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Encyclopedia > Scandinavia
This article is part of the
Scandinavia series
Geography
The Viking Age
Political entities
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Scandinavia[1] is a historical and geographical region centred on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden and Denmark.[2][3] The other Nordic countries; Finland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, are sometimes included because of their close historic and cultural connections to Denmark, Norway and Sweden.[4][5][6][7] Look up Scandinavia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Vikingshipmini. ... The Scandinavian Mountains, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen (the Fells) or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the two latter meaning the Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for a former political entity, union, consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. ... The traditional lands of Sweden. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ... Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... The Royal League is an annual Scandinavian football tournament, starting after the end of the regular domestic seasons of Norway and Sweden. ... Scandinavian Airlines System or SAS is a multi-national airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Scandinavian countries, based in Stockholm, Sweden and owned by SAS AB. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


In linguistics and cultural studies, the definition of Scandinavia is expanded to include the areas where Old Norse was spoken and where the North Germanic languages are now dominant. As a linguistic and cultural concept, Scandinavia thus also includes Iceland the Faroe Islands[8] and Swedish speaking parts of Finland. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ...


As a cultural and historical concept, Scandinavia can include Finland as well (of the larger region Fenno-Scandinavia), often with reference to the nation's long history as a part of Sweden. Although Finland is culturally closely related to the other Scandinavian countries, Finns form a distinct linguistic and ethnic group which speaks a Finno-Ugric language of a different language family from Scandinavian languages, which are part of the Indo-European language family.[9] The terms Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are used either to include the Scandinavian peninsula, the Kola peninsula, Karelia, Finland and Denmark under the same term alluding to the Fennoscandian Shield, even if Denmark actually resides on the North European Plain, or they may be used in a more cultural sense... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ˌfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


Since the Fennoman movement of the 1830s and political Scandinavism of the 1830s-1850s,[10] the inclusion of Finland and Iceland has divided opinions in the respective states.[11] Although which countries are considered Scandinavian depends on the context, the term the Nordic countries is used unambiguously for Norway, Sweden, Denmark (including the Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Åland) and Iceland.[12][13][14] The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...

Contents

Terminology and usage

Red: the three monarchies that compose Scandinavia according to the strictest definition; Orange: the possible extended usage; Yellow: the maximal extended usage that takes Scandinavia as synonymous to the Nordic countries.
Red: the three monarchies that compose Scandinavia according to the strictest definition; Orange: the possible extended usage; Yellow: the maximal extended usage that takes Scandinavia as synonymous to the Nordic countries.
Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula.
Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula.

Being a purely historical and cultural region, Scandinavia has no official geopolitical borders. The region is therefore often defined according to the conventions of different disciplines or according to the political and cultural aims of different communities of the area.[8] One example of the Scandinavian region as a political and cultural construct is the unique position of Finland. The creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was forged in the decolonization struggles against two different imperial models, the Swedish[15] and the Russian,[16][17] as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History[18]: "The construction of a specific Finnish polity is the result of successful decolonization. The location of Finland is a moving one. It has shifted from being a province in the Swedish Empire to an autonomous unit in Eastern Europe, then to an independent state in Northern Europe or Scandinavia. After joining the European Union, Finland has recently been included in Western Europe."[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (842x642, 30 KB) Summary Map showing Scandinavia using different definitions: * red = the intra-Nordic usage: the three monarchies * orange = the extended usage: Nordic region, except Greenland and Svalbard * yellow = the maximal extent: synonymous with the entire Nordic region (Note the area... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (842x642, 30 KB) Summary Map showing Scandinavia using different definitions: * red = the intra-Nordic usage: the three monarchies * orange = the extended usage: Nordic region, except Greenland and Svalbard * yellow = the maximal extent: synonymous with the entire Nordic region (Note the area... Download high resolution version (612x668, 31 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (612x668, 31 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... The University of Jyväskylä is a university in Jyväskylä, Finland. ...


Usage in geography

Geographically the Scandinavian Peninsula includes what is today mainland Sweden and mainland Norway.[19][20]. A small part of northwestern Finland is sometimes also considered part of the peninsula.[21] In physiography, Denmark is considered part of the North European Plain, rather than the geologically distinct Scandinavian peninsula mainly occupied by Norway and Sweden.[22] However, Denmark has historically included the region of Scania on the Scandinavian Peninsula. For this reason, but even more for cultural and linguistic reasons, Denmark – Jutland on the Jutland peninsula of the European continent, along with Zealand and the other islands in the Danish archipelago – is considered part of the Scandinavian region also by the Scandinavians themselves. True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Physical geography or physiogeography is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Map of ca. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... This article is about the continent. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ...


Variations in usage

In English, a wider definition of Scandinavia is sometimes used, which includes Finland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands.[23][24] This larger region is by the concerned countries officially known as the Nordic Countries,[12] a political entity as well as cultural region where the ties between the countries are not merely historical and cultural, but based on official membership in the Nordic Council. Some American-English dictionaries, such as Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, do not include the names "Nordic Countries" or "Nordic Council". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary instead defines Nordic as an adjective dated to 1898 with the meaning "of or relating to the Germanic peoples of northern Europe and especially of Scandinavia."[25] Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


The use of the name Scandinavia as a convenient general term for the three kingdoms is also fairly recent; according to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the 18th century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism.[26] Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.[26] Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


As a political term, "Scandinavia" was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s.[26] The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the 19th century through poems such Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism and in a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".[27] The historic popular usage is also reflected in the name chosen for the shared, multi-national airline, Scandinavian Airlines System, a carrier originally owned jointly by the governments of the three countries, along with private investors. For other uses, see Hans Christian Andersen (disambiguation). ... Scandinavian Airlines System or SAS is a multi-national airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Scandinavian countries, based in Stockholm, Sweden and owned by SAS AB. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. ...


Usage by cultural and tourist organizations

The use of the term Scandinavian for the culture of the Nordic region is reflected in the name chosen for the various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States and around the world, such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish-American industrialist Niels Poulsen. Today, the five Nordic Heads of State serve as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization, its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in New York City and the United States."[28] The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.[29] The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate international promotions of the two countries. Norway entered one year later. All five Nordic countries participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America.[30] Scandinavia House - The American-Scandinavian Foundation 58 Park Ave, New York NY The American-Scandinavian Foundation, (ASF) is an American non-profit foundation dedicated to promoting international understanding through educational and cultural exchange between the United States and Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. ... Distribution of Danish Americans according to the 2000 census Danish Americans are Americans of Danish descent. ... The Scandinavian Tourist Board (STB) is a joint initiative by the national tourist boards of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. ...


Use of Nordic Countries vs. Scandinavia

Flag of the Nordic Council.
Main article: Nordic countries

While the term Scandinavia is most commonly used for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the term the Nordic countries is used unambiguously for Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland, including their associated territories (Greenland, the Faroes, and Åland).[12] Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Occasionally, Scandinavia is used synecdochically for the entire Nordic region, especially outside the Nordic countries, and in these circumstances, the two terms can be considered synonyms. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Nordic_Council. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Nordic_Council. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which: a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or a term denoting a thing (a whole) is used to refer to part of it, or a term denoting a specific class of thing (a species... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ...


In addition to mainland Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the Nordic countries consist of:

and “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Estonia has applied for membership in the Nordic Council, referring to its cultural heritage and close linguistic links to Finland, although normally Estonia is regarded as one of the Baltic countries. All Baltic states have shared historical events with the Nordic countries, including Scandinavia, during the centuries. An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ...


The terms Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are used to include the Scandinavian peninsula, the Kola peninsula, Karelia, Finland and (seldom) Denmark under the same term, alluding to the Fennoscandian Shield, even though Denmark is on the North European Plain. Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earths crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea. ... Geographically, Europe is a part of the larger landmass known as Eurasia. ...


Etymology

Satellite photo of the Scandinavian Peninsula, February 2003, with political boundaries added
Satellite photo of the Scandinavian Peninsula, February 2003, with political boundaries added
Late Baltic Ice Lake around 10,300 years BP, with a channel near Mount Billingen through what is now central Sweden. (Political boundaries added).
Late Baltic Ice Lake around 10,300 years BP, with a channel near Mount Billingen through what is now central Sweden. (Political boundaries added).

Scandinavia and Scania (Skåne) are considered to have the same etymology. Both terms are thought to be derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō, which appears later in Old English as Scedenig and in Old Norse as Skáney.[31] The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the 1st century AD. Download high resolution version (540x611, 127 KB)From NASAs Earth Observatory; http://earthobservatory. ... Download high resolution version (540x611, 127 KB)From NASAs Earth Observatory; http://earthobservatory. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... The Baltic ice lake is a name given by geologists to a freshwater lake that gradually formed in the Baltic sea basin as the glacier retreated over that region at the end of the Pleistocene. ... Billingen is a mountain (299 meter high) in Västergötland, Sweden. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...


Various references to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius and Jordanes. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania.[32] According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage" (English scathing, German Schaden).[33] The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as *awjo, meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name Scandinavia would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to be a reference to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania.[33] Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Pytheas (Πυθέας), ca. ... Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Location of the Skanör-Falsterbo Peninsula within Vellinge Municipality, in Swedens southernmost province SkÃ¥ne. ...


In the reconstructed Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō (the edh represented in Latin by t or d), the first segment is sometimes considered more uncertain than the second segment. The American Heritage Dictionary[34] derives the second segment from Proto-Indo-European *akwa-, "water", in the sense of "watery land". Gothic saiws, "lake" is one of the Germanic groups which include English sea and German See.[35] However, according to the Indo-European Dictionary (IEED), a research project of the Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University, the second segment may not have an Indo-European etymology. The IEED states that Uralic evidence has long been recognized for this segment, namely the Finnic saivo ("'transparent place in the sea'") and the Norwegian-Lappish saivvƒ ("'(holy) lake, idol'").[35] Some scholars have found a parallel between the Uralic evidence and the area's old mythology and belief systems, where the soul of mankind is believed to dwell in water until birth and return there after death.[35] IEED lists a Germanic reconstruction that indicates a similar connection to metaphysics, namely *saiwa-lō ("soul"), appearing as saiwala in Gothic and sēlein Old Frisian. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands[1]. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Look up Gothic, goth, Goth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ...


Pliny the Elder's descriptions

Pliny's descriptions of Scatinavia and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher, even though his writing of geography was what he considered a "clarior fama" ("a clearer story"). Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. According to Pliny, the most "clarissima" ("famous") of the region's islands is Scatinavia, of unknown size. There live the Hilleviones. The belief that Scandinavia was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia in classical texts during the centuries that followed. The Hilleviones were the occupants of Scandinavia in the first few centuries BC, according to Pliny the Elder (Naturalis Historia, Book 4, Chapter 27. ...


Pliny begins his description of the route to Scatinavia by referring to the mountain of Saevo (mons Saevo ibi), the Codanus Bay (Codanus sinus) and the Cimbrian promontory.[36] The geographical features have been identified in various ways; by some scholars "Saevo" is thought to be the mountainous Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark. As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place. The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri The Cimbri were a Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The ancient sources located their home of origin in the northern Jutland. ... The sand-engulfed Buried Church (tilsandede kirke) at Skagen. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


Pliny mentions Scandinavia one more time: in Book VIII he says that the animal called achlis (given in the accusative, achlin, which is not Latin), was born on the island of Scandinavia.[37] The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes.


The name "Scandia", later used as a synonym for Scandinavia, also appears in Pliny's Naturalis Historia, but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia. "Scandia" thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text. The idea that "Scadinavia" may have been one of the "Scandiae" islands was instead introduced by Ptolemy (c.90 – c.168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt. He used the name "Skandia" for the biggest, most easterly of the three "Scandiai" islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland.[33] Scandia can have the following meanings: An alternate name for Scandium oxide A locomotive builder from Denmark An alternate name for Scandinavia A misspelling of Scania A Scandinavian history periodical A chain of small scale amusement parks in the western United States, which consist mostly of miniature golf, Kart racing... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


Neither Pliny's nor Ptolemy's lists of Scandinavian tribes include the Suiones mentioned by Tacitus. Some early Swedish scholars of the Swedish Hyperborean school[38] and of the 19th-century romantic nationalism period proceeded to synthesize the different versions by inserting references to the Suiones, arguing that they must have been referred to in the original texts and obscured over time by spelling mistakes or various alterations.[39][40] Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Germanic reconstruction

The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. In Jordanes' history of the Goths (AD 551) the form Scandza is used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe (chapter 1, 4).[41] According to recently published notes by Jūrate Statkutė de Rosales the Charles C. Mierow translation of the Jordanes text was supported by the earlier translation of Wilhelm Martens which was actually incorrect. This fact raised a lot of discussions between scholars that Jordanes actually wrote about peninsulas of the eastern Baltic coast: Sambia, Curonian spit, Gdansk or Danzig. This region was the largest centre of the amber trade in the ancient world. Later medieval sources, such as the writings of Adam from Bremen, the royal chronicle of Alfonso X and others support this theory. A lot of widely accepted historical facts connected with the history of Germanic peoples, Skandinavia appeared only because of a mistake or possible falsification caused by ideas of pangermanism[42] [43]. The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum[44]; in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge.[45] Frankish sources used Sconaowe and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used Scani.[46][47] In Beowulf, the forms Scedenige and Scedeland are used, while the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the Old English Sconeg.[47] This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... Curonian Spit and Lagoon The Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: KurÅ¡ių Nerija, Russian: Куршская коса, German: Kurische Nehrung) is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand dune peninsula that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1 035 000 1761/km² Founded... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... Alfonso X, El Sabio, or the Learned, (November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284) was a king of Castile and León (1252 - 1284). ... The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Paul the Deacon (c. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Wulfstan of Hedeby (Latin Haithabu) was a late 9th century traveller and trader. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


The first segment in "Scandinavia" is also sometimes attributed to Norse mythology, namely the Scandinavian giantess Skaði (Skade). Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... A giantess is a female giant. ... In Norse mythology, Skaði ‡ is a mountain giantess, wife of the Van god Njord and thus a Van goddess herself. ...


Sami etymology

Hunting ski goddess, or Sami woman hunting on ski, from Olaus Magnus, 1555.
Hunting ski goddess, or Sami woman hunting on ski, from Olaus Magnus, 1555.

The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north-Sami) and Skađsuâl (east-Sami), meaning "Skade's island" (Svennung 1963). Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a loan word from the North Germanic languages;[48] "Skade" is the giant stepmother of Freyr and Freyja in Norse mythology. It has been suggested that Skade to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. The name for Skade's father Thjazi is known in Sami as Čáhci, "the waterman", and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendent of Saam the Sami population (Mundel 2000)[49], (Steinsland 1991).[50] Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as suolu gievra, meaning "the strong one on the island". The Sami place name Sulliidčielbma means "the island's threshold" and Suoločielgi means "the island's back". Image File history File links Skigudinne. ... Image File history File links Skigudinne. ... Olaus Magnus, or Magni (Magnus, Latin for the Swedish Stora -- great -- is the family name, and not a personal epithet), reported as born in October 1490 in Linköping, and died on August 1, 1557, was a Swedish ecclesiastic and writer, who did pioneering work for the interest of Nordic... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Yoik, Joik or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of song. ... This article is about the Scandanavian goddess. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... This article is about the Scandanavian goddess. ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... This 19th century representation of Freyr shows him with his boar Gullinbursti and his sword. ... -1... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... In Norse mythology, Thiazi was a storm giant who kidnapped Idun, the goddess of youth. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ...


In recent substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster sk- in words used in Sami and concluded that sk- is a phonotactic structure of non-native origin.[51] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Other etymologies

Scadin- can be segmented various ways to obtain various Indo-European meanings: scand- or scad-in-, scan- or sca-din, scandin or scadin-. These segmentations have resulted in a number of possible etymologies, such as "climbing island" (*scand-), "island of the Scythian people", "island of the woodland of *sca-".[citation needed] Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...


Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the indigenous Mesolithic people inhabiting the region.[52] Today Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 BP and 9,500 BP, the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the Baltic Sea through the area where Stockholm is now located.[53] The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


Some Basque scholars have presented the idea that the segment sk that appears in *Ska∂inaujàin is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated Paleolithic Europe. According to some of these intellectuals, the Scandinavians share some genetic markers with the Basque people.[52] Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... A genetic marker is a known DNA sequences (e. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ...


The name of the Scandinavian mountain range, Skanderna in Swedish, was artificially derived from Skandinavien in the 19th century, in analogy with Alperna for the Alps. The commonly used names are bergen or fjällen; both names meaning "the mountains".


Geography

Population density in the Nordic region (excluding Svalbard).
See also: Geography of Denmark, Geography of Norway, and Geography of Sweden

The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark, and the archipelagos of Sweden and Norway. When Finland is included, the moraines (ice age remnants) and lake areas are also notable. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1012, 122 KB) Summary Terms of use: All images are the property of Nordregio. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1012, 122 KB) Summary Terms of use: All images are the property of Nordregio. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... Map of Norway. ... Continent Europe Subregion Scandinavia Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 55th 449,964 km² 39,03- km² (8. ... List of Norwegian Fjords An alphabetic list on Norwegian fjords follows. ... The Scandinavian Mountains, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen (the Fells) or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the two latter meaning the Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ...


The climate varies from north to south and from west to east; a marine west coast climate (Cfb) typical of western Europe dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with orographic lift giving more than 2000 mm/year precipitation (<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway. The central part - from Oslo to Stockholm - has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. A small area along the northern coast east of North Cape has tundra climate (Et) due to lack of summer warmth. The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden and Finnmarksvidda plateau in Norway receive little precipitation and have cold winters. Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have alpine tundra climate. Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... This wave cloud pattern formed off of the ÃŽle Amsterdam in the far southern Indian Ocean, due to orographic lift of an airmass by the island, producing alternating bands of condensed and invisible humidity downwind of the island as the moist air moves in vertical waves and the moisture successively... The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ... North Cape is the name of several capes: North Cape is a cape in Prince Edward Island, Canada North Cape is a cape in northern New Zealand North Cape is a cape in northern Norway, also known as Nordkapp The North Cape was a barge which ran aground in Rhode... Finnmarksvidda (the Finnmark plateau) is Norways largest mountain plateau, with an area greater than 22,000 km². It lies at 300-500 meters above sea level. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia is 38.0 °C in Målilla (Sweden). The coldest temperature ever recorded is −52.6 °C in Vuoggatjålme (Sweden). The warmest month on record was July 1901 in Oslo, with a mean (24hr) of 22.7 °C, and the coldest month was February 1985 in Vittangi (Sweden) with a mean of -27.2 °C. [1] MÃ¥lilla is a small town in SmÃ¥land, Sweden. ...


Southwesterly winds further warmed by föhn can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter; Tafjord has recorded 17.9 °C in January and Sunndal 18.9 °C in February. A föhn wind or foehn wind occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range (Orographic lifting). ... Tafjord is a branch of the Norddalsfjord in Norddal municipality in the county of Møre og Romsdal, Norway. ... Sunndal is a municipality in the county of Møre og Romsdal, Norway. ...


Languages in Scandinavia

Main articles: Scandinavian languages, Sami languages, Finnic languages
Distribution of the North Germanic languagesBlue - Continental languagesGreen - Insular languages
Distribution of the North Germanic languages
Blue - Continental languages
Green - Insular languages
Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official language.
Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official language.

There are two language groups that have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory - the North Germanic languages (Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages.[54] The majority languages on the peninsula, Swedish and Norwegian, are today, along with Danish, classified as Continental Scandinavian.[55] The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 499 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1107 × 1329 pixel, file size: 321 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modification of Image:Sami languages large. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 499 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1107 × 1329 pixel, file size: 321 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modification of Image:Sami languages large. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ...


The Scandinavian majority languages are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish and Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese),[56][57] but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600, the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (ö-nordisk/ø-nordisk) featuring (Icelandic and Faroese)[58] and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk), comprising Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.[59] The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches.[60] The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages (including English, German, and Dutch) and the East Germanic languages (now extinct). ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages (including English, German, and Dutch) and the East Germanic languages (now extinct). ...


The dialects of Denmark, Norway and Sweden form a dialect continuum and are mutually intelligible. The populations of the Scandinavian countries can easily understand each other's standard languages as they appear in print and are heard on radio and television. The reason why Danish, Swedish and the two official written versions of Norwegian (Nynorsk and Bokmål) are traditionally viewed as different languages, rather than dialects of one common language, is that they each are well established standard languages in their respective countries. They are related to, but not mutually intelligible with, the other North Germanic languages, Icelandic and Faroese, which are descended from Old West Norse. Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have, since medieval times, been influenced to varying degrees by Middle Low German and standard German. A substantial amount of that influence was a by-product of the economic activity generated by the Hanseatic League. Danish (dansk) is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavi languages), a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...


Norwegians are accustomed to variation, and may perceive Danish and Swedish only as slightly more distant dialects. This is because they have two official written standards, in addition to the habit of strongly holding on to local dialects. The people of Stockholm, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark, have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Scandinavian languages.[61] In the Faroe Islands Danish is mandatory, and since Faroese people this way become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, they find it relatively easy to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages.[62] The North Germanic languages are (as a language family) entirely unrelated to Finnish, Estonian and Sami languages which as Finno-Ugric languages are distantly related to Hungarian. Due to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish, Estonian and Sami languages.[63] For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ˌfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ...


Sami languages

The Sami languages belong to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family and are unrelated to the North Germanic languages other than by limited grammatical (particularly lexical) characteristics resulting from prolonged contact.[63] Sami is divided into two different languages, north Sami, which is linguistically splintered, and south Sami.[63] Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history. According to the Sami Information Centre of the Sami Parliament in Sweden, southern Sami originated in an earlier migration from the south into the Scandinavian peninsula.[63] Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... The Sami Parliament is a representative body for peoples of Sami heritage in several Scandinavian countries. ...


Finland and Scandinavia

In Finland, native Swedish speakers constitute a small, but influential, minority. All children are nonetheless given a mandatory Swedish course at school. The ethnic nationalist Fennoman movement in Finland began to fight for equal language rights for Finnish-speakers from the Swedish-speaking elite in the 1830s. Its motto, "Swedes we are no longer/not, Russians we will never become, so let us be/become Finns" was popular among Finns. The movement's goal was to promote the equal legal status of the Finnish language in a country where the official language of government was Swedish or Russian, despite the large majority of the population being Finnish-speakers.[64] The revival of the language spoken by the majority was symbolized by the creation of the national epos Kalevala and by a new reverence for the Finno-Ugric folk culture. The Fennomans protested against Finnish participation in the Scandinavian exhibition in Stockholm 1866, arguing that it would "enforce the impression that Finland belonged culturally to the Scandinavian realm" and imply that Finland did not have its own history before 1809 but was "first and foremost a periphery of western civilisation".[65] The Fennoman movement met with resistance from the Svecoman movement and the Swedish elite.[66] Finland Swedish author Zacharias Topelius joined in the criticism of the Fennoman movement in 1872, when a rhetorical question was posed by a peasant member of the Finnish parliament. The peasant parliamentarian referred to the often-mentioned claim that Finland was in debt to Sweden for its western civilization and he asked if anyone could show him the original promissory note of this debt. According to Dr. Henrik Meinander, Professor, Department of History, University of Helsinki, Finland, the rhetorical question was meant to emphasize that "Finns already stood on their own two feet and had bowed enough to the domestic Swedish-speaking elite." In response, Topelius wrote a poem arguing that the entire Finnish society was part of this promissory note.[65] Finland's struggles and success in establishing a unique identity has been followed by scholars and journalists around the world.[67] In Finnish schools, Swedish is a mandatory school subject, amounting at an average of two hours a week in classes 7-9 in the Finnish nine-year compulsory school and at an average two hours a week during three years of secondary education. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... The Swecomans, or Svekomans, was a political movement in the Grand Duchy of Finland, chiefly reactionary to the demands vigorously conveyed by the Fennomans for the substitution of Swedish in state administration, courts and schools with the Finnish language, then spoken by approximately 80 percent of the countrys population. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... Topelius in a picture published in the Swedish periodical Svenska Familj-Journalen 1866. ... University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ...


The Russian Emperor Alexander II, Grand Duke of Finland, had issued a decree already in 1863 that would secure equal status for Finnish in public affairs within the following two decades, but only in 1902 did Finnish language finally receive an equal official status with Swedish and Russian. In Finland today, the only exception to the equality between Finnish and Swedish languages is made on the Åland islands, in favour of the Swedish language. According to the county legislation[68], the region is unilingually Swedish-speaking. A number of historical people were named Alexander II: Alexander II of Macedon was King of Macedon from 370 to 368 B.C. Alexander II of Epirus was the King of Epirus in 272 B.C. Pope Alexander II was Pope from 1061 to 1073. ... “Aland” redirects here. ...


Finnish speakers constitute a minority in Sweden and Norway of similar relative size to the minority of Swedish speakers in Finland. There are also Finnic languages different from standard Finnish, known as Meänkieli in Sweden and Kven in Norway. The linguistic distance between the language families has often been seen by native speakers of each of these languages as indicative of a cultural distance, as well as a reason to consider the native Finnish speakers as a people separate from the Scandinavian culture group. Baltic-Finnic languages, also known as Finnic languages, are a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, and are spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people. ... Meänkieli (lit. ... Kvens (kveeni in Kven language / Finnish; kvener in Norwegian) are a Norwegian ethnic minority descended from Finnish peasants and fishermen who emigrated from the northern parts of Finland and Sweden to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries. ...


History

During a period of Christianization and state formation in the 10th-13th centuries, three consolidated kingdoms emerged in Scandinavia: The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...

In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark-Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre & Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden. The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark-Norway to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Båhuslen and Trøndelag to Sweden. The 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen forced Sweden to return Bornholm and Trøndelag to Denmark-Norway, and to give up its recent claims to the island Funen.[70] Denmark was historically divided into three lands: Skåneland or Terra Scania Zealand and the islands Jutland See also: Lands of Sweden Categories: Stub | Historical regions ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Map of ca. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Norrland Svealand Götaland Historical map: Lands of Sweden Sweden is divided into the tre lands: Götaland, Svealand, Norrland. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Älvdalen Municipality is a Municipality in Dalarna County, in central Sweden. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Älvdalen Municipality is a Municipality in Dalarna County, in central Sweden. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Treaty of Brömsebro of August 13, 1645 ended the Torstenson War between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, which had begun in 1643. ... Ösel is another name for Saaremaa, an island off of Estonia Ösel is also one of the six yogas of Naropa. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... Denmark Region Hovedstaden Bornholms Regionskommune 588 km² (227 mi²)  - coordinates , , 43,040 () since January 2003 CET (UTC+1)  -  CEST (UTC+2) Bornholm Island (far right) in Denmark : www. ... (help· info), (Latin: Bahusia, English, Norwegian BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in west Sweden. ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ... The Treaty of Copenhagen was signed in 1660 and marked the conclusion of the Second Northern War between Sweden and the alliance of Denmark and Poland-Lithuania. ... Funen (Danish: Fyn) is the third largest island of Denmark, it has a population of 445,000 people. ...


Scandinavian unions

Denmark-Norway until 1814.
Denmark-Norway until 1814.

The three Scandinavian kingdoms were united in 1397 in the Kalmar Union by Queen Margrete I of Denmark. Sweden left the union in 1523 under King Gustav Vasa. In the aftermath of Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway. The Protestant Reformation followed. When things had settled down, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the last time in 1537. A personal union, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in 1536, lasted until 1814. Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (949x926, 47 KB) The Monarchy of Denmark-Norway in 1780. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (949x926, 47 KB) The Monarchy of Denmark-Norway in 1780. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Gustav Vasa, originally Gustav Eriksson Vasa (May 12, 1496–September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Reformation redirects here. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... In the fictional BattleTech universe, the Successor States (named such due to their being the Successors of the Star League) are the major military powers of the Inner Sphere, each governed by one of the Great Houses. ...


Denmark-Norway is the historiographical name for the former political union consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian. During Danish rule, Norway kept its separate laws, coinage and army, as well as some institutions such as a royal chancellor. Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV,[71] but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom was an important factor to the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark-Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The adjective and derived noun Dano-Norwegian means Danish and Norwegian. It can have two related meanings: It can refer to the former (1536-1814) kingdom of Denmark-Norway or its people; or by extension to anything relating to both of its two titular composite countries, Denmark and Norway It... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Olaf IV Haakonsson, (1370 - August 23, 1387), King of Norway and Denmark, son of Haakon VI of Norway and Margaret of Denmark. ... The Kingdom of Norway as a unified realm was initiated by King Harald Fairhair in 9th century. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


The Dano-Norwegian union was formally dissolved at the 1814 Treaty of Kiel. The territory of Norway proper was ceded to the King of Sweden, but Norway's overseas possessions were kept by Denmark. However, widespread Norwegian resistance to the prospect of a union with Sweden induced the governor of Norway, crown prince Christian Frederick (later Christian VIII of Denmark), to call a constituent assembly at Eidsvoll in April of 1814. The assembly drew up a liberal constitution and elected him to the throne of Norway. Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway was to keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden. Christian Frederik formally abdicated on August 10 1814 and returned to Denmark. The parliament Storting elected king Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on November 4. The Treaty of Kiel, was a settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king, a loser in the Napoleonic wars, ceded Norway to the king of Sweden, in return for the Swedish holdings in Pomerania. ... Christian VIII Christian VIII (September 18, 1786–January 20, 1848), king of Denmark 1839-48 and of Norway 1814, the eldest son of the Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, was born in 1786 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. ... County Akershus Landscape Romerike Municipality NO-0237 Administrative centre Sundet Mayor (2005) Arild Sandahl (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 222 457 km² 385 km² 0. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Storting (Stortinget, literally The Big Thing) is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Oslo. ... Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved in 1905, after which Prince Charles of Denmark was elected king of Norway under the name of Haakon VII. King Haakon VII King Haakon VII of Norway, Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (August 3, 1872 - September 21, 1957) was the first King of Norway after the dissolution of the personal union with Sweden in 1905. ...


Politics: Scandinavism

Scandinavia as a 19th century political vision (Scandinavism)
Scandinavia as a 19th century political vision (Scandinavism)
See also Politics of Denmark, Politics of Norway and Politics of Sweden.

The modern usage of the term Scandinavia has been influenced by Scandinavism (the Scandinavist political movement), which was active in the middle of the 19th century, mainly between the First war of Schleswig (1848-1850), in which Sweden and Norway contributed with considerable military force, and the Second war of Schleswig (1864). In 1864, the Swedish parliament denounced the promises of military support made to Denmark by Charles XV of Sweden. The members of the Swedish parliament were wary of joining an alliance against the rising German power. Download high resolution version (444x640, 86 KB)Scandinavism This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (444x640, 86 KB)Scandinavism This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... The Folketing in session. ... Norwegian politics officially have the structure of a constitutional monarchy, giving the King mainly symbolic power while maintaining a stable Western democracy. ... Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Sweden is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... The First war of Schleswig (1848 – 1850), known in Denmark as the Three Years War (Treårskrigen), was a military conflict in southern Denmark, contesting the issue of who should control the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded... Karl XV (Karl Ludvig Eugén) (May 3, 1826 – September 18, 1872) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl IV) from 1859 until his death. ...


The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single United Kingdom. The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic wars in the beginning of the century. This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 and Norway (de jure in union with Denmark since 1387, although de facto treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a personal union with Sweden. The dependent territories Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, historically part of Norway, remained with Denmark in accordance with the Treaty of Kiel. Sweden and Norway were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the Russian Empire excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland and any of the other Nordic countries. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Treaty of Kiel, was a settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king, a loser in the Napoleonic wars, ceded Norway to the king of Sweden, in return for the Swedish holdings in Pomerania. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied the military support promised from Sweden and Norway to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein had been in personal union with Denmark. The Second war of Schleswig followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark and Prussia (supported by Austria). Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia, and after Prussia's success in the Franco-Prussian War a Prussian-led German Empire was created, and a new power-balance of the Baltic sea countries was established. A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Baltic Sea The following countries have access to the Baltic Sea: Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Latvia Lithuania Poland Russia Sweden The Baltic Sea countries, together with Norway, Iceland and the European Union form the Council of the Baltic Sea States. ...


Even if a Scandinavian political union never came about at this point, there was a Scandinavian Monetary Union established in 1873, lasting until World War I, with the Krona/Krone as the common currency. The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... Krone can mean: Krone - the former currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892. ...


Historical political structure

Century Scandinavia and the Nordic Countries
21st Denmark (EU) Faroes Iceland Norway Sweden (EU) Finland (EU)
20th Denmark Sweden Finland
19th Denmark Union between Sweden and Norway GD of Finland (Russia)
18th Denmark-Norway Sweden
17th Denmark-Norway Sweden
16th
15th Kalmar Union
14th Denmark Norway Sweden
13th
12th Faroes Icelandic CW Norway Jämtland
Peoples Danes Faroese¹ Icelanders¹ Norwegians/Sami Jamts²/Sami Swedes/Sami Finns/Sami

1/ The original settlers of the Faroes and Iceland were of Nordic (mainly Norwegian) origin, with a considerable element of Celtic or Pictish origin (from Ireland and Scotland) . Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... The Danish nation is a concept closely connected to 19th century ethnic nationalism. ... The term Norwegians may refer to: People with a Norwegian ancestral or ethnic identity, whether living in Norway, emigrants, or the descendents of emigrants. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Swede (turnip /neep in Scotland) is also the British name for what the Americans call rutabaga. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... This article is about the European people. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... This article is about the country. ...


2/ The settlers of Jämtland are of Norwegian—more specifically Trøndish—origin and their ancestors founded their own state similar to the Icelandic one governed by the Jamtamót assembly of free men. (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ... Jamtamót was the old assembly of Jämtland. ...


See also

Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The Nordic flags. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... British Scandinavians or Scandinavian Britons, are people of Scandinavian/Nordic origin who were born or raised in the United Kingdom. ... Scandinavian colonialism is a subdivision within broader colonial studies that emphasizes the role of European Nordic nations in achieving economic benefits from non-Western cultural groups. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Danish and Swedish: Skandinavien, Norwegian, Faroese and Finnish: Skandinavia, Icelandic: Skandinavía, Sami: Skadesi-suolu / Skađsuâl.
  2. ^ Scandinavia. (2006). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 30, 2007: "Scandinavia (ancient Scandia), name applied collectively to three countries of northern Europe—Norway and Sweden (which together form the Scandinavian Peninsula), and Denmark."
  3. ^ Scandinavia. (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: "Scandinavia, historically Scandia, part of northern Europe, generally held to consist of the two countries of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Norway and Sweden, with the addition of Denmark."
  4. ^ "Scandinavia" (2005). The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition. Ed. Erin McKean. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517077-6: "a cultural region consisting of the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and sometimes also of Iceland, Finland, and the Faroe Islands".
  5. ^ "Scandinavia" (2008). In the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 9 January 2008: "Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway, Sweden — sometimes also considered to include Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, & Finland."
  6. ^ Scandinavia (2001). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved January 31, 2007: "Scandinavia, region of N Europe. It consists of the kingdoms of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; Finland and Iceland are usually considered part of Scandinavia."
  7. ^ Scandinavia. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition, 2002. Eds. E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Retrieved January 31 2007: "Scandinavia. The region in northern Europe containing Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and the peninsulas they occupy. Through cultural, historical, and political associations, Finland and Iceland are often considered part of Scandinavia."
  8. ^ a b Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 3–7.
  9. ^ Peltonen, Arvo (2002). Politics and Society: The Population in Finland, Virtual Finland, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Department for Communication and Culture, 21 November 2002, retrieved 14 Nov. 2006, paragraph 1: "The Finns form a distinct linguistic and ethnic group; the original Finno-Ugric population bearing features from both eastern and western Europe. Finland is an interface between east and west."
  10. ^ Oresundstid (2003). Scandinavism - the students. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  11. ^ In response to Scandinavism, some Norwegian scholars of the 19th century resisted the idea that Scandinavia had a shared heritage and stressed the unique aspects that unit Iceland's cultural output exclusively with Norway and make it separate and unique. See for example Bothne, Gisle (1898). "The Language of Modern Norway". PMLA, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1898), p. 350: "[While it is true that] the old Norwegian literature was far behind the contemporaneous Icelandic literature [...], every Norwegian holds it to be equally true that the language of Norway and that of her colony Iceland [...] were substantially the same. Norroent mál, and the Norroen literature (created by conditions peculiar to Norway and Iceland alone) are the exclusive historical property of Norway and Iceland, while Denmark and Sweden have no part in them."
  12. ^ a b c "Facts about the Nordic Region and Nordic Co-operation". Nordic Council of Ministers, 1 October 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2008: "The Nordic countries consist of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Finland, Åland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden."
  13. ^ United States Government (2005). "Nordic Countries Report on Misconduct Activity in the 90's". The Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Volume 7, No. 4, September 1999. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  14. ^ United Nations Development Program. UNDP Nordic Office. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  15. ^ "Finland and the Swedish Empire". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 Nov. 2006.
  16. ^ a b "Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland." Editorial. Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History, 1997, Volume 1, University of Jyväskylä, p. 6-7: "[T]he populist opposition both to Sweden as a former imperial country and especially to Swedish as the language of the narrow Finnish establishment has also been strong, especially in the inter-war years. [...] Finland as a unitary and homogeneous nation-state was constructed [...] in opposition to the imperial models of Sweden and Russia."
  17. ^ "The Rise of Finnish Nationalism". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 Nov. 2006: "The eighteenth century had witnessed the appearance of [...] a sense of national identity for the Finnish people, [...] an expression of the Finns' growing doubts about Swedish rule [...] The ethnic self-consciousness of Finnish speakers was given a considerable boost by the Russian conquest of Finland in 1809, because ending the connection with Sweden forced Finns to define themselves with respect to the Russians."
  18. ^ Editors and Board, Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History
  19. ^ Seppälä, Matti, ed. (2005). The Physical Geography of Fennoscandia. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. XI, 1. ISBN 0199245908.
  20. ^ Scandinavian Peninsula. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  21. ^ Naval Intelligence Division (1920). A Handbook of Norway & Sweden By Great Britain. Published by H. M. Stationery office.
  22. ^ Scandinavia (2001). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  23. ^ "Scandinavia" American Heritage® Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.
  24. ^ See also EU documents, such as the following report in SwedishPDF (1.67 MiB), report in DanishPDF (1.70 MiB) and bulletin in German.
  25. ^ "Nordic". In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  26. ^ a b c Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25-71. Also published online at Danish Institute for International Studies. For the history of cultural Scandinavism, see Oresundstid's articles The Literary Scandinavism and The Roots of Scandinavism. Retrieved 19 January 2007.
  27. ^ Hans Christian Andersen and Music - I am a Scandinavian. The Royal Library of Denmark, the National Library and Copenhagen University Library. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  28. ^ About The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Official site. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  29. ^ Scandinavian Tourist Board. Official site.
  30. ^ The Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America. Official Website. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  31. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999.
  32. ^ Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976.
  33. ^ a b c Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-47299-7.
  34. ^ "Island". Bartleby, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000.
  35. ^ a b c Old Frisian "se". "Comments on Indo-European reconstruction". The Indo-European Dictionary (IEED). Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  36. ^ Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book IV, chapter XXXIX. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  37. ^ Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book VIII, chapter XVII. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  38. ^ Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming (2002). "Nordic language history and the history of ideas I: Humanism". In The Nordic Languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., Vol I. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2002. ISBN 3110148765, p. 358: "The term 'hyperborean' has been taken from odes by Pindar and Horace, literally meaning 'people living north of the north wind (Boreas). [Olaus Verelius, the founder] perpetuated Johannes Magnus' viewpoint that human culture began in Sweden with the Goths; [...] The height of the nationalistic theory of Gothic origins can be found in the work of Olof Rudbeck".
  39. ^ Malone,Kemp (1924). "Ptolemy's Skandia". The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 45, No. 4. (1924), pp. 362-370.
  40. ^ Stadius, Peter (2001). "Southern Perspectives on the North: Legends, Stereotypes, Images and Models". BaltSeaNet Working Paper 3, The Baltic Sea Area Studies, Gdansk/Berlin, 2001. Online version retrieved 2 October 2007.
  41. ^ Jordanes (translated by Charles C. Mierow), THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, April 22, 1997
  42. ^ Jurate Rosales, Los Godos. Barcelona, Ed. Ariel S.A., 2nd edition, 2004. (edition in Spanish)
  43. ^ Jurate Rosales, Goths and Balts. Chicago, 2004. (edition in English)
  44. ^ Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, BIBLIOTHECA AUGUSTANA
  45. ^ History of the Langobards, Northvegr Foundation
  46. ^ Björkman,Erik (1973). Studien über die Eigennamen im Beowulf. M. Sändig, ISBN 3500284701, p. 99.
  47. ^ a b North, Richard (1997). Heathen Gods in Old English Literature. Cambridge University Press: 1997, ISBN 0521551838, p.192.
  48. ^ Svennung, J. (1963). Scandinavia und Scandia. Lateinisch-nordische Namenstudien. Almqvist & Wiksell/Harrassowitz, 1963, pp. 54-56.
  49. ^ Mundel, E. (2000). "Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths" Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths University of Bergen, 11th Saga Conference Sydney 2000
  50. ^ Steinsland, Gro (1991). Det hellige bryllup og norrøn kongeideologi. En analyse av hierogami-myten i Skírnismál, Ynglingatal, Háleygjatal og Hyndluljóð. Oslo: Solum, 1991. (In Norwegian).
  51. ^ Aikio, A. (2004). "An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami". In Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63, Eds. Irma Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen, Helsinki, pp. 5-34 (p. 14: "On the basis of Scandinavian loanwords it can be inferred that both sk- and -ʃ- were adopted in the west during the early separate development of the Saami languages, but never spread to Kola Saami. These areal features thus emerged in a phase when Proto-Saami began to diverge into dialects anticipating the modern Saami languages.")
  52. ^ a b J. F. del Giorgio (2006). The Oldest Europeans: Who Are We? Where Do We Come From? What Made European Women Different?. A. J. Place, 2006. ISBN 980-6898-00-1.
  53. ^ Uścinowicz, Szymon (2003). "How the Baltic Sea was changing". Marine Geology Branch, Polish Geological Institute, 9 June 2003. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  54. ^ Sammallahti, Pekka, 1990. "The Sámi Language: Past and Present". In Arctic Languages: An Awakening. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Paris. ISBN 92-3-102661-5, p. 440: "we do not know of any linguistic groups in the area other than the Uralic and Indo-Europeans (represented by the present Scandinavian languages)."
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  56. ^ Henriksen, Petter (ed.); Aschehoug og Gyldendals Store norske leksikon, 11 Nar-Pd; Kunnskapsforlaget; Oslo; 1998; ISBN 82-573-0703-3
  57. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International
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  60. ^ Torp, Arne (2004). Nordiske sprog i fortid og nutid. Sproglighed og sprogforskelle, sprogfamilier og sprogslægtskab. Moderne nordiske sprog. In Nordens sprog - med rødder og fødder. Nord 2004:010, ISBN 9289310413, Nordic Council of Ministers' Secretariat, Copenhagen 2004. (In Danish).
  61. ^ "Urban misunderstandings". Norden This Week - Monday 01.17.2005, Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
  62. ^ Faroese and Norwegians best at understanding Nordic neighbours, Nordisk Sprogråd, Nordic Council, 13 January 2005.
  63. ^ a b c d Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006). "A language with deep roots".Sápmi: Language history, 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget: "The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...] Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian, Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are consequently related to each other."
  64. ^ See "Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland", p. 9: "Fennoman cultural nationalism put an emphasis on the education and elevation of the people, and it became the leading force in the university sphere and in the bureaucracy. In the late 19th century Fennoman politics were more exclusively concentrated on the language question, trying to replace Swedish with Finnish."
  65. ^ a b Meinander, Henrik. (2002). "On the Brink or Between? The conception of Europe in Finnish identity". The Meaning of Europe. Ed. Mikael af Malmborg and Bo Stråth. Oxford: Berg, 2002. ISBN 1-85973-576-2
  66. ^ Kolehmainen, John Ilmari (1943). "Antti Jalava and Hungarian-Finnish Rapprochement". Slavonic and East European Review. American Series, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Nov. 1943), pp. 167-174.
  67. ^ See for example: Agrawal, Subhash. Finland: A Turnaround Success Story, The Financial Express, net edition, Mumbai, India, 1 Jul. 2004.
  68. ^ Act on the Autonomy of Åland. Published by the Parliament of Åland.
  69. ^ Olrik Fredriksen, Britta (2002). "The History of Old Nordic Manuscripts IV: Old Danish". Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Ed. Oskar Brandle et al. Walter De Gruyter Inc: Berlin, 2002. ISBN 3-11-014876-5
  70. ^ "Treaty of Copenhagen" (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 9, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  71. ^ The Monarchy: Historical Background. The Royal House of Norway. Official site, retrieved 9 Nov. 2006.

Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... There was one person and one god known as Boreas in Greek mythology. ... Johannes Magnus, (before 1530 Johannes Magni, a Latin translation of his birth name Johannes Store) was born March 19, 1488 in Linköping, Sweden and died March 22, 1544 in Rome, and was the son of Måns Petersson Store och Kristina Magnus. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Olaus Rudbeckius, senior or (1630-1702), Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus (headmaster) of the same university. ... Paul the Deacon (c. ...

External links

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  • Go Scandinavia - Official Website of the Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America
  • Nordic Council - Official site for co-operation in the Nordic region
  • Nordregio - Site established by the Nordic Council of Ministers
  • Scandinavia House - The Nordic Center in New York, run by the American-Scandinavian Foundation
  • Scandinavia News - Scandinavia news and analysis of current events
  • Scandinavia Now - Nordic business news in English
  • Scandinavica - Monthly magazine about Scandinavia
  • Historical atlas of Scandinavia - Personal web site of Örjan Martinsson
  • ReRailEurope - A Railway map of Scandinavia (flash file)

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