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Encyclopedia > Schengen agreement

Schengen is a wine-growing village in south-eastern Luxembourg near the point where the borders of Germany, France and Luxembourg come together. ...

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F u l l
I m p l e m e n t a t i o n
     Schengen zone
     Set to implement later
     Police and judicial cooperation only
     Expressed interest
A monument to the Agreement in Schengen, Luxembourg
A monument to the Agreement in Schengen, Luxembourg
A typical Schengen border crossing has no border control post and only a common EU-state sign welcoming the visitor, as here between Germany and Austria. The sign announces entry to the Federal Republic of Germany in German.
A typical Schengen border crossing has no border control post and only a common EU-state sign welcoming the visitor, as here between Germany and Austria. The sign announces entry to the Federal Republic of Germany in German.

The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded between European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic border controls between the participating countries. By the Treaty of Amsterdam, the two agreements themselves and all decisions that have been enacted on their basis have been incorporated into the law of the European Union. This body of legal provisions is referred to as the Schengen Acquis.[1] Subsequent amendments to that acquis, including the Schengen Agreements themselves, have been made in the form of European Union regulations. The main purpose of the establishment of the Schengen rules is the abolition of physical borders among European countries.[2] “UK” redirects here. ... Anthem The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21... For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Cypress. ... Motto: Für Gott, Fürst und Vaterland For God, Prince and Fatherland Anthem: Oben am jungen Rhein Up on the Young Rhine Liechtenstein(circled in inset) on the European continent()  —  [] Capital Vaduz , Largest city Schaan Official languages German Demonym Liechtensteiner, locally Liechter Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy  -  Prince... Motto:  (each main institution has its own motto) Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Romania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bucharest (BucureÅŸti) Official languages Romanian1 Demonym Romanian Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Traian Băsescu  -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-T... Swiss redirects here. ... Swiss redirects here. ... Anthem Inno e Marcia Pontificale(Italian) Hymn and Pontifical March Capital (and largest city) Vatican City1 Official languages Latin2, Italian, French and German. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1876x1317, 188 KB) The monument to the Schengen Treaty in Schengen, from the Luxembourgois Wikipedia Photographer:Cornischong File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1876x1317, 188 KB) The monument to the Schengen Treaty in Schengen, from the Luxembourgois Wikipedia Photographer:Cornischong File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Schengen is a wine-growing village in south-eastern Luxembourg near the point where the borders of Germany, France and Luxembourg come together. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SchengenGrenzeBayern-Tirol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SchengenGrenzeBayern-Tirol. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Border control Border crossing between Germany and The Netherlands Border controls are measures used by a country to monitor or regulate its borders. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The French term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire) is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ...


The Schengen rules apply among most European countries, covering a population of over 400 million and a total area of 4,268,633 km² (1,648,128 sq mi). They include provisions on common policy on the temporary entry of persons (including the Schengen Visa), the harmonisation of external border controls, which are coordinated by the Frontex agency of the European Union, and cross-border police and judicial co-operation. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... Location: Warsaw, Poland Formation: - Signed - Established October 26, 2004 May 1, 2005 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Ilkka Laitinen Official website: http://www. ...


A total of 31 states, including 27 European Union states and four non-EU members (Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland), are subject to all or some of the Schengen rules, and 24 have fully implemented them so far. Ireland and the United Kingdom did not sign up to the original Schengen Convention of 1990 and retained a right to opt out of the application of the rules after their conversion into European Union law. Thus, they have not ended border controls with other EU Member States, but take part in the measures relating to police and judicial co-operation which form part of the Schengen acquis.


Border posts and checks have been removed between the states which form the Schengen area.[3] A common Schengen visa allows tourists or other visitors access to the area. Holders of residence permits to a Schengen state enjoy the freedom of travel to other Schengen states for a period of up to three months.

Contents

Legal basis of the Schengen rules

Provisions in the treaties of the European Union

The legal basis for Schengen in the treaties of the European Union has been inserted in the Treaty establishing the European Community through Article 2, point 15 of the Treaty of Amsterdam. This inserted a new title named "Visas, asylum, immigration and other policies related to free movement of persons" into the treaty, currently numbered as Title IV, and comprising articles 61 to 69.[4][5] The Treaty of Lisbon substantially amends the provisions of the articles in the title, renames the title to "Area of freedom, security and justice" and divides it into five chapters, called "General provisions", "Policies on border checks, asylum and immigration", "Judicial cooperation in civil matters", "Judicial cooperation in criminal matters", and "Police cooperation".[6] The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Two Schengen agreements

The two agreements which are commonly referred to as Schengen Agreement are:

  • The 1985 Agreement between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders,[7] also known as Schengen I, which provided for simple visual surveillance of private vehicles crossing the common border at reduced speed, without requiring such vehicles to stop. Persons who did not have to meet specific requirements at internal borders, as, for example, visa requirements, could use this fast lane procedure by affixing to the windscreen a green disc measuring at least eight centimetres in diameter.
  • The 1990 Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders,[8] also known as Schengen II or CIS.

These two agreements have been republished in the Official Journal of the European Communities through the Council decision concerning the definition of the Schengen acquis[1] and form the most important part of the secondary legislation regarding Schengen of the EU. The Official Journal of the European Communities is the gazette of record for the European Union. ... Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by ministers under powers given to them by parliamentary acts (primary legislation) in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ...


European Union Regulations

Other relevant legal texts which form part of the Schengen laws include:

  • The Schengen Borders Code,[9] repealing the parts of the Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement, dealing in detail with border controls and the prerequisites for entry by third-country nationals;
  • The Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001,[10] dealing with the visa requirement for short stays in the Schengen area according to nationality;
  • The Council Regulation (EC) No 693/2003,[11] which deals with the transit from the main part of Russia to the Kaliningrad area;
  • The Common Consular Instructions on Visas for the Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts,[12] which contains rules of procedure for the issuance of visa;
  • The Council Regulation (EC) No 1683/95 of 29 May 1995 laying down a uniform format for visas;[13]
  • The Regulation (EC) No 1987/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on the establishment, operation and use of the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II), governing the introduction of the second generation of the Schengen Information System.[14]
  • The Council Regulation (EC) No 343/2003, dealing with the question which member state is responsible to handle an asylum request lodged by a third-country national,[15] also referred to as Dublin II;
  • The Commission Regulation (EC) No 1560/2003,[16] setting out detailed procedures for the application of the Dublin II regulation.

Rules concerning border controls

Travel without internal border controls

Before the implementation of the Schengen II Agreement, citizens of western Europe could travel to neighbouring countries by showing their national ID card or passport at the border. Nationals of some countries were required to have separate visas for every country in Europe; thus, a vast network of border posts existed around the continent which disrupted traffic and trade—causing delays and costs to both businesses and visitors.


Since the implementation of the Schengen rules, border posts have been closed (and often demolished) between participating countries. The Schengen Borders Code requires participating states to remove all obstacles to free traffic flow at internal borders.[17] Thus, road traffic is no longer delayed; road, rail and air passengers no longer have their identity checked by border guards when crossing borders (however, security controls by carriers are still permissible).[18] Citizens of non-EU, non-EEA countries who wish to visit Europe, and who require a visa to enter the Schengen area, receive a common Schengen Visa from the Embassy or Consulate of the Schengen country of their main destination, or, if such main destination cannot be identified, the state they intend to visit first; they may then visit any of the Schengen countries without hindrance. However, in some exceptional cases, visas can be restricted to just certain member states. EEA may refer to one of the following: European Economic Area, a economic association of European states. ...

Regulation of external border controls

Not only does the Schengen Agreement remove border checks between participating countries, but the external controls which are exercised by the participating nations are also co-ordinated by the European Union's Frontex agency, and subject to common rules. The details of border controls, surveillance, and the conditions under which permission to enter into the Schengen area may be granted are exhaustively detailed in a European Union regulation called Schengen Borders Code.[19] In particular, Article 7 of the Schengen Borders Code provides that all persons crossing external borders — inbound or outbound — have to be subject to a minimum check, this including the establishment of identities on the basis of the production or presentation of their travel documents, while third-country nationals must be subjected to thorough checks, which also concern all entry requirements (documentation, visa, employment status, means of subsistence, absence of security concerns). The exit controls allow, inter alia, to determine if a person leaving the area is in possession of a document valid for crossing the border, whether that person had extended his or her stay beyond the permitted period, and to check against alerts on persons and objects included in the Schengen Information System and reports in national data files, e. g. if an arrest warrant had been issued by a Schengen State.[20] The Ceuta border fence is a separation barrier between Morocco and the Autonomous City of Ceuta, in Spain. ... Location: Warsaw, Poland Formation: - Signed - Established October 26, 2004 May 1, 2005 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Ilkka Laitinen Official website: http://www. ... A regulation is a legislative act of the European Union which becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously. ...

Passport control at an external Schengen border in Finland
Passport control at an external Schengen border in Finland

The borders against non-Schengen countries are to be carefully controlled, and every person crossing those external borders must carry an accepted means of identification, such as a passport, other travel document, or – in case of EU and Swiss citizens – national identity card.[21] All persons who are third-country nationals have to be checked against the Schengen Information System, a database containing information about undesired or wanted people, stolen passports, and other items of interest to border officials;[22] while checks on EU citizens and other persons enjoying the right of free movement in the EU may only be conducted on a "non-systematic" basis.[23] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The border controls are located at roads crossing a border, at airports, at seaports, and onboard trains.[24] Usually there is no fence along borders in the terrain, but there are exceptions like the Ceuta border fence. However, surveillance camera systems, also equipped infrared technology, are located at some more critical spots, for example at the border between Slovakia and Ukraine.[25] Along the southern coast of the Schengen countries, coast guards are making a substantial effort to prevent private boats from entering without permission. The Ceuta border fence is a separation barrier between Morocco and the Autonomous City of Ceuta, in Spain. ...


The Schengen law stipulates that all transporters of passengers across the Schengen external border must check, before boarding, if the passenger has the travel document and visa required for entry.[26] This is to prevent persons from applying for asylum at the passport control, after already having landed within the Schengen area. Since all asylum applications filed on EU territory must be investigated, and since it often proves to be difficult to deport persons who already have landed, the Schengen states want to prevent third-country nationals who do not have the papers required for entry into the area from even reaching a passport control point on their territory. Because this system proves to be effective, unsafe boats, containers, or other unconventional and life-endangering means of transport are used for people smuggling. Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... People smuggling is a term which is used to describe the illegal and organised smuggling of people across international boundaries, usually for financial gain. ...


Entry conditions for third-country nationals

The Schengen rules include uniform rules as to the type of visas which may be issued for a short-term stay, not exceeding 90 days, on the territory of one, several or all of those States. The rules also include common requirements for entry into the Schengen area, and common procedures for refusal of entry. Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ...


According to the Schengen Borders Code, the conditions applying to third-country nationals for entry are as follows:[27]

  • The third-country national is in possession of a valid travel document or documents authorising them to cross the border; the acceptance of travel documents for this purpose remains within the domain of the member states;[28]
  • He or she either possesses a valid visa (if required) or a valid residence permit;
  • He or she can justify the purpose and conditions of the intended stay, and they have sufficient means of subsistence, both for the duration of the intended stay and for the return to their country of origin or transit to a third country into which they are certain to be admitted, or are in a position to acquire such means lawfully;
  • There has not been issued an alert in the Schengen Information System for refusal of entry, and
  • he or she is not considered to be a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any of the Schengen states.

In other words, mere possession of a Schengen visa does not confer automatic right of entry. It will only be granted if the other transit or entry conditions laid down by EU legislation have been met, notably the means of subsistence that aliens must have at their disposal, as well as the purpose and the conditions of the stay. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields Cultivation Horticulture - plant cultivation, based on the...


Right of stay

A third-country national who has been granted entry may stay in the Schengen area and travel between Schengen states as long as the conditions for entry are still fulfilled.[29] For stays which exceed three months, so-called national visa (category D) are issued by the relevant Schengen state where the third-country national intends to reside. Any third-country national who is a holder of a residence permit of a Schengen state, which is granted for a stay which exceeds three months, is allowed to travel to any other member state for a period of up to three months.[30]


Schengen visa

EU (Schengen) visa lists      EU member states     Special visa-free provisions (Schengen Agreement, OCT or other)     Visa-free access to the Schengen states for 90 days     Visa required to enter the Schengen states     Visa-status unknown
EU (Schengen) visa lists      EU member states     Special visa-free provisions (Schengen Agreement, OCT or other)     Visa-free access to the Schengen states for 90 days     Visa required to enter the Schengen states     Visa-status unknown

The requirement of a visa for short-term stays in the Schengen area which do not involve employment or any self-employed activity are set out in an EU regulation.[31] The list of the nationals which require a visa for a short-term stay (so-called Annex I list) and the visa-free nationals (so-called Annex II list) refers to the nationality of the third-country national and not to the passport or travel document he or she is holding (with an exception to holders of Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR passport holders, and another exception vis a vis holders of refugee travel documents, where the country which issued the travel document is relevant). Third-country nationals who intend to take up employment or self-employed activity may be required by member states to obtain a visa even if they are listed on the Schengen visa-free list; usual business trips are normally not considered employment in this sense.[32] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) based on lists from here [1] I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) based on lists from here [1] I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The European Union has unified visa policy as part of the Schengen acquis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... Two parts of the Treaty of Rome deal with special relationships: Article 299 which sets out the territories to which the treaty applies, supplemented by the accession treaties; and Articles 182-188 and Annex II on association with the non-European countries and territories which have special relations with the... The Cover of HKSAR ePassport Inside of the HKSAR ePassport Personal Data Page Under Fluorescent Light Visa Pages Back Cover with Contactless Chip The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport (Traditional Chinese: ) is the official international travel document issued to Chinese citizen who have the right of abode in the... Black and white copy of the MSAR passport cover. ...

Common Schengen Visa, new type (allowing photograph of bearer to be inserted)
Common Schengen Visa, new type (allowing photograph of bearer to be inserted)

The uniform visa is granted in the form of a sticker affixed by a Member State onto a passport, travel document or another valid document which entitles the holder to cross the border, provided that the entry conditions are met at the time of entry. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... For other uses, see Schengen. ...


It is granted in four categories:[33]

  • Category A refers to an airport transit visa. It is required for some few nationals for passing through the international transit area of airports during a stop-over or transfer between two sections of an international flight. The requirement to have this visa is an exception to the general right to transit without a visa through an international transit area of an airport.
  • Category B refers to a transit visa. It is required by nationals who are not visa-free for travelling from one non-Schengen state to another non-Schengen state, in order to pass through the Schengen area. Each transit may not exceed five days.
  • Category C refers to a short-term stay visa. They are issued for reasons other than to immigrate. They entitle holders to carry out a continuous visit or several visits whose duration does not exceed three months in any half-year from the date of first entry.
  • Category D refers to national visa. They are issued by a Schengen state in accordance with its national legislation as with respect to the conditions (however, a uniform sticker is used). The national visa allows the holder to transit from a non-Schengen country to the Schengen state which issued the national visa within five days. Only after the holder has obtained a residence title after arrival in the destination country (or a different visa), he may again travel to other Schengen countries.
  • Category D+C visa combine the functions of the visa of both categories: They are intended to allow the holder to enter the issuing Schengen state for long-term stay in that state, but also to travel in the Schengen area like a holder of a Category C visa.
  • FTD and FRTD are special visa issued for road (FTD) or rail (FRTD) transit only between mainland Russian Federation and its western exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast.

Under certain conditions, seamen are issued visa at the border in order to board a ship or travel home from a ship in a Schengen harbor. Furthermore, visa may also be issued at the border in exceptional cases, e.g. emergencies.[34] Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ...


To obtain a Schengen visa, a traveller must take the following steps:

  • He or she must first identify which Schengen country is the main destination. This determines the State responsible for deciding on the Schengen visa application and therefore the embassy or the consulate where the traveller will have to lodge the application.[35] If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should file the visa application at the embassy or consultate of the Schengen country of first entry.[36][37] If the Schengen State of the main destination or first entry does not have a diplomatic mission or consular post in his country, the traveller must contact the embassy or the consulate of another Schengen country, normally located in the traveller's country, which represents, for the purpose of issuing Schengen visas, the country of the principal destination or first entry.
  • The traveller must then present the Schengen visa application to the responsible embassy or consulate. A harmonised form is to be submitted, together with a valid passport and, if necessary, the documents supporting the purpose and conditions of the stay in the Schengen area (aim of the visit, duration of the stay, lodging). The traveller will also have to prove his or her means of subsistence, i.e., the funds available to cover, on the one hand, the expenses of the stay, taking into account its duration and the destination, and, on the other hand, the cost of the return to the home country. Certain embassies or consulates sometimes call the applicant to appear in person in order to explain verbally the reasons for the visa application.
  • Finally, the traveller must have travel insurance that covers, for a minimum of €30,000, any expenses incurred as a result of emergency medical treatment or repatriation for health reasons. The proof of the travel insurance must in principle be provided at the end of the procedure, i.e. when the decision to grant the Schengen visa has already been made. This type of insurance can be easily found on the web from well-known insurers.

Requirements for family members of an EU citizen differ from those indicated above. In general for family members of an EU citizen, there is no requirement to provide information about one's employment, or to prove one's means of subsistence. In addition, no fee is required for the visa to be issued. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... A consulate (or consular office) is a form of diplomatic mission in charge of matters related to individual people and businesses, in other words issues outside inter-governmental diplomacy. ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...


Internal movement of holders of a residence title

Common Model of a Schengen Residence Permit, here: Form for a German long-term residence permit
Common Model of a Schengen Residence Permit, here: Form for a German long-term residence permit

Third-country nationals who are holders of a residence title of a Schengen state may freely enter into and stay in any other Schengen state for a period of up to three months.[38] For a longer stay, they require a residence title of the target member state. Third-country long-term residents of a member state enjoy, under certain circumstances, the right to settle in other member states.[39] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Local border traffic at external borders

Schengen States which share an external land border with a non-Schengen country are authorized by virtue of an EU regulation to conclude or maintain bilateral Agreements with neighbouring third countries for the purpose of implementing a local border traffic regime.[40] The regulation stipulates the conditions which have to be met by such agreements. The agreements have to provide for the introduction of a local border traffic permit under the relevant scheme. Such permits must contain the name and a picture of the holder, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may be comprised of any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border).


Holders of such permit may cross the external borders, once there has not been issued an alert in the Schengen Information System for refusal of entry, and they do not form a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any of the Member States. The question whether an additional identity document is required for crossing the border (and which type may be used), and for how long the permit holder may stay in the border area, may be regulated bilaterally. The maximum permitted period of stay may not exceed three months. The features of the form of the permit have to comply with the uniform format for residence permits for third-country nationals. Permits are valid from one up to five years. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Permits may only be issued to persons having been lawful residents in the border area of a country neighbouring a Schengen State for a period specified in the relevant bilateral agreement, which generally has to be at least one year. The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons frequently to cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime, and must meet the specific entry requirements as described above. Schengen states must keep a central register of the permits issued and have to provide immediate access to the relevant data to other Schengen states.


Before the conclusion of an agreement with a neighboring country, the Schengen state must receive approval from the European Commission, which has to confirm the legality of its draft. The agreement may only be concluded if the neighbouring country grants at least reciprocal rights to the relevant Schengen state, and readmission of illegally staying persons from the neighbouring country is ensured. For local border traffic, fast lanes or special border crossings may be introduced. Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Special arrangement on entry of Croatians

There is an exception to these rules in the case of citizens of Croatia. Based on the Pre-Schengen bilateral agreements between Croatia and its neighboring EU countries (Italy, Hungary and Slovenia), Croatian citizens are allowed to cross the border with ID card only (passport not obligatory).[41] There were many disputes about whether Croatian citizens would lose this right on 21 December 2007 when Schengen control was established on the Croatian land borders with Hungary and Slovenia, as well as on the Croatian sea border with Italy. Many people living near the border cross it several times a day (some work across the border, or have land on the other side of the border), especially on the border with Slovenia, which was unmarked for more than 40 years when Croatia and Slovenia were both part of Yugoslavia. As Croatia is about to join EU in a matter of years, an interim solution, which got the green light from the European Commission, was found: every Croatian citizen is allowed to cross the Schengen border into Hungary, Italy or Slovenia with an ID card and an evidention card that is issued by Croatian police at border exit control. Police authorities of Hungary, Italy or Slovenia will then stamp the evidention card both on entry and on exit. Croatian citizens, however, are not allowed to enter any other Schengen agreement countries without a valid passport and entry stamp, though they are allowed to travel between Hungary, Italy and Slovenia. This practice will be abandoned once Croatia becomes an EU member state, which will allow its citizens to enter any member country with an ID card only. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Temporary reintroduction of internal border controls

A Schengen state is permitted by articles 23-31 of the Schengen Borders Code to reinstate border controls for a short period if deemed in the interest of national security, but has to follow a consultation procedure before such action. This occurred in Portugal during the 2004 European Football Championship and in France for the ceremonies marking the 60th anniversary of D-Day. It was used again by France shortly after the London bombings in July of 2005. Finland briefly reinstated border controls during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in August 2005. Germany used it for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and again in 2007 for the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm. Euro 2004 Logo The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly called Euro 2004, was held in Portugal between 12 June and 4 July 2004. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Helsinki Olympic Stadium at the opening day of the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. ... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany. ... Burg Hohenzollern, Heiligendamm Haus Mecklenburg, Heiligendamm Kurhaus, Heiligendamm Heiligendamm is part of Bad Doberan, situated on the Baltic Sea coast in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in Germany. ...


Internal controls still permissible

Air security

When travelling by air between Schengen countries, identification (usually passport or national ID card) is requested by some airports or carriers. This is not based a Schengen rule, and permissible under the Schengen Borders Code, as long as a legal requirement to identify passengers is not related to the fact that their flight will cross an internal border. For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... China ID card, front (top) back (bottom). ...


ID checks at hotels and other places

According to the Schengen rules, hotels and other types of commercial accommodation must register all foreign citizens, including citizens of other Schengen states, by requiring the filling of a registration form with their own hand. This does not apply to accompanying spouses and minor children or members of travel groups. In addition, a valid identification document has to be produced to the hotel manager or staff.[42] The Schengen rules do not provide further standards, thus, the Schengen states are free to regulate further details on the content of the registration forms, and the identity documents which are acceptable for identification, and may also require the persons exempted from registration by Schengen laws to be registered. Enforcement of these rules varies by country.


Customs control

While border controls serve the purpose of checking whether a person meets the entry and exit requirements, a customs border control relates to the goods that are transported across a border. While the EU (and preceding Communities) always enjoyed the exclusive competence of regulating customs procedures, the Schengen II Convention was originally drafted as an international treaty outside the scope of the EU. Thus, the contracting states had to find a solution for the abolishment of customs controls without being competent for regulating this matter. To this end, Article 120 of the Schengen II Convention provided (and still provides) that the contracting parties had to ensure that controls of goods "do not unjustifiably impede the movement of goods at internal borders". The parties had to facilitate the movement of goods across internal borders by providing for clearance of goods when goods were cleared through customs for home use. Although the clearance could, according to the Convention, be conducted either within the country or at the internal borders, the Schengen states had to encourage customs clearance within their respective territories. As far as such simplifications could not be achieved, the Schengen states bound themselves to agree on an alteration of existing rules either amongst themselves or within the framework of the European Community.[43]


Nowadays, the European Union has abolished not only customs controls, but also other procedures for the administrative processing of goods at internal borders, e.g. for internal taxation, leaving no checks at the borders between EU states.


At borders between the European Union Value Added Tax Area and those zones of the EU that lie outside it, the presence of customs authorities is permitted. Customs are also present in connection with travel within one single member state, if a part of that state is located outside the EU common customs area; this e.g. between Heligoland and mainland Germany. However, the presence of customs authorities at such borders would not mean that persons and goods passing the borders may be checked beyond the scope of spot checks, or on the basis of available intelligence, and such checks have to be non-systematic in order to comply with the Schengen Borders Code. The European Union Value Added Tax Area is an area consisting of the all European Union member states and certain non-member states where Value Added Tax (VAT) is levied as if the entire zone was one country. ... For the landscape in Norway, see Helgeland. ...


With respect to travel between EU members where one is non-Schengen, there are identity (passport) checks, but no customs checks; this applies, for instance, between Ireland or the U.K. and the European Continent.


Since the customs forces form the financial police of a state, some countries allow their customs authorities to conduct routine inland checks on persons, vehicles, and goods, e.g., to detect untaxed goods, illegal workers, or persons abusing social benefits.


Norway and Iceland

There are two states that have fully implemented the Schengen agreements but are not EU states, namely Norway and Iceland. Even though they belong to the European Economic Area, some administrative handling of goods imported from the EU may still be required at their borders. Private persons are only allowed to bring small amounts of goods and alcohol over the border tax-free. (Within the EU, any amount of goods and alcohol meant for personal use may be taken across borders tax-free.)  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Thus, the original provisions of the Schengen II Convention which regulate controls of goods originally could not be — and were not — set into force with relation to Norway and Iceland.[44]


However, the Schengen Borders Code, which became law after the association of Norway and Iceland, now provides that any police measures at the border may not "have an effect equivalent to border checks". Checks are, inter alia, permitted when they do not have border control as an objective, are based on general police information and experience regarding possible threats, are devised and executed in a manner clearly distinct from systematic checks on persons at the external borders, or if they are carried out on the basis of spot-checks.[45] Since a border check is defined as any check carried out at border crossing point, to ensure that persons, including their means of transport and the objects in their possession, may be authorised to enter or leave the territory,[46] routine custom controls are not permissible at internal Schengen borders. The Schengen Borders Code does not provide for any exemption of its scope of application in relation to Norway and Iceland, and is expressly applicable to those two countries.


Notwithstanding this, the authorities of Iceland are of the opinion, that they may enforce the same level of customs procedures towards all travellers entering an leaving the country, as the country is not a part of the EU customs union.[47] A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ...


Switzerland

Switzerland, which belongs neither to the EU nor to the European Economic Area, has been associated to the Schengen area and is set to implement the Schengen rules by November 2008.[48] Similarly to the arrangements made between the EU, Norway, and Iceland, the accession agreement concluded between the EU and Switzerland provides for an exemption of the application of the rules concerning controls of goods at borders.[49] However, the much stricter provisions in the Schengen Borders Code providing for the abolition of internal border checks do not contain any exemption with respect to Switzerland. The Swiss authorities are of the opinion that they will not be entitled to perform systematic customs or other checks on persons for the mere reason that they cross the border, once the Schengen rules will have been implemented in Switzerland; they are planning to continue to perform spot-checks, which are based on risk analysis of the authorities.[50]  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Sweden and Finland

Sweden and Finland, members of the EU and of the Schengen area, still maintain some customs checks in order to control the smuggling of drugs and alcohol. In accordance with the Schengen Borders Code, this is permissible, as long as cars are only stopped when a suspicion of smuggling has been established.[51] Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rules concerning police co-operation

The Schengen rules also include provisions for sharing intelligence, such as information about people, lost and stolen documents, vehicles, via the Schengen Information System. This means that potentially problematic persons cannot 'disappear' simply by moving from one Schengen country to another. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Administrative Assistance

According to Article 39 of the Schengen II Convention, police administrations of the Schengen States are required to grant each other administrative assistance in the course of the prevention and detection of criminal offences according to the relevant national laws and within the scope of their relevant powers. They may cooperate through central bodies or, in case of urgency, also directly with each other. The Schengen provisions entitle the competent ministries of the Schengen States to agree on other forms of cooperation in border regions.


With respect to actions which imply constraint or the presence of police officers of a Schengen State in another Schengen State, specific rules apply.


Cross-border observation

Under Article 40 of the Schengen II Convention, police observation may be continued across a border if the person observed is presumed to have participated in an extraditable criminal offence. Prior authorization of the second state is required, except if the offence is a felony as defined in Article 40 (7) of the Schengen II Convention, and if urgency requires the continuation of the observation without prior consent of the second state. In the latter case, the authorities of the second state must be informed before the end of the observation in its territory, the request for consent has to be handed over as soon as possible, and the observation has to be terminated on request of the second state, or if consent has not been granted after five hours. The police officers of the first state are bound to the police laws of the second state, must carry identification which shows that they are police officers, and are entitled to carry their service weapons. They may not stop or arrest the observed persons, and must report to the second state after the operation has been finished. On the other hand, the second state is obliged to assist the enquiry subsequent to the operation, including judicial proceedings.


Hot pursuit

Under Article 41 of the Schengen II Convention, police from one Schengen state may cross national borders to chase their target, if it is not possible to notify the police of the second state prior to entry into that territory, or if the authorities of the second state are unable to reach the scene in time to take over the pursuit. The Schengen States may declare if they restrict the right to hot pursuit into their territory in time or in distance, and if they allow the neighboring states to arrest persons on their territory. However, the second state is obliged to challenge the pursued person in order to establish the person's identity or to make an arrest if so requested by the pursuing state. The right to hot pursuit is limited to land borders. The pursuing officers either have to be in uniform, or their vehicles have to be marked. They are permitted to carry service weapons, which may be used only in self-defence. After the operation, the first state has to report to the second state about its outcome.


Responsibility and rights

Under Article 42 of the Schengen II Convention, police officers of a state which became victims of a criminal offence in another Schengen state while on duty there, enjoy the same right of compensation as an officer of the second state. According to Article 43 of the Schengen II Convention, the state which employs a police officer is liable towards that state for damages for illegal actions performed in another state by such police officer.


Liaison officers

Article 47 of the Schengen II agreement provides for the permanent deployment of liaison officers to other Schengen states.


Further bilateral measures

Many neighboring Schengen states have introduced further bilateral measures for police cooperation in border regions, which are expressly permitted under Article 39 subsection 5 of the Schengen Agreement. Such cooperation may include joint police radio frequencies, police control centres, and tracing units in border regions.[52] Furthermore, police laws of some Schengen States allow for the ad hoc conferment of police powers to police officers of other EU states.[53]


Prüm Convention and Schengen III Regulation

An agreement was signed on 27 May 2005 by Germany, Spain, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, and Belgium at Prüm, Germany. This agreement, based on the principle of availability which began to be discussed after the Madrid bomb attack on 11 March 2004, could enable them to exchange all data regarding DNA and fingerprint data of concerned persons and to cooperate against terrorism. Furthermore, it contains provisions for the deployment of armed sky marshals on intra-Schengen flights, joint police patrols, entry of (armed) police forces into the territory of another state for the prevention of immediate danger, cooperation in case of mass events or disasters. Furthermore, the police officer responsible for an operation in a state may, in principle, decide inhowfar the police forces of the other states which take part in the operation may use their weapons or exercise other police powers. Sometimes known as the Prüm Convention, this treaty is becoming known as the Schengen III Agreement. It was adopted into EU regulation for Schengen states in June 2007, as far as its provisions fall under the third pillar of the EU.[54] With respect to subject matters which are to be regulated within the first pillar of the EU, the implementation would require an initiative from the European Commission, which enjoys the monopoly on legislative initiative in that pillar. The Commission has not made use of its right to initiative with regard to such content of the Prüm Convention. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Pruem. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article is about human fingerprints. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Sky marshal (also known as air marshal or flight marshal) is a popular term for an undercover armed guard on board a commercial aircraft, to counter aircraft hijackings (skyjackings). Many carriers are known to have sky marshals on board on selected flights, for example, Swiss (since 1970; formerly Swissair), El...  Implementing countries  Implementing through partnership with a signatory state  Members implementing from 21 December 2007 (overland borders) and 29 March 2008 (seaports and airports)  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just... For industry and economic regulation laws, see European Community regulation. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Legislative initiative is the constitutionally defined power to propose law proposals (bills). ...


Judicial cooperation

Direct Legal Assistance

The Schengen states are obliged to grant each other legal assistance in criminal justice with respect to all types of offences and misdemeanors (Article 49 of the Schengen II Convention), this including tax and other fiscal offences (Article 50 of the Schengen II Convention), except for certain small crimes, as defined in Article 50 of the Schengen II Convention. All Schengen states may serve court documents by mail to another Schengen State, but must attach a translation, if there is reason to believe that the addressee would not understand the original language of the document served (Article 52 of the Schengen II Convention). Requests for legal assistance may be exchanged directly between the judicial authorities of the Schengen states, without having to use diplomatic channels (Article 53 of the Schengen II Convention).


In Articles 54 to 58 of the Schengen II Convention, detailed rules concerning the application of the principle that no person may be sentenced twice for the same criminal offence in the Schengen States are laid down. Articles 59 to 69 of the Schengen II Convention contain rules concerning extradition between Schengen States and the enforcement of prison sentences which were handed down in one state in a different state.


Controlled substances

In Articles 67 to 76 of the Schengen II Convention, rules are laid down with respect to the traffic of controlled substances. The Schengen states are obliged to prosecute illegal trade in narcotics. They have to provide for the forfeiture of profits which derive from illegal trade of controlled substances. The control of cross-border legal trade in such substances has to be exercised in the territory, not at the borders. Persons are permitted to transport controlled substances into the territory of other Schengen states if they carry proper official documentation of an according authorization from a Schengen state, e.g. a medical prescription for narcotics.


Weapons and ammunition

In Articles 77 to 91 of the Schengen II Convention, the control of weapons and ammunition are set out in detail. Regulations which weapons may only be possessed with a valid licence, and which weapons are free, are either contained in the convention itself or may be subject to further legislation on EU (Schengen) level. Accordingly, the Schengen rules also harmonize the prerequisites for granting permits to produce, purchase, and trade in weapons and ammunition. The according Schengen rules are supplemented by the Council Directive 91/477/EEC of 18 June 1991 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons,[55] which introduced a European Firearms Pass which entitles the holder to carry a firearm into the territory of other Member States.


Status of membership and implementation

As of 21 December 2007, 24 states and Monaco (treated as part of France) had abolished border controls on persons among themselves, an increase from 15 on 20 December 2007. The nine new countries which entered the Schengen travel area in 2007 were: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.[56] Any non-Schengen traveller having a valid Schengen visa has been allowed to travel throughout these 25 countries from their accession. These states all entered the EU three years previously. They were required to upgrade their border checks with non-Schengen states before border controls would be dropped with them. Cyprus, which entered the EU along side these other states, did not meet the criteria and thus has requested a delay for a year, while Romania and Bulgaria, who only joined the EU in 2007, are still bringing their border controls up to the required standard. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prior to the 2007 expansion, the existing fifteen Schengen states were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. All but Iceland and Norway are EU members while the United Kingdom and Ireland have opted out from the core Schengen provisions, preferring to keep control over cross-border flows as a matter of joint responsibility. (See the section on the Status of the United Kingdom and Ireland.) The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... For other uses, see Schengen. ...

Flag State Area (km²) Signed or opted in Date of first implementation Scope of implementation Exempted territories
Flag of Austria Austria &&&&&&&&&&083871.&&&&&083,871 1995-04-28 1997-12-01 full
Flag of Belgium Belgium &&&&&&&&&&030528.&&&&&030,528 1985-06-14 1995-03-26 full
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria &&&&&&&&&0110912.&&&&&0110,912 2007-01-01 not yet implemented
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus &&&&&&&&&&&09251.&&&&&09,251 2004-05-01 not yet implemented Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic &&&&&&&&&&078866.&&&&&078,866 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Denmark Denmark &&&&&&&&&&043094.&&&&&043,094 1996-12-19 2001-03-25 full Flag of Greenland Greenlandd
Flag of the Faroe Islands Faroe Islandsd
Flag of Estonia Estonia &&&&&&&&&&045226.&&&&&045,226 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Finland Finland &&&&&&&&&0338145.&&&&&0338,145 1996-12-19 2001-03-25 full
Flag of France France &&&&&&&&&0674843.&&&&&0674,843 1985-06-14 1995-03-26 full all overseas territories
Flag of Germany Germany &&&&&&&&&0357050.&&&&&0357,050 1985-06-14 1995-03-26c full Flag of Germany Büsingene
Flag of Greece Greece &&&&&&&&&0131990.&&&&&0131,990 1992-11-06 2000-03-26 full Flag of GreeceMount Athosf
Flag of Hungary Hungary &&&&&&&&&&093030.&&&&&093,030 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Iceland Icelanda &&&&&&&&&0130000.&&&&&0130,000 1996-12-19 2001-03-25 full
Flag of Ireland Ireland &&&&&&&&&&070273.&&&&&070,273 2000-06-16 2002-04-01 only police and judicial cooperation rules implemented
Flag of Italy Italy &&&&&&&&&0301318.&&&&&0301,318 1990-11-27 1997-10-26 full Flag of Italy Livignog
Flag of Latvia Latvia &&&&&&&&&&064589.&&&&&064,589 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtensteina &&&&&&&&&&&&0160.&&&&&0160 2008-02-28 not yet implemented
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania &&&&&&&&&&065303.&&&&&065,303 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg &&&&&&&&&&&02586.&&&&&02,586 1985-06-14 1995-03-26 full
Flag of Malta Malta &&&&&&&&&&&&0316.&&&&&0316 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands &&&&&&&&&&041526.&&&&&041,526 1985-06-14 1995-03-26 full Flag of Aruba Aruba
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles
Flag of Norway Norwaya &&&&&&&&&0385155.&&&&&0385,155 1996-12-19 2001-03-25 full Flag of Norway Svalbardh
Flag of Poland Poland &&&&&&&&&0312683.&&&&&0312,683 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Portugal Portugal &&&&&&&&&&092391.&&&&&092,391 1992-06-25 1995-03-26 full
Flag of Romania Romania &&&&&&&&&0238391.&&&&&0238,391 2007-01-01 not yet implemented
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia &&&&&&&&&&049037.&&&&&049,037 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia &&&&&&&&&&020273.&&&&&020,273 2004-05-01 2007-12-21b full
Flag of Spain Spain &&&&&&&&&0506030.&&&&&0506,030 1992-06-25 1995-03-26 full
Flag of Sweden Sweden &&&&&&&&&0449964.&&&&&0449,964 1996-12-19 2001-03-25 full
Flag of Switzerland Switzerlanda &&&&&&&&&&041285.&&&&&041,285 2004-10-16 not yet implemented
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom &&&&&&&&&0244820.&&&&&0244,820 1999-05-20 2000-06-02 only police and judicial cooperation rules implemented Flag of Guernsey Guernsey
Flag of the Isle of Man Isle of Man
Flag of Jersey Jersey
and all overseas territories outside of Europe

a States outside the EU that are associated with the Schengen activities of the EU,[57] and where the Schengen rules apply.
b For overland borders and seaports; since 30 March 2008 also for airports.[58]
c East Germany became part of West Germany, joining Schengen, on 3 October 1990. Prior to this it remained outside the agreement.
d Greenland and the Faroe Islands are indirectly included.
e Despite some media reports, Heligoland is not outside Schengen; it is only outside the European Union Value Added Tax Area.
f Mount Athos, an important Orthodox religious site and autonomous region of Greece, has a special exemption from Schengen allowing women to be barred from entry; this is in line with ancient tradition. See article The EU respects the 1,000-year old Mount Athos' prohibition of women visitors. greekembassy.org. Hellenic Republic, Embassy of Greece, Washington DC (2001-07-13). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.; see also Monks see Schengen as Devil's work. BBC News (1997-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
g Livigno maintains customs checks and random passport control.
h However, Jan Mayen is in Schengen.
Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greenland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Faroe_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements doutre-mer and collectivités doutre-mer or DOM-COM) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Büsingen am Hochrhein is a German town entirely surrounded by the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Livigno (Italian: , Romansh: ) is a town in the Alps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guernsey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jersey. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Union Value Added Tax Area is an area consisting of the all European Union member states and certain non-member states where Value Added Tax (VAT) is levied as if the entire zone was one country. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Livigno (Italian: , Romansh: ) is a town in the Alps. ...

Defacto members (open border)
Flag State Since Notes
Flag of Monaco Monaco 1995-03-26 Schengen laws are administered as if Monaco were a part of France, with French authorities carrying out checks at Monaco's sea port.
Flag of San Marino San Marino 1997-10-26 Although not formally part of the Schengen area, has an open border with Italy (although some random checks are made by Carabinieri, Polizia di San Marino and Guardia di Finanza).
Flag of the Vatican City Vatican City 1997-10-26 Has an open border with Italy and has shown an interest in joining the agreement formally for closer cooperation in information sharing and similar activities covered by the Schengen Information System.[59]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Enlargement

Prospective date State
November 2008[48] Flag of Switzerland Switzerland and Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein
2009 (estimated)[60] Flag of Cyprus Cyprus
March 2011 (estimated)[61] Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria[62] and Flag of Romania Romania[63]

The Schengen I agreement was originally signed on 14 June 1985, by five European Community states: France, West Germany and the Benelux countries of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.[64] The Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement, signed on 19 June 1990, put the agreement into practice. The signing of each of those agreements took place near the small town of Schengen in Luxembourg, where the borders of Luxembourg, France, and Germany meet. The second agreement had been signed aboard the ship Princesse Marie-Astrid on the Moselle River, near Schengen. The place of signing gave the treaties their names.[65] However, it took until 26 March 1995 for the agreement to be implemented, by then Portugal and Spain had also signed. Italy and Greece had signed but they did not implement until 1997 and 2000 respectively. Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... Schengen is a wine-growing village in south-eastern Luxembourg near the point where the borders of Germany, France and Luxembourg come together. ... This article is about the river in France, Luxembourg & Germany. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Like these states, all others had delays in their implementation. Austria signed in 1995 and implemented two years later and the Nordic states signed in 1996 and implemented in 2001. The Nordic countries had a previous passport free zone separate from the Community, which is why non-EU members Norway and Iceland are party to Schengen – as well as the undesirable cost of heavy policing on the long border which Norway shares with the EU states Sweden and Finland. Before fully implementing the Schengen laws, each new state will need to have its preparedness assessed in four areas: air borders, visas, police cooperation, and personal data protection. This evaluation process involves a questionnaire and visits of EU experts to selected institutions and workplaces of the country under assessment. The Council of the European Union has reviewed the results between April and September of 2007.[66] Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ...


Notable non-members

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein signed a Schengen-related association with the European Union on February 28, 2008 [67] [68]. The country has an open border with Switzerland (which has also not yet implemented the agreement), but for the time being still conducts border checks on its border with Austria, an EU member. is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


For Switzerland, expecting to implement the Schengen laws on 1 November 2008, the issue of its open border with Liechtenstein had been an important issue. If it would not have been possible for Liechtenstein to implement the Schengen rules at the same time as Switzerland (as some EU states want to use the Schengen enlargement to pressure Liechtenstein over fraud issues), an interim solution would have had to be found, in order to avoid Switzerland introducing border checks with Liechtenstein, even for a short time.[69] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Andorra

Andorra is not integrated into the Schengen area, and border controls remain between it and both France and Spain. Citizens of EU countries require their national identity card to enter Andorra, while anyone else requires a passport or equivalent.[70]Those travellers who need a visa to enter the Schengen area need a multiple-entry visa to visit Andorra, because entering Andorra means leaving the Schengen area.[71]


Status of the United Kingdom and Ireland

The United Kingdom and Ireland are the only two EU members prior to the 2004 enlargement that did not sign up the 1990 Schengen Convention (Schengen II) and which reserved themselves an opt-out in the Treaty of Amsterdam: Although that treaty transferred the existing Schengen rules into the law of the European Union, which is also applicable in the United Kingdom and in Ireland, all provisions which were made under the Schengen treaties did not become applicable in the UK and Ireland. Furthermore, the new EU competence to pass new laws in the areas which were governed by the Schengen rules did not automatically extend to the UK and Ireland. However, the United Kingdom and Ireland may apply for an opt-in to partial or complete application of the Schengen laws.  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which...


The UK and Ireland maintain a Common Travel Area with no border controls; thus Ireland is unable to join Schengen without dissolving this agreement with the UK, and incurring controls at its border with Northern Ireland. The UK remains reluctant to surrender its own border control system. In 1999, the UK made use of the possibility to opt in, and asked to participate in a number of provisions of the Schengen acquis, and this was granted by the EU Council on 29 May 2000, having effect on 2 June 2000, also in Gibraltar.[72] Following that, Ireland made a similar request, which was granted by the EU Council on 28 February 2002, effective 1 April 2002.[73] Therefore, the part of the Schengen rules which cover police and judicial co-operation do apply in the British Isles, but not the regulations covering visas and border controls. The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


The reluctance of the UK government to join the agreement has been criticised by the House of Lords, which accused the government of hampering the fight against cross-border crime due to the inability of the UK to access the Schengen Information System, which contains data on potentially problematic persons, for immigration control purposes.[74] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In October 2007, the UK Government announced plans to introduce an electronic border control system by 2009 and this led to speculation that the Common Travel Area would end.[75] However, in response to a question on the issue, the Irish Taoiseach stated "On the question of whether this is the end of the common travel area and should we join Schengen, the answer is 'No'."[76] The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ...


Mutuality of visa requirements

It is a political goal of the European Union to achieve freedom from visa requirements for citizens of the European Union at least in such countries the citizens of which may enter the Schengen area without visa. To this end, the European Commission negotiates with third-countries, the citizens of which do not require visas to enter the Schengen area for short-term stays, about the abolishment of visa requirements which exist for at least some EU member states. The European Commission involves the members state concerned into the negotiations, and has to frequently report on the mutuality situation to the European Parliament and the Council.[77] The Commission may recommend the temporary restoration of the visa requirement for nationals of the third country in question. Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ...


The European Commission has dealt with the question of mutuality of the abolishment of visa requirements towards third countries on the highest political level. With regard to Mexico and New Zealand, it already has achieved complete mutuality. With respect to Canada, the Commission has achieved visa-free status for all members but Romania and Bulgaria; with respect to the U.S. it suggests to examine the effects of new legislation enacted there, but reserves itself “the right to propose retaliatory measures”.[78] For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Statistics

According to information of the European Commission, which is partly based on partly estimated figures received from the Member States, and which was published in connection with the Commission's plans to introduce a biometric entry and exit registration system in the Schengen zone,[79]

  • there are 1,792 designated and controlled border crossing points at the external EU border; of them, 665 are located at air borders, 871 at sea borders, and 246 at land borders;
  • 880 million persons crossed the external borders of the EU27 in 2005, and 878 million persons did so in 2006; based on the tourism statistics of overnight stays, the statistics lead to a figure of 300 million external border crossings per annum;
  • more than 300,000 persons were refused entry at external EU borders in the year 2006, compared to 280,000 in 2005 and 397,000 in 2004; in most cases, refusal was based on insufficient travel documents or the suspicion of intended illegal immigration;
  • up to 8 million illegal immigrants stayed within the EU in 2006, an estimated 80% of them within the Schengen area;
  • in 2006, 500,000 illegal immigrants were apprehended in the EU, compared to 429,000 in 2005 and 396,000 in 2004, and 75% of the illegal immigrants that were detected on the territory of Member States in the year 2006 were nationals which require a visa to the EU.

According to information of the SaarLorLux Regional Commission, about 167,000 workers commute daily in the Greater Luxembourg Region, crossing an internal Schengen border to get to their workplace.[80] Cross-border commuting in that region makes out 40% of the overall cross-border commuting in the EU15.[81]


History

Pre-Schengen free-travel zones in Europe

Before World War I, one could travel from Paris to Saint Petersburg without a passport.[82] This freedom of movement ended with the war, but several local free-travel zones were later established. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Following Irish independence from the United Kingdom in 1922, no laws were passed requiring a passport for travelling across the newly created international border. The free-travel zone comprising the two countries (the Common Travel Area or CTA) was not codified, or indeed given an official name, until 1997, and then only at the EU level to distinguish it from the Schengen Treaty. See Common Travel Area for further details. This article is about the prior state. ... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man...


In 1944, the governments-in-exile of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (Benelux) signed an agreement to eliminate border controls between themselves; this agreement was put into force in 1948. Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...


Similarly, the Nordic Passport Union was created in 1952 to permit free travel amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and some of their associated territories. The Nordic Passport Union includes Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


Inclusion of the Schengen Laws into the European Union

All states which belong to the Schengen area are European Union members, except Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, which are members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Two EU members (the United Kingdom and Ireland) have opted not to fully participate in the Schengen system (their reasons are outlined above). The main reason that the non-EU states of Iceland and Norway joined was to preserve the Nordic Passport Union (see section Pre-Schengen free-travel zones in Europe). The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... For other uses, see Schengen. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... The Nordic Passport Union includes Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. ...


The Schengen Agreement was originally created independently of the European Union, in part due to the lack of consensus amongst EU members, and in part because those ready to implement the idea did not wish to wait for others to be ready to join. However, the Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated the legal framework brought about meanwhile, the so-called Schengen-Acquis,[83]by the agreement into the European Union framework, effectively making the agreement part of the EU and its modes of legislature. Amongst other things, at first the Council of the European Union, later the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union in the codecision procedure, took the place of the Executive Committee which had been created under the agreement,[84] leading to the result that legal acts setting out the conditions for entry into the Schengen Area can now be enacted by majority vote in the legislative bodies of the European Union. This also concerns the original Schengen Agreement itself, which may be altered or repealed by means of European Union legislation, without such amendments having to be ratified by the signatory states.[85] Thus, the Schengen States which are not EU members have few options to participate in shaping the evolution of the Schengen rules; their options are effectively reduced to agreeing with whatever is presented before them, or withdrawing from the agreement. Future applicants to the European Union must fulfil the agreement criteria regarding their external border policies in order to be accepted into the EU. The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ...


See also

Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ a b The Schengen Acquis had been legally defined by the Council Decision of 20 May 1999 concerning the definition of the Schengen acquis for the purpose of determining, in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Treaty on European Union, the legal basis for each of the provisions or decisions which constitute the acquis (1999/435/EC).
  2. ^ At the Schengen I signing ceremony, the "Belgian secretary of state for European affairs said that the agreement’s ultimate goal was "to abolish completely the physical borders between our countries," while Luxembourg’s minister of foreign affairs called it "a major step forward on the road toward European unity," directly benefiting signatory state citizens and "moving them a step closer to what is sometimes referred to as 'European citizenship'." cited on p.48 of Willem Maas, Creating European Citizens, Rowman & Littlefield 2007 ISBN 978-0-7425-5486-3.
  3. ^ "Schengen area" is the common name for states that have implemented the agreement.
  4. ^ The Treaty of Amsterdam
  5. ^ Consolidated versions of the TEU and the TEC
  6. ^ Treaty of Lisbon, article 2, points 63-68
  7. ^ Agreement between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders.
  8. ^ Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders.
  9. ^ Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code).
  10. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement, original text; this regulation had been amended several times; thus, the lists mentioned in the document linked to is not current.
  11. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 693/2003 of 14 April 2003 establishing a specific Facilitated Transit Document (FTD), a Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD) and amending the Common Consular Instructions and the Common Manual.
  12. ^ Common Consular Instructions on Visas for the Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts
  13. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 1683/95 of 29 May 1995 laying down a uniform format for visas.
  14. ^ Regulation (EC) No 1987/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on the establishment, operation and use of the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II).
  15. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 343/2003 of 18 February 2003 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national
  16. ^ Commission Regulation (EC) No 1560/2003 of 2 September 2003 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 343/2003 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national.
  17. ^ Article 22 of the Schengen Borders Code.
  18. ^ Article 21 (b) of the Schengen Borders Code.
  19. ^ Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2008-01-15..
  20. ^ Article 7 (b) and (c) of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2008-01-15..
  21. ^ Article 7 subsec. 2 of the Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-11-25.; with respect to identification by identity cards cf. Article 5 subsec. 1 of the Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States (English) (2004-04-40). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  22. ^ Article 7 subsection 3 vi of the Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  23. ^ Article 7 subsection 2 subparagraph 3 of the Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  24. ^ Details are set out in Annex VI to the Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  25. ^ One camera at every 186 metres of the border: Stories from Schengen: Smuggling cigarettes in Schengen Slovakia (English) (2008-01-09). Retrieved on 2008-03-09..
  26. ^ Article 26 sec. 1 lit. b of the Schengen II Agreement.
  27. ^ Article 5 of the Schengen Borders Code - Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  28. ^ Cf. Article 6 of Consolidated verion of the Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (English) (2007-01-19). Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  29. ^ Article 19 of the Schengen II Agreement for third-country nationals requiring a visa; Article 20 of the Schengen II Agreement for third-country nationals who do not require such visa.
  30. ^ Article  21 of the Schengen II Agreement.
  31. ^ Consolidated verion of the Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (English) (2007-01-19). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  32. ^ Cf. 17.html Section 17 of the German Aufenthaltsverordnung (German) (2004-11-25). Retrieved on 2007-11-28. in conjunction with 16.html Section 16 of the German Beschäftigungsverordnung (German) (2004-11-22). Retrieved on 2007-11-28..
  33. ^ This is set out in detail in the Common Consular Instructions:Consolidated verion of the Common Consular Instructions on Visas for the Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts (English) (2003-05-01). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  34. ^ Consolidated verion of the Council Regulation (EC) No 415/2003 of 27 February 2003 on the issue of visas at the border, including the issue of such visas to seamen in transit (English) (2003-03-07). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  35. ^ Article 12 sec. 2 sentence 1 of the Schengen II Agreement.
  36. ^ Article 12 sec. 2 sentence 2 of the Schengen II Agreement.
  37. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Embassy of Denmark, New Delhi. Visa requirements for Indians travelling to Denmark.
  38. ^ Article 21 of the Schengen Agreement.
  39. ^ Council Directive 2003/109/EC concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents (English) (2004-01-23). Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  40. ^ Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 laying down rules on local border traffic at the external land borders of the Member States and amending the provisions of the Schengen Convention (English) (2006-12-30). Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  41. ^ See Schengen and Slovenia / Third-country nationals at Republic of Slovenia: Ministry of the Interior: FAQ about Schengen (English). Retrieved on 2008-03-02..
  42. ^ Article 45 of the Schengen II Convention.
  43. ^ Article 120 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders.
  44. ^ Cf. the excemption of the application of Articles 2 (4) and 120 to 125 according to Annex A of the Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis - Final Act.
  45. ^ Article 21 of the Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2008-01-24..
  46. ^ Article 2 No. 10 of the Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2008-01-15..
  47. ^ Information of the airport company of Reykjavik/Iceland: Passport Control & Schengen, section Schengen does not change customs control procedures in the Schengen territory: “Travellers to this country from a European country within the Schengen territory are […] subject to the same regulations as before concerning routine customs inspection in Leifur Eiriksson Terminal or at a harbour in this country.
  48. ^ a b Schengener Informationssystem: Bundesrat legt weiteres Vorgehen fest (German). admin.ch (2007-05-16). Retrieved on 2007-10-22..
  49. ^ In particular, the application of Articles 2 (4) and 120 to 125 of the Schengen II Convention is exempted from application in Switzerland according to Annex A Part 1 of the Agreement between the European Union, the European Community and the Swiss Confederation on the Swiss Confederation's association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis (English). consilium.europa.eu (2004-10-25). Retrieved on 2008-01-23..
  50. ^ Schengen-Abkommen: Auswirkungen auf die Kontrollen an der Schweizer Grenze (German). admin.ch. Swiss Federal Department of Finance (2004-06-21). Retrieved on 2008-01-23..
  51. ^ Cf. Article 21 of the Schengen Borders Code, which allows for such checks “insofar as the exercise of those powers does not have an effect equivalent to border checks”, as further defined in that Article.
  52. ^ Example: Press releases concerning police coopration in the German-Polish border region - Innenminister Schönbohm: Schengen-Erweiterung ein „historisches Glück“ (German) (2007-11-22). Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  53. ^ Cf. Article 24 of the Prüm Agreement (Schengen III Agreement) (German). Retrieved on 2008-01-22., and sec. 64 (4) of the German Federal Police Act.
  54. ^ Controversial data-sharing deal to get the go-ahead. euobserver.com.
  55. ^ Council Directive 91/477/EEC of 18 June 1991 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (English) (1991-09-13). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.; CORRIGENDUM to Council Directive 91/477/EEC of 18 June 1991 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (English) (1993-03-05). Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  56. ^ Council Decision of 6 December 2007 on the full application of the provisions of the Schengen acquis in the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic
  57. ^ This terminology is, e. g., used in the Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis - Final Act (Official Journal EC 1999 No. L 176, p. 36). EU Publications Office. Retrieved on 2008-01-19..
  58. ^ The final step of Schengen enlargement – controls at internal air borders to be abolished in late March. Slovenia's EU Presidency (2008-03-25). Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  59. ^ Vatican seeks to join Schengen borderless zone. euobserver.com.
  60. ^ Με το ένα πόδι εκτός Ε.Ε.. Makarios (2006-12-14). Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
  61. ^ Romania and Bulgaria prepare to join Schengen List (SETimes.com)
  62. ^ Yoncheva, Olga (2007-07-19). Bulgaria Ready to Join Schengen till 2011. News.bg. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  63. ^ Romania tries to join Schengen area by 2011. People's Daily Online. Xinhua (2007-06-27). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  64. ^ "Agreement between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders" (2000-09-22) L 239: 0013-0018. EUR-Lex. Retrieved on 2007-12-27. 
  65. ^ Schengen agreement and the Schengen area
  66. ^ Slovenia to Face Schengen Scrutiny This Year. Slovenia Business Week. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  67. ^ Portal des Fürstentums Liechtenstein - - Medien / Presse - Pressemeldungen
  68. ^ Portal des Fürstentums Liechtenstein - - Medien / Presse - Pressemeldungen
  69. ^ Schweiz soll ab 1. November 2008 bei Schengen dabei sein (German). NZZ.ch (2007-09-19). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  70. ^ Govern d'Andorra Ministeri de Turisme i Medi Ambient. Customs and franchises. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  71. ^ Govern d'Andorra Ministeri de Turisme i Medi Ambient. Frequently asked questions. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  72. ^ 2000/365/EC: Council Decision of 29 May 2000 concerning the request of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis
  73. ^ 2002/192/EC: Council Decision of 28 February 2002 concerning Ireland's request to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis
  74. ^ Government's reluctance to join Schengen Information System weakens battle against cross border crime. House of Lords (2007-03-02). Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  75. ^ Collins, Stephen (2007-10-24). Irish will need passports to visit Britain from 2009. ireland.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  76. ^ "Parliamentary Debates (Official Report - Unrevised) Dáil Éireann" (2007-10-24). Dáil Debate 640 (2). Leinster House, Dublin 2, Ireland: Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 
  77. ^ The details of the procedure are set out in Article 1 sec. 4 and 5 of the Regulation (EC) No. 539/2001 (consolidated version).
  78. ^ Cf. Commission of the European Communities: Third report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on certain third countries' maintenance of visa requirements in breach of the principle of reciprocity, doc. COM(2007) 533 final dated 2007-09-13; cf. p. 10: Involvement of the Canadian Prime Minister; p. 10 to 11: Involvement of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and of the President of the United States; p. 11 to 12: Conclusions.
  79. ^ Press release: New tools for an integrated European Border Management Strategy (English) (2008-02-13). Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
  80. ^ Section GrenzgängerbeschäftigungDas Anwachsen der Grenzgängerströme hält in der Großregion unvermindert an on Government of Luxembourg in the name of the Greater Region of Luxembourg (2008-02-27). Die Grossregion: Arbeitsmarkt (German). Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  81. ^ Section Grenzgängerbeschäftigung on Government of Luxembourg in the name of the Greater Region of Luxembourg (2008-02-27). Die Grossregion: Arbeitsmarkt (German). Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  82. ^ Hawley, Charles. "Hot topic in Germany: aggression in World War I", The Christian Science Monitor, 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  83. ^ The complete acquis had been published here: Official Journal of the European Communities - The Schengen Acquis (English) (2000-09-22). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  84. ^ Council Decision of 22 December 2004 providing for certain areas covered by Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty establishing the European Community to be governed by the procedure laid down in Article 251 of that Treaty (English) (2004-12-31). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..
  85. ^ Example: By article 39 subsection 1 of the Schengen Borders Code, Articles 2 to 8 of the Schengen Agreement had been repealed - Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (English) (2006-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-11-25..

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Schengen — eurotopics
  • The Schengen area — European NAvigator
  • The Schengen Acquis — EUR-Lex
  • Abolition of internal borders and creation of a single EU external frontier European Commission
Screenshot of ENA The European NAvigator (ENA) is an an educative platform providing a lot of information about the History of Europe and its institutions since 1945. ... EUR-Lex is a service on the official website of the European Union. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... This is a timeline of European Union history including the European Economic Community, its de facto successor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first moves towards the establishment of the Union came following the end of the Second World War. ... Out of the two newly founded communities, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the former became the most important community. ... On 1 January 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom became the first countries to join the Communities. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Prodi Commission was the European Commission from 1999 to 2004. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...  Member states  Candidates Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... This article is on the political entity. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIIT) is a proposal adopted on 22 February 2006 by the European Commission to the European Council intended to be a new flagship research university for excellence in higher education, research and innovation. ... Mass media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The following is a List of European Union directives: // Intellectual property Harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (2001/29/EC May 22, 2001) Criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (proposed) Enforcement of intellectual property rights (2004/48/EC... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of tallest buildings in Europe#List of tallest buildings in the European Union. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
EUROPA - Glossary - Schengen (Agreement and Convention) (335 words)
By the Schengen Agreement signed on 14 June 1985, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands agreed that they would gradually remove controls at their common borders and introduce freedom of movement for all nationals of the signatory Member States, other Member States or third countries.
The Agreement and the Convention, the rules adopted on that basis and the related agreements together form the "Schengen acquis".
The Schengen agreements have been extended over time to all 15 old Member States: Italy signed them in 1990, Spain and Portugal in 1991, Greece in 1992, Austria in 1995 and Finland, Sweden and Denmark (under a special arrangement) in 1996.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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