meaning, that the author could have intended the word to mean something else. Ambiguity in words could be used to find common ground between two otherwise contradictory statements. Second, through logical analysis which relied on the rules of formal logic to show contradictions did not exist, but were subjective to the reader. Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


Scholastic genres

Scholastics developed two different genres of literature. The first is called questiones or "questions" which is basically as described above, except rather than being confined to a single scholar, or auctor, the scholastic method would be applied to a question. For example, "Is it permissible to kill for self-preservation?" From there any number of sources could be referenced to find the pros and cons of the question. The second genre was called a summa. A summa was a system of all questions so that it would answer every question about Christianity one could ever have. In this way any question could be found in the summa and would reference any other question that might arise. The most famous summa is by Thomas Aquinas called Summa Theologiae, covering the "sum" total of Christian theology. Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Scholastic school

Scholastic schools had two methods of teaching. The first is the lectio. A teacher would read a text, expounding on certain words or ideas, but no questions were allowed, it was a simple reading of a text, the instructors explained, and silence for the students.


The second is the disputatio which is at the heart of the scholastic method. There were two types of disputatios. The first was called the "ordinary" in which the question to be disputed was announced beforehand. The second was the quodlibetal in which the students would propose the question to the teacher without any prior preparation. The teacher would then have to come up with a response. The teacher would cite authoritative texts such as the Bible and prove his position. Students would then rebut the response and this would go back and forth. During this exercise someone would be keeping notes on what was said, the teacher would then summarize the arguments from the notes and present his final position the next day, answering all the rebuttals.


History

Scholastic philosophy usually combined logic, metaphysics and semantics into one discipline, and is generally recognized to have developed our understanding of logic significantly when compared to the older sources. Traditional logic, also known as term logic, is a loose term for the logical tradition that originated with Aristotle and survived broadly unchanged until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the main, semantics (from the Greek and in greek letters σημαντικός or in latin letters semantikós, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ...


In the high scholastic period of 1250 - 1350 scholasticism moved beyond theology into the philosophy of nature, psychology, epistemology and philosophy of science. In Spain, the scholastics also made important contributions to economic theory, which would influence the later development of the Austrian school. However all scholastics were bound by Church doctrine and certain questions of faith could never be addressed without risking trial for heresy. Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, was the precursor of what is now called natural science, especially physics. ... Psychology (Gk: psyche, soul or mind + logos, speech) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind, brain, and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Knowledge. ... The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ... The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that rejects economists overreliance on methods used in natural science for the study of human action, and instead bases its formalism on a logic of action known as praxeology. Alongside this formalism, the school has traditionally advocated an interpretive approach. ...


During the humanism of the 1400s and 1500s, scholastics were put to the background and somewhat forgotten (though revived in Spain in the School of Salamanca). This has been the source of the view of scholasticism as a rigid, formalistic, outdated and improper way of doing philosophy. During the catholic scholastic revival in the late 1800s and early 1900s the scholastics were repopularized, but with a somewhat narrow focus on certain scholastics and their respective schools of thought, notably Thomas Aquinas. In this context, scholasticism is often used in theology or metaphysics, but not many other areas of inquiry. Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on our ability to determine what is right using the qualities innate to humanity, particularly rationality. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1400s ... ---- Events and Trends Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa Spanish arrive in present-day Gulf of Mexico External links 1500-1524 Events 1500-1509 Events Categories: 1500s ... The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... // Events and Trends Technology First flight by the Wright brothers, December 17, 1903. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Scholasticism was concurrent with movements in Jewish philosophy (especially Maimonides) and Islamic philosophy (for example, the work of Averroes). Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 – December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Berber philosopher and physician who wrot in arabic, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...



The following authors and works were commonly used as auctores: An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ...

Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotélēs 384 – March 7, 322 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 – December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Berber philosopher and physician who wrot in arabic, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Boethius teaching his students (initial from a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy) Boethius redirects here. ... This early printed book has many hand-painted illustrations depicting Lady Philosophy and scenes of daily life in fifteenth-century Ghent (1485) Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: Consolatio Philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius written in about the year 524 AD. It has been described as the single most important... Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine (November 13, 354–August 28, 430) was one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. ... Plato ( Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Timaeus is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 B.C. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... Peter Lombards seminal work, on which his reputation rests. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their...

Famous scholastics

(For a more complete listing, see the list of scholastic philosophers.) This is a list of philosophers working in the Christian tradition in Western Europe during the medieval period. ...

// Events World Population 300 million. ... Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109), a widely influential medieval philosopher and theologian, held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Solomon Ibn Gabirol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... Gilbert de la Porrée, frequently known as Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictavieiisis (1070 - September 4, 1154), scholastic logician and theologian, was born at Poitiers. ... Events December 13 - Death of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IX of France is captured by Muslims and has to ransom himself Mabinogion appears Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic Vincent of Beauvais writes proto-encyclopedic The Greater Mirror City of Stockholm founded Alphonso III of Portugal takes Algarve... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Robert Grosseteste (c. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Boetius (or Boethius) of Dacia (sometimes called Boetius of Sweden) was a 13th-century Swedish philosopher. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Portrait of Nicole Oresme: Miniature of Nicole Oresmes Traité de l’espere, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France, fonds français 565, fol. ... Marsilius of Padua (1270 – 1342) was an Italian medieval scholar, born at Padua, and at first studied medicine in his own country. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... Gregory of Rimini (c. ... Francisco de Vitoria (1492-1546) was a Renaissance theologian, founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of Just War. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Leonardus Lessius, or Leys, Flemish moral theologian, was born in Brecht, near Antwerp, now in Belgium, in 1554. ...

Key anti-scholastics

Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English astrologer, philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Robert Boyle The Honourable Robert Boyle (January 25, 1627 - December 30, 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Bernard of Clairvaux, in a medieval illuminated manuscript. ... For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Giusto Sustermans. ... Hobbes redirects here. ...

Contemporary scholasticism

The Canadian essayist John Ralston Saul has argued in his books that much of what passes for post-modernist discourse in universities today is nothing more than a contemporary version of scholasticism. Today's auctores would be the post-structuralist canon consisting of such people as Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Lacan, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Jacques Derrida etc. John Ralston Saul, CC , Ph. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ... Jean Baudrillard (born July 29, 1929) is a cultural theorist, philosopher, and sociologist. ... Cover of Elisabeth Roudinescos biography of Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist. ... Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ... Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, most often referenced as the founder of deconstruction or, by less sympathetic theorists, deconstructionism. His work had a significant impact on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his...


The post-structuralist deconstruction method can be seen as the exercise of this current scholasticism's version of disputatio. The term deconstruction was coined by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in the 1960s and is used in contemporary humanities and social sciences to denote a philosophy of meaning that deals with the ways that meaning is constructed and understood by writers, texts, and readers. ...


Saul is highly critical of this 'revival', stating that the mediaeval scholastics did nothing more than tie up debate in irrelevant details, and that the current version does nothing more than create a variety of technocratic dialects that separates intellectuals from reality through relentless abstraction. Technocrat can refer to: An individual who makes decisions based solely on technical information and not personal or public opinion. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scholasticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1064 words)
Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500.
Scholasticism attempted to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology.
Scholasticism was concurrent with movements in Jewish philosophy (especially Maimonides) and Islamic philosophy (for example, the work of Averroes).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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