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Encyclopedia > Scallop
Scallop

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Ostreoida
Suborder: Pectinina
Superfamily: Pectinoidea
Family: Pectinidae
Genera

See text. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Subclasses Anomalosdesmata Cryptodonta Heterodonta Paleoheterodonta Palaeotaxodonta Pteriomorphia and see text Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England. ... Superfamilies Pectinoidea Anomioidea Pectinina is a Suborder in the Bivalve order Ostreoida containing the Superfamilies Pectinoidea and Anomioidea Category: ...

Scallops (IPA: /ˈskɒləps/) are marine bivalve molluscs in the family Pectinidae. They are a cosmopolitan family, found in all of the world's oceans. Many scallops are highly prized as a food source. Some scallops are valued for their brightly colored shells. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...


Like the true oysters (family Ostreidae), scallops have a central adductor muscle, and thus the inside of their shells has a characteristic central scar, marking the point of attachment for this muscle. The adductor muscle of scallops is larger and more developed than that of oysters, because they are active swimmers; they swim by flapping their shells open and closed. Because they can swim so well, scallops are in fact the only migratory bivalve. Their shell shape tends to be highly regular, recalling one archetypal form of a seashell, and because of this pleasing geometric shape, the scallop shell is a common decorative motif. Genera Crassostrea Hyotissa Lopha Ostrea Saccostrea et al The members of the family Ostreidae are the true oysters, and include all the species that are commonly eaten under the title oyster. They do not include the Pearl Oysters; these species are only distantly related to the true oysters, since although... In anatomy and physiology, adduction is the moving of limbs towards the midline of the body. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... A display of seashells, mostly of marine Mollusca, including an abalone, nautilus, ark shell, scallop, pearl oyster, auger shell, cone shell, two cowries, a hammer oyster, and a fossil clam, but also including the shell or test of a sand dollar (an echinoderm). ...


Most scallops are free-living, but some species can attach to a substrate by a structure called a byssus, or even be cemented to their substrate as adults (e.g. Hinnites spp.). A free-living scallop can swim, by rapidly opening and closing its shell. This method of locomotion is also a defense technique, protecting it from threatening predators. There can sometimes be an audible soft popping sound that some scallops make as they flap their shells underwater, and because of this, one kind was dubbed "singing scallops" by a seafood vendor. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The term byssus (sometimes byssal thread, or byssus thread) denotes strong threads secreted by mussels to attach to rocks and large, generally heavy objects in the intertidal zone. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...

Contents

Life cycle

A live specimen of Argopecten irradians, the Atlantic Bay scallop, photographed at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts
A live specimen of Argopecten irradians, the Atlantic Bay scallop, photographed at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Scallops are hermaphroditic; capable of switching sexes. Both sexes produce roe, whose coloring depends upon the parent's (current) sex. Red roe is that of a female, and white, that of a male. Spermatozoa and ova are released freely into the water during mating season and fertilized ova sink to the bottom. After several weeks, the immature scallop hatches and the larvae drift until settling to the bottom again to grow. They reach sexual maturity after several years, though they may not reach a commercially harvestable size until six to eight years of age. Scallops may live up to 18 years, with their age reflected in the annuli, the concentric rings of their shells. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Woods Hole is a census-designated place and village within the town of Falmouth in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, at the extreme southwest corner of Cape Cod, near the island of Marthas Vineyard, and is the site of three famous scientific institutions: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Marine Biological Laboratory... The 1st-century BC sculpture The Reclining Hermaphrodite, in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme in Rome A hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and female sex organs during its life. ... This article is about fish eggs. ... An annulus In mathematics, an annulus (the Latin word for little ring, with plural annuli) is a ring-shaped geometric figure, or more generally, a term used to name a ring-shaped object. ...


On the east coast of the U.S., the availability of bay scallops has been greatly diminished by the overfishing of sharks in the area. A variety of sharks have, until recently, fed on rays, which are a main predator of bay scallops. With the shark population reduced, in some places almost totally, the rays have been free to dine on scallops to the point of greatly decreasing their numbers.


Taxonomy and list of genera

In total, in the family Pectinidae, there are more than 30 genera and around 350 species. While species are generally well circumscribed, their attribution to subfamilies and genera is sometimes equivocal, and there is minimal information about phylogeny and relationships of the species, not least because most work has been based on adult morphology (Barucca et al., 2004).

The great scallop, Pecten maximus, on the right, next to the native European oyster, Ostrea edulis.
The great scallop, Pecten maximus, on the right, next to the native European oyster, Ostrea edulis.
Aviculopecten subcardiformis; an extinct pectenoid from the Logan Formation (Lower Carboniferous) of Wooster, Ohio (external mold).
Pecten sp. with serpulid worm encrusters; Duck Harbor Beach on Cape Cod Bay, Wellfleet, Massachusetts.

Download high resolution version (1084x548, 245 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1084x548, 245 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1314 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1314 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Wayne County courthouse in downtown Wooster Wooster (IPA ) first syllable pronounced puss--like the cat--with a w is a city in Wayne County, Ohio, United States. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2010 × 1557 pixels, file size: 634 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2010 × 1557 pixels, file size: 634 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ...

Genera

  • Aequipecten Fischer, 1886 (includes Rough scallop Aequipecten muscosus)
  • Amusium Bolten, 1798
  • Anguipecten Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
  • Annachlamys Iredale, 1939
  • Argopecten Monterosato, 1889 (includes bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, Atlantic calico scallop Argopectin gibbus and Pacific calico scallop, Argopecten ventricosus)
  • Bathypecten Schein-Fatton 1985
  • Bractechlamys Iredale, 1939
  • Catillopecten Iredale, 1939
  • Chlamys Bolten, 1798 includes Queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis
  • Coralichlamys Iredale, 1939
  • Cryptopecten Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
  • Decatopecten Sowerby, 1839
  • Delectopecten Stewart, 1920
  • Equichlamys Iredale, 1929
  • Euvola Dall, 1898
  • Excellichlamys Iredale, 1939
  • Flexopecten Sacco, 1897
  • Glorichlamys Dijkstra, 1991
  • Gloripallium Iredale, 1939
  • Haumea Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
  • Hyalopecten Verrill, 1897
  • Juxtamusium Iredale, 1939
  • Lissopecten Verrill, 1897
  • Mesopeplum Iredale, 1929
  • Mimachlamys Iredale, 1929
  • Minnivola Iredale, 1939
  • Mirapecten Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
  • Nodipecten Dall, 1898
  • Notochlamys Cotton, 1930
  • Patinopecten Dall, 1898
  • Pecten Mueller, 1776 (includes the Great or King scallop, Pecten maximus and Japanese (sea) scallop, Pecten yessoensis)
  • Pedum Bruguière, 1791
  • Pseudohinnites Dijkstra, 1989
  • Semipallium Lamy, 1928
  • Serratovola Habe, 1951
  • Sinepecten Schein, 2006 [1]
  • Somalipecten Waller, 1986
  • Veprichlamys Iredale, 1929
  • Volachlamys Iredale, 1939

Species See text. ... Rough scallop, Aequipecten muscosus (W. Wood) Rough scallop, Aequipecten muscosus (W. Wood) Genera Genus: Aequipecten muscosus Rough Scallop Aequipecten muscosus (=Chlamys muscosus) grows up to 1 3/4 inches. ... Atlantic callico scallop, Argopecten gibbus (Linnaeus) Atlantic callico scallop, Argopecten gibbus (Linnaeus) Genera Genus: Argopectin The Atlantic Calico Scallop Argopectin gibbus grows up to three inches and is similar in shape and sculpturing to the Atlantic bay scallop. ... Nodipecten is a genus of large scallops, marine bivalve molluscs in the Pectinidae family. ...

Gathering scallops

Scallops were traditionally caught by dragging the seabed, but now in British seas there is a trade in scuba diving to catch scallops. Dived scallops tend to fetch better prices than dredged scallops because they are out of the water for less time, meaning they get to the consumers' plate quicker. When scallops are dredged, they may spend up to 2 weeks on a vessel before they get to market. Like any seafood, the meat will start to break down in time. Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...


Scallops in cooking

Scallops on display in a seafood market
Scallops on display in a seafood market

Scallops are a popular type of shellfish in both Eastern and Western cooking. They are characterised by having two types of meat in one shell: the adductor muscle, called "scallop" which is white and meaty, the roe, called "coral", which is red or white and soft. Image File history File links Singing_Scallops. ... Image File history File links Singing_Scallops. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... This article is about fish eggs. ...


In western cuisine, scallops are commonly sautéed in butter, or else breaded and deep fried. Scallops are commonly paired with light semi-dry white wines. Generally speaking in the U.S., when a scallop is prepared, only the adductor muscle is used; the other parts of the scallop surrounding the muscle are ordinarily discarded. Sometimes markets in the U.S. sell scallops already prepared in the shell, with only the adductor muscle intact. Outside the U.S., the scallop is often sold whole. Scallops that are without any additives are called "dry packed" while scallops that are treated with sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) are called "wet packed". STP causes the scallops to absorb moisture prior to the freezing process, thereby getting a better price per unit of weight. The freezing process takes about 2 days. Western cuisine is a term used for cuisine in The Americas and in Europe. ... Sautéing is a method of cooking food using a small amount of fat in a shallow pan over relatively high heat. ... Deep frying is cooking food by submerging the whole food item in hot oil or fat, originating in Africa. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In continental cuisine, scallops are often prepared in the form of a quiche or cooked and then set into a savory custard. In Japanese cuisine, scallops may be served in soup or prepared as sashimi or sushi. Dried scallop is known in Oriental cuisine as conpoy. Mediterranean quiche In French cuisine, a quiche (IPA: ) is a baked dish that is made primarily of eggs and milk or cream in a pastry crust. ... There are many views as to what defines Japanese cuisine, as the everyday food of the Japanese people has diversified immensely over the past century or so. ... Assorted sashimi Sashimi (Japanese: ) is a Japanese delicacy primarily consisting of very fresh raw seafoods, thinly sliced into pieces about 2. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... Conpoy or Dried scallop (干貝, Cantonese: konpui; Mandarin: Gān beì), is type of dried seafood product made from the adductor muscle of scallops. ...


In a sushi bar, hotategai (帆立貝, 海扇) is the traditional scallop on rice, and while kaibashira (貝柱) may be called scallops, it is actually the adductor muscle of any kind of shellfish, e.g. mussels, oysters, or clams. Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ...


Scallops have lent their name to the culinary term scalloped, which originally referred to seafood creamed and served hot in the shell (Rombauer 1964). Today it means a creamed casserole dish such as scalloped potatoes, which contains no seafood at all. This page is a candidate to be copied to the Wikibooks Cookbook using the Transwiki process. ...


Potato scallops are also a popular 'chip shop' dish in middle England. A thick potato slice is covered in batter and deep fried.


Symbolism

Shell of Saint James

The scallop shell is the traditional emblem of Saint James the Greater and is popular with pilgrims on the Way of St James to the apostle's shrine at Santiago de Compostela in Spain. Medieval Christians making the pilgrimage to his shrine often wore a scallop shell symbol on their hats or clothes. The pilgrim also carried a scallop shell with him and would present himself at churches, castles, abbeys etc. where he could expect to be given as much sustenance as he could pick up with one scoop. Probably he would be given oats, barley, and perhaps beer or wine. Thus even the poorest household could give charity without being overburdened. The association of Saint James with the scallop can most likely be traced to the legend that the apostle once rescued a knight covered in scallops. An alternate version of the legend holds that while St. James's remains were being transported to Spain from Jerusalem, the horse of a knight fell into the water, and emerged covered in the shells. Saint James, son of Zebedee (d. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... St James the Moor Slayer. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , Time Zone : (GMT+01) Western Europe / Paris Standard Time - summer: (GMT+02) Western Europe / Paris Daylight Saving Time General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

  • The German word for scallop is "Jakobsmuschel".
  • The Swedish word for scallop literally translates to pilgrim mussel.
  • A French name for a dish containing scallops is coquille St. Jacques (in Québec, pétoncle is more commonly used).
  • The Dutch name is Jakobsschelp (James being English for Jacobus).
  • The Italian word for scallop is "Pettine di mare" which literally means "sea comb"

Fertility symbol

Aphrodite in a sea shell, from Amisos, now in the Louvre.
Aphrodite in a sea shell, from Amisos, now in the Louvre.

One legend of the Way of St James holds that the route was seen as a sort of fertility pilgrimage, undertaken when a young couple desired to bear offspring; the scallop shell is believed to have originally been carried therefore by pagans as a symbol of fertility. [citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1575x2240, 2261 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scallop Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1575x2240, 2261 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Scallop Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... now. ... This article is about the museum. ... St James the Moor Slayer. ...


Many paintings of Venus, the Roman goddess of love and fertility, included a scallop shell in the painting to identify her; this is evident in Botticelli's classically inspired The Birth of Venus (which has even been nicknamed "Venus on the half-shell"[citation needed]). Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Birth of Venus is a painting by Sandro Botticelli. ...


Alternatively, the scallop resembles the Setting Sun, which was the focus of the pre-Christian Celtic rituals of the area. To wit, the pre-Christian roots of the Way of St. James was a Celtic death journey westwards towards the setting sun, terminating at the End of the World (Finisterra) on the "Coast of Death" (Costa de Morta) and the "Sea of Darkness" (ie, the Abyss of Death, the Mare Tenebrosum, Latin for the Atlantic Ocean, itself named after the Dying Civilization of Atlantis). The reference to St. James rescuing a "knight covered in scallops" is therefore a reference to St. James healing, or resurrecting, a dying (setting sun) knight. Similarly, the notion of the "Sea of Darkness" (Atlantic Ocean) disgorging St. James' body, so that his relics are (allegedly) buried at Santiago de Compostella on the coast, is itself a metaphor for "rising up out of Death", that is, resurrection.[citation needed]


Heraldry

A scallop shell as a heraldic device on a German coat of arms.
A scallop shell as a heraldic device on a German coat of arms.

The scallop shell symbol found its way into heraldry as a badge of those who had been on the pilgrimage to Compostela, although later it became a symbol of pilgrimage in general. Winston Churchill's family coat of arms includes a scallop, another example is the surname Wilmot and also John Wesley's (which as a result the scallop shell is used as an emblem of Methodism). However, charges in heraldry do not always have an unvarying symbolic meaning, and there are cases of arms in which no family member went on a pilgrimage and the occurrence of the scallop is simply a pun on the name of the armiger, or for other reasons. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Churchill redirects here. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Categories: Canada geography stubs | Ontario communities ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ...


State Shell of New York

The U.S. state of New York made the Atlantic bay scallop its state shell in 1988. This article is about the state. ... This is a list of official state shells:[1] References ^ List of all state shells http://www. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Scallops in design

In design Scalloped edges or ridges refers to a wavy pattern reminiscent of the edge of a scallop's shell. All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ...


References

  • Rombauer, Irma S. and Marion Rombauer Becker (1931 [1964]) The Joy of Cooking, p 369. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. ISBN 0-452-25665-8.
  • Barucca M, Olmo E, Schiaparelli S, Canapa A (2004) Molecular phylogeny of the family Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scallop: Wildlife Notebook Series - Alaska Department of Fish and Game (672 words)
Scallops are found in beds (areas of abundant numbers), and are dioecious, having separate sexes.
Additionally, scallops are equipped with small tentacles which are highly sensitive to odors and changes in water temperature.
Scallops are generally shucked, washed, and bagged on ice by crew members on a shift basis, while the vessel fishes continuously.
Scallop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (861 words)
Scallops may be attached to a substrate by a structure called a byssus, or cemented to their substrate (eg.
Scallop may live to be as old as 18 years of age, with their age reflected in the annuli, the concentric rings of their shells.
Scallops are commonly sautéd in butter, or else breaded and deep fried.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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