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Encyclopedia > Scattered disc
Eris, the largest known scattered disc object (center), and its moon Dysnomia (left of center).
TNOs and similar bodies

The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our Solar System, thinly populated by icy minor planets known as scattered disc objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The innermost portion of the scattered disc overlaps with the Kuiper belt, but its outer limits extend much farther away from the Sun and farther above and below the ecliptic than the belt proper. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... As of March 2007, there are five[1] known Neptune Trojans (named by analogy to the Trojan asteroids) which have the same orbital period as the planet. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... In astronomy a cubewano (pronounced ) is a Kuiper belt object that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with the giant planet. ... In astronomy, a resonant Trans-Neptunian Object is a Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) in mean motion orbital resonance with Neptune. ... In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object that has a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... Sol redirects here. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ...

Contents

Formation

The scattered disk is still poorly understood, although prevailing astronomical opinion suggests it was formed when Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) were "scattered" by gravitational interactions with the outer planets, principally Neptune, into highly eccentric and inclined orbits. While the Kuiper belt is a relatively "round" and "flat" doughnut of space extending from about 30 AU to 44 AU with its member-objects locked in autonomously circular orbits (cubewanos) or mildly-elliptical resonant orbits (plutinos and twotinos), the scattered disc is by comparison a much more erratic milieu. SDOs can often, as in the case of Eris, travel almost as great a "vertical" distance as they do relative to what has come to be defined as "horizontal". Orbital simulations show SDO orbits may well be erratic and unstable and that the ultimate fate of these objects is to be permanently ejected from the core of the solar system into the Oort cloud or beyond. The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... A cubewano is any substantial Kuiper belt object, orbiting beyond about 41 AU and not controlled by resonances with the outer planets. ... In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other. ... In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object that has a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. ... While a Plutino completes 2 orbits around the Sun in the time it takes Neptune to complete 3 orbits, a Twotino makes 1 orbit around the Sun in the time it takes Neptune to complete 2 orbits. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ...


There is an emerging sense that centaurs may simply be objects just like SDOs that were knocked inwards from the Kuiper belt rather than outwards, making them simply "cis-Neptunian" SDOs. Indeed, some objects like (29981) 1999 TD10 blur the distinction, and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) now lists centaurs and SDOs together.[1] In recognition of this blurring of categorization, some scientists use "scattered Kuiper belt object" (or SKBO) as an umbrella term for both centaurs and member bodies of the scattered disc. The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... The Minor Planet Center operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), which is part of the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) along with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO). ...


Although the TNO 90377 Sedna is officially considered an SDO by the MPC, its discoverer Michael E. Brown has suggested that because its perihelion distance of 76 AU is too distant to be affected by the gravitational attraction of the outer planets it should be considered an inner Oort cloud object rather than a member of the scattered disk.[2] This line of thinking suggests that a lack of gravitational interaction with the outer planets disqualifies a TNO from scattered disc membership, which would create an outer edge somewhere between Sedna and more conventional SDOs like Eris. If Sedna is beyond the scattered disk, it may not be unique; 2000 CR105, which was discovered before Sedna, may also be an inner Oort cloud object or (more likely) a transitional object between the scattered disc and the inner Oort cloud. you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... 2000 CR105 is the third most distant known object in the solar system after 2003 UB313 and 90377 Sedna. ...


Such objects, referred to as detached, have orbits which cannot be created by Neptune scattering. Instead, a number of explanations have been put forward including a passing star[3] or a distant, planet-sized object.[4] See Sedna. you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ...


Orbits

Scattered disk and Kuiper Belt objects.
Scattered disk and Kuiper Belt objects.

The first SDO to be recognized was (15874) 1996 TL66, first identified in 1996 by astronomers based at Mauna Kea. The first object presently classified as an SDO to be discovered was (48639) 1995 TL8, found by Spacewatch. Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_100AU_SDO.svg‎ // Near Scattered Disk Objects. ... Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_100AU_SDO.svg‎ // Near Scattered Disk Objects. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... (15874) 1996 TL66 is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuyper belt. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. ... (48639) 1995 TL8 (also written (48639) 1995 TL8) is a trans-Neptunian object of the Scattered disk object subclass, and posesses a very large satellite. ... Spacewatch is a project at the University of Arizona that specializes in the study of minor planets, and including various types of asteroids and comets. ...


The diagram on the right illustrates the orbits of all known scattered disk objects up to 100AU together with Kuiper belt objects (in grey) and resonant objects (in green). The eccentricity of the orbits is represented by segments (extending from the perihelion to the aphelion) with the inclination represented on Y axis. In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ...


Perihelia

Typically, the scattered objects are characterised by orbits with medium and high eccentricities but their perihelia bring them no closer than 35AU, clear from direct influence of Neptune (red segments). Plutinos (grey segments for Pluto and Orcus) as well as resonant objects at 2:5 (in green) can approach Neptune closer as their orbits are protected by resonances. This perihelion > 35 AU condition is actually one of the defining characteristics of scattered objects.


Extremes

The scattered disc is the place where extreme eccentricity and high inclination appears to be the norm and circular orbits are exceptional. Some exceptional orbits are plotted in yellow

  • 1999 TD10 has an orbit with extreme eccentricity (~0.9), bringing its perihelion near Saturn's orbit. This could qualify it as a Centaur.
  • 2002 XU93 is currently the object with the highest inclination (~78°) in the Scattered Disc.
  • 2004 XR190 has the atypical, near circular (the short yellow segment) orbit, but it is highly inclined.

The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... 2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a newly discovered trans-Neptunian object located in the scattered disc. ...

Some order in the chaos?

Resonant objects (shown in green), are not considered to be members of the scattered disk. Minor resonances are also populated and some computer simulations show that many objects could be actually on weak, higher order resonances (6:11,4:9,3:7,5:12,3:8,2:7,1:4). Quoting one of the researchers:[5] the scattered disk might not be so scattered after all.


Scattered objects versus classical objects

Scattered objects compared with the classical objects.
Scattered objects compared with the classical objects.

The inserts in the diagram on the right compare the eccentricity and inclination of the scattered disk population to the cubewanos. Each small coloured square represents a given range for both the eccentricity e and the inclination i. [6] The relative number of objects within the square is represented with cartographic colours[7] (from small numbers plotted as green valleys to brown peaks). Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_100AU_SDO_stats. ... Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_100AU_SDO_stats. ... A cubewano is a Kuiper belt object, orbiting beyond Pluto and not controlled by resonances with Neptune. ...


The two populations are very different: more than 30% of all cubewanos are on low inclination, near circular orbits (the low bottom corner 'peak') and their eccentricity peaks at 0.25. Scattered objects on the other hand are, well, scattered. The majority of the known population have medium eccentricity in 0.25-0.55. Two local peaks correspond to e in the 0.25--0.35 range, inclination 15-20° and e=0.5--0.55, low i<10° respectively. The extreme orbits show up as outliers in grey. Characteristically, there are no known SDO objects with eccentricity lower than 0.3 (with the exception of 2004 XR190). 2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a newly discovered trans-Neptunian object located in the scattered disc. ...


It is the eccentricity, more than the orbit's inclination, that is the distinctive attribute of the family of scattered objects.


Orbit plots

Orbit projections.
Orbit projections.

More traditional, the graph on the left represents polar and ecliptic views of the (aligned) orbits of the scattered disk objects[8] (in black) on the background of cubewanos (in blue) and resonant (2:5) objects (in green). As yet unclassified objects in 50-100AU region are plotted in grey.[9] Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_Projections_100AU_Classical_SDO.svg // Summary Projection of the aligned orbits of the scattered, classical and resonant objects. ... Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_Projections_100AU_Classical_SDO.svg // Summary Projection of the aligned orbits of the scattered, classical and resonant objects. ...


The solid blue ring is not an artist's representation but a real plot of hundreds of overlapping orbits of the classical objects, fully deserving the name of the main (classical or cubewanos) belt. The minimum perihelion mentioned above is illustrated by the red circle. Unlike SDOs, the resonant objects approach Neptune’s orbit (in gold) .


On the ecliptic view, the arcs represent the same minimum perihelion[10] of 35AU (red) and Neptune’s orbit (at ~30AU, in yellow). As this view illustrates, the inclinations alone do not really distinguish SDO from the classical objects. Instead, the eccentricity is the distinctive attribute (long aphelion segments).


Detached objects, or an extended scattered disc?

Distribution of scattered and detached objects. Note that the positions on the diagram represent semi-major axis (mean distance to the Sun) and not the current positions of the objects. Sedna is currently actually closer than Eris.
Distribution of scattered and detached objects. Note that the positions on the diagram represent semi-major axis (mean distance to the Sun) and not the current positions of the objects. Sedna is currently actually closer than Eris.

The recently discovered objects 2000 CR105 with a perihelion too far away from Neptune to be influenced by it, led to a discussion among astronomers about a new minor planet set, called the Extended scattered disc (E-SDO[11]). More recently, these objects are referred to as detached objects.[12] or Distant Detached Objects (DDO[4]). Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_550AU_ESDO.svg‎ // Objetos del disco difuso y del disco difuso extendido. ... Image File history File links TheKuiperBelt_550AU_ESDO.svg‎ // Objetos del disco difuso y del disco difuso extendido. ... 2000 CR105 is the third most distant known object in the solar system after 2003 UB313 and 90377 Sedna. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ...


The classification suggested by Deep Ecliptic Survey team, introduces a formal distinction between Scattered-Near objects (which could be scattered by Neptune) from Scattered-Extended objects (e.g. 90377 Sedna) using Tisserand's parameter value of 3.[13] The Deep Ecliptic Survey is a project to find Kuiper belt objects, using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... In Celestial Mechanics, Tisserand’s parameter is a combination of orbital elements used in a restricted three-body problem. ...


The diagram illustrates all known scattered and detached objects together with the largest Kuiper belt objects for reference. The very large eccentricities of Sedna and (87269) 2000 OO67 are partly shown with the red segments, extending from the perihelion to the aphelion, well outside the diagram (>900AU and >1020AU respectively). you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... 2000 OO67 is a Trans Neptunian Object notable for its highly eccentric orbit. ...


Noteworthy SDOs

List of Notable SDOs
Permanent
Designation
Provisional
Designation
Absolute magnitude Albedo Equatorial diameter
(km)
Semimajor axis
(AU)
Date discovered Discoverer Diameter method
Eris 2003 UB313 −1.12 0.86 ± 0.07 2400 ± 100 67.7 2003 M. Brown, C. Trujillo & D. Rabinowitz direct[14]
Sedna 2003 VB12 1.6 1180–1800 525.606 2003 M. Brown, C. Trujillo & D. Rabinowitz
2004 XR190 4.5 500-1000 57.5 2004 L. Allen
15874 1996 TL66 5.4 0.10? ~630 82.9 1996 D. Jewitt, J. Luu & J. Chen thermal
48639 1995 TL8 5.28 & 7.0 (binary) 0.09 assumed ~350 & ~160 52.2 1995 Spacewatch (A. Gleason) assumed albedo

Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ... In geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) a applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Chad Trujillo (born November 22, 1973), is the co-discoverer of Eris, which he claims to be the Tenth Planet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Chad Trujillo (born November 22, 1973), is the co-discoverer of Eris, which he claims to be the Tenth Planet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a newly discovered trans-Neptunian object located in the scattered disc. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (15874) 1996 TL66 is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuyper belt. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... David C. Jewitt is a Professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... Categories: American astronomers | Vietnamese Americans | Women in science | Astronomers stubs ... Jun Chen is a Chinese American astronomer. ... (48639) 1995 TL8 (also written (48639) 1995 TL8) is a trans-Neptunian object of the Scattered disk object subclass, and posesses a very large satellite. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Spacewatch is a project at the University of Arizona that specializes in the study of minor planets, and including various types of asteroids and comets. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects at the IAU: Minor Planet Center
  2. ^ Sedna at www.gps.caltech.edu
  3. ^ Alessandro Morbidelli and Harold F. Levison Scenarios for the Origin of the Orbits of the Trans-Neptunian Objects 2000 CR105 and 2003 VB12 (Sedna) The Astronomical Journal, (2004) 128, pp 2564-2576. Preprint
  4. ^ a b Rodney S. Gomes, John J. Matese, and Jack J. Lissauer A Distant Planetary-Mass Solar Companion May Have Produced Distant Detached Objects To appear in Icarus (2006). Preprint
  5. ^ Hahn J. Malhotra R.Neptune's migration into a stirred-up Kuiper Belt The Astronomical Journal, 130, pp.2392-2414, Nov.2005.Full text on arXiv.
  6. ^ As near-circular orbits occupy the first column (e<0.05) and the orbits with the lowest inclination (i<5 degrees) occupy the lowest row, the square in the bottom left corner represents the number of near circular, very lowly inclined orbits.
  7. ^ A grey square represents a single object (an outlier) in this range.
  8. ^ Minor Planet Circular 2005-X77 Distant Minor planets was used for orbit classification. The updated data can be found in MPC 2006-D28.
  9. ^ For roughly a half of known TNO the orbits are not yet known with the precision sufficient for the classification (a particularly delicate task for resonant objects).
  10. ^ The precise value is not too important; the value of 35 AU is quoted for coherence with Jewitt 2006. Other authors prefer to use 30AU instead while the data used here appear to fit 34AU.
  11. ^ Evidence for an Extended Scattered Disk? at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur
  12. ^ Jewitt, David C.; A. Delsanti (2006). "The Solar System Beyond The Planets", Solar System Update : Topical and Timely Reviews in Solar System Sciences. Springer-Praxis Ed.. ISBN 3-540-26056-0.  (Preprint version (pdf))
  13. ^ J. L. Elliot, S. D. Kern, K. B. Clancy, A. A. S. Gulbis, R. L. Millis, M. W. Buie, L. H. Wasserman, E. I. Chiang, A. B. Jordan, D. E. Trilling, and K. J. Meech The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. II. Dynamical Classification, the Kuiper Belt Plane, and the Core Population. The Astronomical Journal, 129 (2006), pp. preprint
  14. ^ http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/papers/ps/xsize.pdf

David C. Jewitt is a Professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ...

See also

  • List of trans-Neptunian objects.
 v  d  e The Solar System
The Sun Mercury Venus The Moon Earth Phobos and Deimos Mars Ceres The asteroid belt Jupiter Moons of Jupiter Saturn Moons of Saturn Uranus Moons of Uranus Moons of Neptune Neptune Moons of Pluto Pluto The Kuiper Belt Dysnomia Eris The Scattered Disc The Oort Cloud
The Sun · Mercury · Venus · Earth · Mars · Ceres · Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune · Pluto · Eris
Planets · Dwarf planets · Moons: Terrestrial · Martian · Jovian · Saturnian · Uranian · Neptunian · Plutonian · Eridian
Small bodies:   Meteoroids · Asteroids/Asteroid moons (Asteroid belt) · Centaurs · TNOs (Kuiper belt/Scattered disc) · Comets (Oort cloud)
See also astronomical objects, the solar system's list of objects, sorted by radius or mass, and the Solar System Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scattered disc - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (649 words)
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs).
The scattered disk is still fairly poorly understood, although prevailing astronomical opinion suggests it was formed when Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) were "scattered" by gravitational interactions with the outer planets, principally Neptune, into highly-eccentric and -inclined orbits.
The eccentricity of the orbits is represented by red segments (from perihelion to aphelion) with the inclination represented on Y axis.
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