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Encyclopedia > Scapa Flow
Aerial Photo of Scapa Flow

Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and Hoy. At 140 square miles, with a sandy bottom, and relatively shallow (not deeper than 160 feet, and most of it about 70 feet deep), it is one of the great natural harbours/anchorages of the world, with sufficient space to hold a number of navies. Viking ships anchored in Scapa Flow more than 1000 years ago, but it is best known as the site of the United Kingdom's chief naval base during the First and Second World Wars. The base was closed in 1956.
Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Gutter Sound is an inlet of the vast anchorage of Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. ... Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3506x2251, 2967 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scapa Flow ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3506x2251, 2967 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scapa Flow ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... Graemsay shown within Orkney Islands Graemsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland with a population of around thirty people. ... Burray shown within Orkney Islands Burray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... The term king commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors, pirates and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of britain and ireland as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8–18th century. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

World War I

The British Grand Fleet that took part in the Battle of Jutland was primarily based at Scapa Flow. Grand Fleet during WWI Grand Fleet ships in formation During World War I, the British Home Fleet was renamed the Grand Fleet. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre...


German U-boats twice attacked British ships in Scapa Flow. The first, by U-18, took place in November 1914; the other, by UB-116, in October 1918. Both attacks failed, and the U-18 and UB-116 were sunk. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...

Main article: Gutter Sound
German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Gutter Sound.

Following the German defeat in the First World War, 74 ships of the Kaiserliche Marine's High Seas Fleet were interned in Gutter Sound at Scapa Flow pending a decision on their future in the peace Treaty of Versailles. On June 21, 1919, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, the German officer in command at Scapa Flow, after waiting for the bulk of the British fleet to leave on exercises, gave the order to scuttle the ships to prevent their falling into British hands. Fifty-one ships sank with a loss of nine lives, the last casualties of the First World War.
Gutter Sound is an inlet of the vast anchorage of Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. ... SMS Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow in 1919 This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War... SMS Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow in 1919 This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War... HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... Gutter Sound is an inlet of the vast anchorage of Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... Gutter Sound is an inlet of the vast anchorage of Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Ludwig von Reuter (* 9 February 1869 in Guben; † 18 December 1943 in Potsdam) was a German admiral during World War I, who commanded the Kaiserliche Marines High Seas Fleet when it was interned at Scapa Flow at the end of the war. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ...


World War II

Early in World War II, on October 14, 1939, U-47, under the command of Günther Prien, penetrated Scapa Flow and sank the battleship HMS Royal Oak, anchored in Scapa Bay, by a torpedo attack that blew a 30-foot (9 m) hole in the Royal Oak and quickly sank it. Of the 1,400-man crew, 833 were lost. The wreck is now a protected war grave. After the attack, Winston Churchill ordered the construction of a series of causeways to block the eastern approaches to Scapa Flow; they were built by Italian prisoners of war held in Orkney. These "Churchill Barriers" now provide road access from the Mainland to Burray and South Ronaldsay, although they block maritime traffic. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Unterseeboot 47 (U-47) was a German type VII B U-Boat (submarine). ... Korvettenkapitän Günther Prien (16 January 1908 – 7 March 1941) was one of the outstanding German U-boat aces of the first part of the Second World War, and the first U-boat commander to win the Knights Cross. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... A war grave is a place where war dead are buried. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in the Orkney Islands, with a total length of 2. ...


Three days after this submarine attack, four Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 88 bombers raided Scapa Flow in one of the first bombing attacks on Britain during the war. The attack badly damaged the elderly base ship, the former battleship HMS Iron Duke, but one bomber was shot down by an anti-aircraft battery on Hoy. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The Junkers Ju 88 was a WW2 Luftwaffe twin-engine multi-role aircraft. ... HMS Iron Duke was a battleship of the Royal Navy, the lead ship of her class, named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ...


Scapa Flow Visitor Centre

Scapa Flow Visitor Centre, Hoy
Scapa Flow Visitor Centre, Hoy

The visitor centre is situated on the island of Hoy and is situated in the former naval fuel pumping station and a converted storage tank. The exhibits include a large three dimensional representation of the island and of the ships as they were prior to scuttling. The island is accessible by local ferry several times daily. The centre has catering facilities for day trippers.
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1400x584, 134 KB) Summary Scapa Flow Visitor Centre, Hoy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1400x584, 134 KB) Summary Scapa Flow Visitor Centre, Hoy. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ...


Scuba diving

Broken British Navy teacup
Broken British Navy teacup
Broken German Navy teacup
Broken German Navy teacup

The wreckage of the German fleet has become increasingly popular as a venue for recreational Scuba divers. Divers must first obtain a permit from the Island Harbour Authorities, which is available through diving shops and centres. The wrecks are mostly located at depths of 35 to 50 metres. Divers are not permitted to enter inside the wrecks, or to retrieve artifacts located within 100 metres of any wreck. However time and tide has washed broken pieces of ships' pottery and glass bottles into shallow waters and onto beaches.
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 1956 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scapa Flow Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 1956 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scapa Flow Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1832x1636, 1746 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scapa Flow Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1832x1636, 1746 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scapa Flow Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...


Some miscellaneous facts

  • Although "scarper", a slang word meaning to run away, originally derives from an Italian word scappare, meaning "to escape",[1], it became much more popular after the First World War, when Cockney rhyming slang started to use the rhyme "Scapa Flow"—"go".

Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... Cockney rhyming slang (sometimes initialized as CRS) is a form of English slang which originated in the East End of London. ... An independent bottling of Royal Brackla Single Malt Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Scapa is a Scotch whisky distillery situated on the Island of Orkney north of Scotland by Scapa Flow in Kirkwall. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ...

References

  • Wood, Lawson (2007). Scapa Flow Dive Guide. AquaPress Publishing. ISBN 1-905492-04-9.  A comprehensive guide to diving the wrecks and reefs of Scapa Flow.
  • George, S. C. (1981). Jutland to Junkyard. Edinburgh: Paul Harris Publishing. ISBN 0-86228-029-X.  Describes the scuttling of the High Seas Fleet.

, Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ...

External links

  • Listing of German and scuttled ships.
  • Scapa Flow website by North Walls Community School.
  • Scuttling of the High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow.
  • About the shipwrecks at Scapa Flow.
  • u47.org Site about the U-boat U-47, which sank the Royal Oak
  • Orkney Wireless Museum.

Coordinates: 58°54′N, 3°03′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
First World War.com - Encyclopedia - Scapa Flow (591 words)
Scapa Flow was the designated anchorage of the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet during the First World War.
It was from Scapa Flow that the Grand Fleet put to sea at the end of May 1916 to engage the German High Seas Fleet in what was to comprise the last great fleet action between two of the world's great naval powers at Jutland.
In 1919 Scapa Flow lost its status as the fleet's main base to Rosyth in the Firth of Forth; it was however restored with the arrival of renewed war in 1939.
Scapa Flow Feature Page on Undiscovered Scotland (1021 words)
Scapa Flow was chosen, and many thousands of service personnel were based on the surrounding islands, and on Hoy and Flotta in particular.
One of Scapa Flow's most tragic and memorable events took place very early in the war when, on the night of 14 October 1939, the German submarine U-47 found a way through the sunken blockships intended to seal off the narrow eastern approaches to Scapa Flow.
HMS Royal Oak remains on the floor of Scapa Flow as a war grave, and diving it is not permitted.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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