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Encyclopedia > Schism

The word schism (IPA: ['sɪzəm] or ['skɪzəm]), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, "to split"), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. A schismatic is a person who creates or incites schism in an organization or who is a member of a splinter group. Schismatic as an adjective means pertaining to a schism or schisms, or to those ideas, policies, etc. that are thought to lead towards or promote schism. More generally, especially outside of religion, the word schism may refer to the separation/split between two or more people, be it brothers, friends, lovers, etc. or any division of a formerly united from the state movement in politics or any other field into two or more disagreeing groups. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...

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Usage within Christianity

The words schism and schismatic have found perhaps their heaviest usage in the history of Christianity, to denote splits within a church or religious body. In this context, schismatic as a noun denotes a person who creates or incites schism in a church or is a member of a splinter church, and schismatic as an adjective refers to ideas and things that are thought to lead towards or promote schism, often describing a church that has departed from whichever communion the user of the word considers to be the true Christian church. These words have been used to denote both the phenomenon of Christian group splintering in general, and certain significant historical splits in particular. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Thus, within Christianity the word schism may refer to:

  • The offense of inciting divisions among Christians.
  • The event of two groups of Christians ceasing to be in communion with each other, so that, whereas they formerly could worship together, they decide they must worship separately because of disagreements between them. See also orthodoxy.
  • The Nestorian Schism, an early schism between Constantine Christianity and Assyrian Christianity.
  • The Great Schism; either of two rifts within the Christian church.
  • See Old believers and Raskol for schism within the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Any Christian communion or sect that has left the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. Which church constitutes the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church has long been disputed: for instance, the Roman Catholic Church claims that title and considers the Eastern Orthodox Communion to be in schism, while the Eastern Orthodox Communion also claims that title and holds that the Catholic Communion is schismatic and heretical; meanwhile, the Protestant movement considers them both to be in error, as does the Restorationist movement, also including the Protestants in that error.

In the early centuries of Christianity, schism was considered by many Christians to be as serious or more serious than heresy. Within the Roman Catholic Church schism is still an act that incurs automatic excommunication as a penalty. Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ... The Nestorian Schism was the split between the Byzantine church of the West and the Assyrian church of the East in the 5th century. ... The Holy Apostolic and Catholic Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... Detail of the painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting a defiant Old Believer arrested by Czarist authorities in 1671. ... Painting by Vasily Perov. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... In Christian theology, One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... The Roman Catholic Church, (also known as the Catholic Church), is the ancient Christian Church led by the Bishop of Rome (commonly called the Pope). ... This article treats the manner in which the Eastern Orthodox Churches are organized, rather than the doctrines, traditions, practices, or other aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from within the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... This article deals with the restoration of Christian authenticity in worship and living; see Supersessionism for a discussion regarding Restorationism in Dispensational Christian views towards Jewish people in the End times. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The Roman Catholic Church, (also known as the Catholic Church), is the ancient Christian Church led by the Bishop of Rome (commonly called the Pope). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shunning. ...


Usage within Islam

The division between Sunni and Shia Islam in CE 632 regarding the rightful successor to the prophet Muhammad, and in 661 and 680 regarding the rightful claimant to the Caliphate. This is distinguied from the liberal movements within Islam, a reform rather than an attempt at schism. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... This article is about the prophet. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... The word reformation generally refers to the improvement (usually intended) in a form of institution or a condition of practices. ...


Usage within politics

The Schism between the anarchists (libertarian socialists) and communists of the International Workingmen's Association; more specifically between their respective leaders: Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the state. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Trolo) (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well known Russian anarchist. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an influential philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ...


Usage within entertainment

Various forms of entertainment have used the term, including:

Sports
  • The split in the sport of rugby football leading to the formation of rugby league and rugby union as separate sports.
Music
Art
Fiction

  Results from FactBites:
 
Schism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (494 words)
The word schism (IPA: ['sɪzəm] or ['skɪzəm]), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, "to split"), means a division or a split, usually in an organization.
The words schism and schismatic have found perhaps their heaviest usage in the history of Christianity, to denote splits within a church or religious body.
The Schism between the anarchists (libertarian socialists) and communists of the International Workingmen's Association; more specifically between their respective leaders: Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx.
East-West Schism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1452 words)
The East-West Schism, known also as the Great Schism (though this latter term sometimes refers to the later Western Schism), was the event that divided Chalcedonian Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Great Schism was not the first schism between East and West; there had, in fact, been over two centuries of schism during the first millennium of the Church.
The schism was ended in 519—over 30 years later—when the Byzantine Emperor Justin I recognised Acacius's excommunication.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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