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Encyclopedia > Scanian lands
Halland Blekinge
Unofficial flag of Skåneland
Unofficial flag of Skåneland

Skåneland is a denomination for the area once making up the eastern part of Denmark, which was permanently ceded to Sweden under the Treaty of Roskilde (1658). The proper name for it is Skånelandskapen, which translates to the Provinces of Skåne; sometimes the Latin names terra Scania or terra Scaniæ are used. Arms of Halland This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Image File history File links SkÃ¥ne, coat of arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Blekinge, coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Image File history File links Map SkÃ¥neland, Sweden File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


Skåneland consists of the provinces Skåne, Halland, and Blekinge, in addition the island Bornholm is actually the geographically easternmost frontier of Skåneland, but belongs to Denmark. Skåneland borders the provinces of Västergötland and Småland. The region is accepted by the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation under the name of Scania, though this is generally only used as an alternative term for Skåne.   SkÃ¥ne? (also known as Scania) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) of Sweden. ... Halland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Hallandia, or Halland - a historical Province of Sweden Halland County, or Hallands län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. ... Västergötland ( ♫) is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ...   SmÃ¥land? is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ... Logo of the UNPO The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is a democratic, international organization. ...

Contents


Official status

The term is not used in official contexts and is not generally utilized among all Swedes, though fairly popular within the region itself; especially by regionalists. Mostly either the names of the individual provinces are used when defining the region, or it is considered as being part of Götaland (even if Skåneland historically could be considered a separate region). Götaland, Gothia, Gothland [1], Gotland (AHD), Gautland or Geatland, is a historical land of Sweden, and was once divided into petty kingdoms. ...


Origin of name

The name Skåneland was since long a denomination of the Scanian lands – the eastern territory of Denmark.


The Swedish term "Skåneland" was introduced by the Swedish historian and Scandinavist Martin Weibull in his political appeal Samlingar till Skånes historia in 1868 to illuminate the common pre-Swedish history of Skåne, Blekinge, and Halland. The term was basically a translation from the medieval Latin terra Scaniæ (approximately "land of Skåne"). Weibull used the term as a global term for the three provinces where the old Scanian law (the oldest provincial law of the Nordic countries) had its jurisdiction, as well as the area of the archdiocese of Lund prior to 1645. This term Skåneland was then used in the regional historical periodical Historisk tidskrift för Skåneland, beginning in 1901, published by Martin's son, Lauritz Weibull. Scandinavism is a political movement with origins in the mid-19th century that support the idea of Scandinavia as a unified region or even a single nation, based on the common linguistic, political and cultural heritage of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Lund is a city in Scania in southernmost Sweden, and the center of the Lund Municipality. ...


History

Early history

The Latin name terra Scaniæ was used in the Middle Ages as a denomination for the easternmost parts of Denmark. At that time, dense forests and boggy ground blocked the northern provinces of Sweden from Skåneland, in comparison to the relative ease of travel by sea. This is documented by Adam of Bremen in the 11th century when he visited Scania and Scandinavia. It therefore became natural to draw the national borders on land. Even in later periods as the roads gradually improved, some parts were still difficult to travel through, even through the 19th century. Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Look up Bog on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ...   SkÃ¥ne? (also known as Scania) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) of Sweden. ...


From the Kalmar Union to Denmark's Loss of Skåne, Blekinge and Halland

By the end of the fourteenth century, the Finnish coast was under Swedish control, but Denmark was the most powerful of Scandinavian states. As a result, when the Kalmar Union was formed in 1397, the union was administered from Copenhagen. By 1471 Sweden had tired of Danish domination and rebelled under Sture family leadership. In 1503, when Sten Sture the Elder died, eastern Sweden’s independence from Denmark had been established. The royal lineages of Norway, Sweden and Denmark for the period around the formation of the Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: Kalmarunionen) was a series of personal unions (1397–1520) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden under a single monarch. ... Sture was the name an influential family in Sweden from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. ... Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den ldre; 1440–1503) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union (1470–1497 and 1501–1503). ...


In 1600 Denmark controlled virtually all land bordering on the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the restricted Sound (Øresund). The current Swedish provinces of Skåne, Blekinge and Halland were still Danish and the province of Båhuslen was still Norwegian. Skåneland became the site of bitter battles, especially in the 16th and 17th century, as Denmark and Sweden confronted each other for control of the Baltic and of Swedish access to western trade. Danish historians often represent this as a period of unending Swedish aggression during which Sweden was continuously at war, while Swedish historians often represent this as "Sweden's Age of Greatness". The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat, or Kattegatt, is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ... Northern Öresund Oresund (Öresund in Swedish or Øresund in Danish) or The Sound, is the strait that separates Zealand from Scania, and thereby Denmark from Sweden. ...   SkÃ¥ne? (also known as Scania) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) of Sweden. ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Halland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Hallandia, or Halland - a historical Province of Sweden Halland County, or Hallands län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Bahusia, or Bohuslän, is a historical Sweden. ...


During the breakup of the Kalmar Union and 1814, Denmark and Sweden fought 11 times in Skåneland and other border provinces: 1563-70, 1611-1613, 1644-1645, 1657-1658; 1659-1661, 1674-1678, 1700, 1710-1721, 1788, 1808-1809, and 1814. The most notable periods of combat for Skåneland were the Northern Seven Years' War (1563–1570), the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and the Northern War(16551658). Fredrik II conquers Älvsborg 1563 The Northern Seven Years War (also known as the Nordic Seven Years War, the First Northern War or the Seven Years War in Scandinavia) was the war between Sweden and a coalition of Denmark-Norway, Lubeck and Poland, fought between 1563 and 1570. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Northern War and Norway (1655 to 1658) From 1655 onward, Charles X of Sweden’s reign was expansionistic and is a history of war. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...

  • During the Northern Seven Years' War, attacks were launched on Sweden from Danish Halland in 1563, and Swedish counterattacks were launched against Danish provinces of Halland and Skåne in 1565 and 1569. In 1570 peace was finally agreed when the Swedish king withdrew the claims to Danish Skåne, Halland, Blekinge and Gotland, while the Danes withdrew their claims to Sweden as a whole.
  • During the Thirty Years' War extensive combat took place in the Danish provinces of Skåne, Halland, and Blekinge. By the Peace of Brömsebro (1645) Denmark ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen and agreed Sweden was to occupy the Danish province of Halland for 30 years as a guarantee of the treaty provisions.
  • During what has been described as the Northern War (16551658), Danish attempts to recover control of Halland ended in a serious defeat administered by Sweden. As a result, in the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) Denmark ceded the provinces of Skåne, Blekinge and Halland (i.e., Skåneland).

Moberg, in his history of the Swedish people, provides a thoughtful discussion of the atrocities which were committed by both sides in the struggle over the border provinces, and identified them as the source of propaganda to inflame the peoples’ passions to continue the struggle. This lopsided representation was incorporated into history text books on the respective sides. As an example, Moberg compares the history texts he grew up with in Sweden which represented the Swedish soldier as ever pure and honorable to a letter written by Gustavus Adolphus celebrating the 24 Skånian parishes he’d helped level by fire, with the troops encouraged to rape and murder the population at will. One must infer that this Swedish behavior was mirrored equally on the Danish side. Skåneland was a rather unpleasant place to dwell for an extended period. Halland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Hallandia, or Halland - a historical Province of Sweden Halland County, or Hallands län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Halland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Hallandia, or Halland - a historical Province of Sweden Halland County, or Hallands län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same...   SkÃ¥ne? (also known as Scania) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) of Sweden. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ...   Gotland? is the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Jämtland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Jemtia, or Jämtland - a historical Province of Sweden Main part of Jämtland County, or Jämtlands län - a current County of Sweden Formerly a part of Västernorrland County, or Västernorrlands...  Härjedalen?, is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... Halland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Hallandia, or Halland - a historical Province of Sweden Halland County, or Hallands län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Halland is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Hallandia, or Halland - a historical Province of Sweden Halland County, or Hallands län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Vilhelm Moberg (August 20, 1898 - August 8, 1973) was a Swedish author and historian. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ...


Skåneland learns to be Swedish

Following the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the Swedish government forcefully demanded Skåneland adopt Swedish customs and laws. Swedish became the only permitted language in the Church liturgy and in schools, books in Danish were not allowed to be printed, and all appointed politicians and priests were required to be Swedish. To promote education in Swedish the University of Lund was inaugurated in 1667, and the inhabitants of Scania were not allowed to enroll in Copenhagen University until the 19th century. The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... Lund University Lund University (Swedish: Lunds universitet) is a university in Lund in southernmost Sweden. ... University of Copenhagen The University of Copenhagen (Danish: Københavns Universitet) is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Copenhagen, Denmark. ...


The population was initially opposed to the Swedish reforms, as can be ascertained from church records and court transcripts. The Swedes did encounter severe civil revolts in some areas, perhaps most notably in the Göinge district, in dense forest regions, and in northern Scania. The last civil revolts in Skåneland were peasant revolts early in the 19th century, but during that period the region was so integrated that, at the end of the century, Skåneland was declared to have been "fully incorporated with Swedish habits, customs and history". Göinge can mean: Östra Göinge Municipality - a municipality in SkÃ¥ne County Göinge Eastern Hundred - a hundred i Scania Göinge Western Hundred - a hundred i Scania This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The transformation of age-old customs, commerce and administration to the Swedish model could not be effected quickly or easily. In the first fifty years of the transition, the treatment of the population was rather ruthless, but thereafter it softened. Denmark, on the other hand, made several attempts to recapture Skåneland -- the last attempt in 1710, during which they almost recaptured the entire Skåneland until they were beaten back by Swedish armies and forced to withdraw.


Recent history

The complete history of Skåneland was not taught for a long time in schools in Skåneland, especially during periods with the immediate threat of revolt. Instead a Swedish-centric history was taught, and the Scanian history before 1658, for instance concerning the list of monarchs, was disregarded as a component of Danish history. In reaction, a movement began in the late 19th century to revive awareness of the history and culture of Skåneland. The renewed focus resulted in the publication of several books about Scanian history.


It is still disputed whether children of the Scanian Provinces should learn the local Danish-era history or the Swedish history for the period before 1658.


Swedish Governors-General

(See also: Governors-General of Sweden) Gustaf Otto Stenbock Count Gustaf Otto Stenbock (1614-1685) was a Swedish soldier and politician. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Baron Fabian von Fersen (1626-1677) was a Swedish soldier and statesman, who received appointments Field Marshal, and then Governor General of Terra Scania, which included the provinces of Scania, Hallandia and Blechingia in 1675. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim August 10 - Building of the Royal Greenwich Observatory began November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... Events First performance of Racines tragedy, Phèdre Sarah Churchill marries John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough Battle of Cassel, Philippe I of Orléans defeats William of Orange Mary II of England marries William of Orange English Statute of frauds is passed into law Battle of Landskrona Elias... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Count Magnus Gustafsson Stenbock (1664 - 1717), Swedish soldier. ... Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... // Events Natchez, one of the oldest towns on the Mississippi, founded. ... // Events Natchez, one of the oldest towns on the Mississippi, founded. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) Births November 30 - Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of... Insert non-formatted text hereMedia:Example. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) Births November 30 - Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of... A Governor-General, or generalguvernör, was appointed by the Swedish monarch as a form of viceroy, with both civil and military jurisdiction, over parts of Sweden, from the 17th century to the early 19th century, when constitutional changes made the office obsolete. ...


Modern usage

The most wide-spread usage of the term Skåneland today is by regionalists who desire to stress the culturally unique features of the region. The proper term Skånelandskap is of historical significance as a common name for Swedish areas formerly belonging to Denmark, though neither is generally used among modern Swedish historians or in government administration.


Because of the revived notions of a common cultural heritage, separate from that of the national state of Sweden, Skåneland has become a member of UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation) and FUEN (Federal Union of European Nationalities) under the name of Scania. The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO) was founded on February 11, 1991. ...


References

  • the Swedish encyclopedia Nationalencyklopedin, article Skånelandskapen
  • Skånelands historia, ved Ambrius, J, 1997 ISBN 91-971436-2-6
  • A History of Sweden by Ingvar Andersson, Praeger, 1956
  • Nordens Historie, ved Hiels Bache, Forslagsbureauet i Kjøbenhavn, 1884.
  • The Northern Wars, 1558-1721 by Robert I. Frost; Longman, Harlow, England; 2000 ISBN 0-582-06429-5
  • The Struggle for Supremacy in the Baltic: 1600-1725 by Jill Lisk; Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1967
  • Fra Bondeoppbud til Legdshær by Trygve Mathisen, Guldendal Norsk Forlag, 1952
  • Min Svenska Historia II, by Vilhelm Moberg, P.A. Nordstedt & Söners Förlag, 1971.
  • Medieval Scandinavia, by Bridget and Peter Sawyer, University of Minnesota Press, 1993.
  • Kings and Vikings, by P.H. Sawyer, Routledge, 1982.
  • Sweden; the Nation's History", by Franklin D. Scott, Southern Illinois Press, 1988.
  • Sweden and the Baltic, 1523 - 1721, by Andrina Stiles, Hodder & Stoughton, 1992 ISBN 0-340-54644-1

The Nationalencyklopedin is the most comprehensive contemporary Swedish language encyclopedia, initiated by a government grant. ...

See also

  • Skåne
  • History of Sweden
  • History of Denmark

  SkÃ¥ne? (also known as Scania) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) of Sweden. ... The history of Sweden dates back to 9000 BC. // Pre-historic age: 9,000–500 BC Main article Pre-history of Sweden Sweden, as well as the adjacent country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs (ristningar or hällristningar in Swedish) throughout the country, with the highest concentration in... This is a history of the Kingdom of Denmark and the areas comprising modern day Denmark. ... The Realm of Sweden or Svenska väldet is a term that historically was used to comprise all the territories under the control of the Swedish monarchs. ... Carlsten is a stone fortress located at Sweden. ... Bohus Fortress, or Bohus Fästning, is a fortress from the 13th century at Kungälv in Sweden. ... Fredriksten fortress, Halden, Norway - seen from the citys harbor Fredriksten is a fortress in the city of Halden in Norway. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lands of Sweden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (403 words)
Norrland (literally "Northern lands") is the name for the lands annexed as the realm expanded to the north on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia.
By the time of the Treaty of Stolbovo, 1617, the significance of these particular lands of Sweden was chiefly historical and diffusely geographical.
After the Finnish War (1808-1809) the eastern half of Sweden was ceded to Russia, thus becoming the Imperial Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.
Scanian War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (919 words)
Öland – Køge Bay – Halmstad – Lund – Malmö – Landskrona – Marstrand – Conquest of Jemtland – Conquest of Bohuslän – Uddevalla
Scanian War (Danish: Skånske Krig Swedish: Skånska kriget) was fought between the union of Denmark-Norway and Sweden.
The Danish objective was to retrieve the Scanian lands that had been given to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde, after the Northern Wars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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