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Encyclopedia > Sayeret Matkal
Sayeret Matkal

Pin Badge of Sayeret Matkal
Active 1964-Present
Branch Israeli Army
Type Special Forces
Role Reconnaissance, Direct Action, Raids, Hostage rescue, Counter-Terrorism
Size Classified (about 1200 operators estimated plus support-structures)
Garrison/HQ Classified
Nickname The Unit
Motto Who Dares Wins
Battles/wars Six Day War, War of Attrition, 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon, Yom Kippur War, Operation Entebbe, 1982 Lebanon War, First Intifada, Gulf War, 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Yonatan Netanyahu, Meir Har-Zion, Ehud Barak, Shaul Mofaz, Moshe Yaalon, Danny Yatom

Sayeret Matkal (Hebrew: סיירת מטכ"ל, translation: General Staff Reconnaissance unit) is the elite special forces unit of the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). It was established in 1964 with veterans of the Paratroopers Brigade's Sayeret (890th Battalion) and the IDF's Intelligence Branch (Aman). Its main roles are counter-terrorism, deep reconnaissance and intelligence gathering, but the unit is first and foremost a field intelligence-gathering unit, used to obtain strategically important intelligence far behind enemy lines. Sayeret Matkal is also in charge of hostage rescue missions outside of Israel's borders. The unit is modeled on the British SAS, and organizationally reports to Aman. Its IDF nickname is simply "The Unit". The unit's motto is "Who Dares Wins" (same as the SAS motto). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... Combatants Sayeret Matkal PLO Strength 25,000 unknown Casualties 2 KIA 12-100 KIA 3 civilian casualties The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Spring of Youth) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973 when Israel Defense Forces special forces... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Aided By Saudi Arabia Pakistan Cuba Uganda Libya, Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly... Combatants  Israel  PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen  Uganda Commanders Yonatan Netanyahu† Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse Idi Amin Strength 29 Commandos Unknown Casualties Yonatan Netanyahu killed three hostages killed five commandos wounded 6 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan soldiers killed Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe incident and sometimes the Entebbe... Combatants Israel Phalange South Lebanon Army Amal PLO Syria Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 9,800 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon, Milkhemet Levanon, Arabic: ‎), called by Israel the Operation Peace of... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... Combatants US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded see section below The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War (16 January 1991–28 February 1991)[1][2... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... Yonatan Yoni Netanyahu (March 13, 1946 - July 4, 1976) is an Israeli war hero. ... Meir Har-Zion (b. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ... Lieutenant-General Moshe Yaalon is a General of the Israeli Defence Force. ... Danny Yatom also Dani Yatom was the Director of the Mossad from 1996 to 1998. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... Aman badge Aman (אמן) is the Hebrew abbreviation for the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף המודיעין), Israels central, overarching military intelligence. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... A hostage crisis is a situation created by militants or terrorists wherein they take over a building full of people and then: (a) hold them till their demands or met, or (b) hold them until someone they respect tells them to stop or they decide to surrender, or (c) are... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Aman badge Aman (אמן) is the Hebrew abbreviation for the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף המודיעין), Israels central, overarching military intelligence. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ...


The unit is best known for Operation Thunderbolt, more commonly but mistakenly known as Operation Entebbe, in which it rescued more than 100 Air France airline passengers hijacked and flown to Uganda by PLO terrorists, losing only the unit commander, Yonatan Netanyahu, to enemy gunfire. Combatants  Israel  PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen  Uganda Commanders Yonatan Netanyahu† Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse Idi Amin Strength 29 Commandos Unknown Casualties Yonatan Netanyahu killed three hostages killed five commandos wounded 6 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan soldiers killed Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe incident and sometimes the Entebbe... Air France (Compagnie Nationale Air France) is a subsidiary of Air France-KLM. Before its merger with KLM, it was the national airline of France, employing 71,654 people (as of March 2004). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Yonatan Yoni Netanyahu (March 13, 1946 - July 4, 1976) is an Israeli war hero. ...

Contents

History

Sayeret Matkal was formed in 1957 by an officer by the name of Abraham Arnan. He petitioned the IDF General Staff to create a unit that could be dispatched to enemy-held territory to carry out top secret intelligence gathering missions. The unit was initially based on the examples set forth by the SAS. Members of the unit were trained by Bedouin trackers on the finer points of looking and thinking like an Arab. Sayeret Matkal was also formed one year after the IDF's first helicopter squadron became operational and close co-operation between the two allowed Sayeret Matkal to deploy for longer and deeper inside Arab territory than any unit before. The Israeli General Staff is the general staff of the Israel Defense Forces, constituting its supreme command. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ...


In 1959, a draftee named Ehud Barak was accepted into Sayeret Matkal. He later succeeded the original Matkal leader, Lt. Meir Har-Zion, became Israel's most decorated soldier, and then went on to become the IDF Chief of Staff. Barak was a great influence on Sayeret Matkal. He was a highly innovative soldier, charismatic and brave. His presence inspired confidence in his soldiers and gave rise to a talented crew of operators that became a deadly and effective force. Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ...


Although a top-secret unit, Sayeret Matkal had a tremendous influence on the IDF. They were the original developers of helicopter infiltration techniques in Israel. In addition, their heavy use of the Uzi led them to convince Israel Military Industries to produce an Uzi with a folding stock for increased accuracy while maintaining its small frame. The Uzi (Hebrew: ) is a family of guns that started with a compact, boxy, yet lightweight submachine gun. ... IMI logo Israel Military Industries Ltd. ...


Sayeret Matkal has participated in many anti- and counter-terrorist operations, including the storming of a Boeing 707 held by Black September terrorists in 1972 (Operation Isotope), and the killing of a force of bus hijackers in the Gaza Strip. They are probably best known for their actions in the 1976 rescue of 106 passengers at Entebbe Airport in Uganda (the Entebbe Incident). There have been rumors linking them with several recent operations but these have never been confirmed by the IDF. The Boeing 707 is a four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Entebbe International Airport is the main international airport of Uganda. ... Combatants  Israel  PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen  Uganda Commanders Yonatan Netanyahu† Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse Idi Amin Strength 29 Commandos Unknown Casualties Yonatan Netanyahu killed three hostages killed five commandos wounded 6 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan soldiers killed Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe incident and sometimes the Entebbe...


Recruitment and training

The unit was kept top-secret during its initial years. Fighters and commanders were selectively hand-picked, based on personal acquaintances and family members of existing members (two of Netanyahu's brothers also served in the unit, for example). Look up top secret in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Since the 1980s, while still secretive, the unit opened to voluntary recruits. Twice a year it holds a notoriously grueling selection camp (Gibush) for potential recruits lasting several sleepless days. The recruits are constantly monitored by doctors and psychologists. Those who make it through the end with passing evaluation marks are admitted.


During the 1990s, this selection camp practice was picked up by other IDF special forces (Sayeret). Lately, former IDF Chief of Staff Dan Halutz plans to unify all these camps to prevent recruit burn-outs and medical injury by over-enthusiastic youths. Sayeret (Hebrew סיירת, pl. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...   (Hebrew: ) (born August 7, 1948 in Tel Aviv, Israel) is an Israeli Air Force Lt. ...


Once admitted to the unit recruits train for 20 months, with heavy emphasis on small arms, martial arts, orienteering, camouflage, reconnaissance and other skills important for survival behind enemy lines. The training regime consists of the following: Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... The international orienteering symbol. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...

  • Two months advanced infantry training.
  • Three weeks parachuting course in the IDF Parachuting School.
  • Five weeks counter-terror (CT) course in the IDF Counter-Terror Warfare School, followed by more inner-unit CT training.
  • The rest of the training is dedicated to long-range reconnaissance patrol training, and especially to navigation/orienteering, which is of vast importance in the unit. While most of the orienteering training is done in pairs for safety reasons, as in every other unit in the IDF, Sayeret Matkal is one of the handful of IDF elite units which conducts long-range solo navigation exercises.

Although Sayeret Matkal has its own insignia, it is also one of the few units in the IDF whose soldiers are not allowed to wear it in public due to its classified nature. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ...


Notable (former) Sayeret Matkal figures

Despite being a top-secret and relatively small army unit, former Sayeret Matkal veterans have a disproportionate influence on the army and public service. This may partly be due to the fact that rigorous screening and training (second only to that of the Israeli Air Force pilot academy) ensures that only the most capable and motivated Israeli youths are accepted by the unit as fighters. Official shield of the IAF The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ...

There is a widely held misconception that former Israeli Major General and former Prime Minister Ariel Sharon also served in Sayeret Matkal. He did (while a Major) create and command the IDF's first special-forces unit (Unit 101) in 1953, which many people feel was the organizational parent of Sayeret Matkal. However, when Unit 101 was merged into the Paratroopers Brigade in 1954, Sharon became brigade commander, and never served in Sayeret Matkal. Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... Yonatan Yoni Netanyahu (March 13, 1946 - July 4, 1976) is an Israeli war hero. ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ... Defense Ministers of Israel, 1948-present David Ben-Gurion 1948-1954 Pinhas Lavon 1954-1955 David Ben-Gurion 1955-1963 Levi Eshkol 1963-1967 Moshe Dayan 1967-1974 Shimon Peres 1974-1977 Ezer Weizman 1977-1980 Menachem Begin 1980-1981 Ariel Sharon 1981-1983 Moshe Arens 1983-1984 Yitzhak Rabin... Lieutenant-General Moshe Yaalon is a General of the Israeli Defence Force. ... Danny Yatom also Dani Yatom was the Director of the Mossad from 1996 to 1998. ...   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Avi Dichter (Hebrew: אבי דיכטר) (born: December 4, 1952) is an Israeli politician, former head of the Shabak, and member of the Knesset. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... Daniel Danny M. Lewin (1970 – September 11, 2001) was a mathematician and entrepreneur, best known for cofounding internet company Akamai Technologies. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Akamai Technologies, Inc. ... Flight 11 redirects here. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Unit 101 was an Israeli special operations unit founded and led by Ariel Sharon on orders from Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion in August 1953. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Paratroopers Brigade (חטיבת הצנחנים) is a unit of paratroopers within the Israel Defence Forces (IDF). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Known operations

Note: Until recently the Israeli army had an official policy of denying existence of this unit. Operations were generally attributed to "elite paratroopers". Sayeret Matkal operations are still kept secret to this day. However, due to the unit's successes in daring operations, it soon became a very publicly-known secret in Israeli society.

1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The 1968 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Gift) was a Israel Defense Forces commando operation in Beirut International Airport on the night of December 28 - 29 1968. ... Terminal Overview Beirut International Airport is an airport located in Beirut, Lebanon. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Operation Bulmus 6, also known as the Green Island Raid, was a military raid conducted by special operations units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) against an Egyptian early warning radar and ELINT station located on a small island in the Gulf of Suez on the night of July 19... Green Island is a small artificial island in the Red Sea at the southern mouth of the Suez Canal. ... Shayetet 13 ( שייטת 13 ) is the Israeli naval commando elite special forces unit. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Operation Rooster 53 was an Israeli military operation during the War of Attrition to kidnap an Egyptian P-12 radar system. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Shadwan is a barren rocky island in the mouth of the Gulf of Suez in the northern Red Sea. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... On May 8, 1972 a passenger aircraft of the Belgian airline company Sabena that was in flight from Vienna to Lod was hijacked by four terrorists from the Black September organization (or another faction of the Fatah), and landed at the Lod airport. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Police often train to recover hostages taken by force, as in this exercise For the 2005 film, see Hostage (film). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Operation Spring of Youth took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Mount Hermon (top of photo) supplies the bulk of the Jordan River water Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabalu sh-Shaykh) is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon range, on the border between Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. ... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Aided By Saudi Arabia Pakistan Cuba Uganda Libya, Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly... The Golani Brigade חטיבת גולני (aka. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Maalot massacre was a school massacre in Maalot, Israel by Palestinian members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, that occurred on May 15, 1974, the 26th anniversary of Israeli independence. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Savoy Operation was a terrorist act masterminded by Abu Jihad On the night of March 4th, 1975, at 11:00 PM eight terrorists in two teams landed by boat on the Tel-Aviv beach. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants  Israel  PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen  Uganda Commanders Yonatan Netanyahu† Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse Idi Amin Strength 29 Commandos Unknown Casualties Yonatan Netanyahu killed three hostages killed five commandos wounded 6 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan soldiers killed Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe incident and sometimes the Entebbe... Air France (Compagnie Nationale Air France) is a subsidiary of Air France-KLM. Before its merger with KLM, it was the national airline of France, employing 71,654 people (as of March 2004). ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Location of Entebbe within Uganda. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Charred remains of the hijacked bus Front end remains of the hijacked bus The Coastal Road Massacre is the name by which a Palestinian terrorist attack on an Israeli coastal-road bus is known. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Abu_Jihad#Assassination. ... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ron Arad (born May 5, 1958) is an Israeli aircraft navigator missing in action. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Mustafa Dirrani is a leader in the Amal division of Hezbollah, responsible for planning missile attacks and kidnappings of Israeli servicemen. ... Ron Arad (born May 5, 1958) is an Israeli aircraft navigator missing in action. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Temple of Jupiter Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ...

The 2003 Dissidents

On December 21, 2003 thirteen Sayeret Matkal reservists - the most senior being an officer at the rank of Rav Seren (Major) - presented to the Prime Minister's office in Jerusalem a letter declaring their refusal to perform military service in the Occupied Territories:[1] December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

"We have come to tell you, Mr. Prime Minister, that we will no longer be accomplices to the reign of oppression in the Territories and the denial of the most elementary human rights of millions of Palestinians, nor shall we be the shield of settlements erected on confiscated land". Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

The letter aroused a strong controversy, due to Sayeret Matkal having a high prestige in the Israeli society. It was especially strongly denounced by mainstream political figures who had their origin in the ranks of the unit, such as former Prime Ministers Ehud Barak and Binyamin Netanyahu. Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Benjamin Netanyahu (also Binyamin, and in Israel commonly Bibi) (Hebrew: בנימין נתניהו) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel. ...


Knesset Member Shaul Yahalom of the right-wing National Religious Party called for the signatories to be court-martialed and jailed, while MK Roman Bronfman of the left-wing Meretz party praised the letter as "a brave step intended to save Israel from the occupation". The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Shaul Yahalom (born 1947 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli politican and the head of the National Religious Party (Mafdal) fraction in the Knesset. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Mafdal party logo The National Religious Party (Hebrew: Mafdal, מפדל) is an Israeli political party representing the religious Zionist movement. ... Dr. Roman Bronfman (in Hebrew רומן ברונפמן) (born April 22, 1954) is an Israeli left wing politician. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Meretz (מרצ, Hebrew: vitality, energy) was an Israeli leftist secular political party. ...


In the event, none of the signatories was tried, but they were all expelled from the ranks of Sayeret Matkal. In what was described as "an effort to stem the tide", the unit's commander circulated among his remaining soldiers and officers a letter condemning the refusers for having "abused their membership in Sayeret Matkal for political aims".


A year later Adv. Dov Weissglass, confidential adviser of then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, admitted that "The Sayeret Matkal Letter" - as well as a similar letter by Israeli Air Force pilots published in September 2003 - was among the factors leading PM Sharon to resolve upon the Unilateral Disengagement from Gaza:   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Official shield of the IAF The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for September, 2003. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to...

"Time was not on our side. There was international erosion, internal erosion. Domestically, in the meantime, everything was collapsing. The economy was stagnant, and the Geneva Initiative had gained broad support. And then we were hit with the letters of officers and letters of pilots and letters of commandos [refusing to serve in the territories]. These were not weird kids with green pony-tails and a ring in their nose with a strong odour of grass. These were really our finest young people."[2] This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine. ...

Further information: Refusal to serve in the Israeli military

Refusal to serve in the Israeli military includes both refusal to obey specific orders and refusal to serve in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in any capacity due to pacifistic or antimilitaristic views or disagreement with the policies of the Israeli government as implemented by the army. ...

See also

Israeli Special Forces:

Israeli security forces: Sayeret (Hebrew סיירת, pl. ... Shayetet 13 ( שייטת 13 ) is the Israeli naval commando elite special forces unit. ... Sayeret Duvdevan is the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) special forces (SF) undercover unit design to operate in the Territories. ... The Sayeret Yahalom (formerly Sayeret Yael) is a special elite combat engineering unit of the Israeli Engineering Corps of the Israel Defense Forces. ... YAMAM symbol The YAMAM ( יממ ), is the acronym for Special Police Unit (יחידת משטרה מיוחדת) in Hebrew, Israels elite civilian counter-terrorism unit. ... The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ...

Similar foreign special forces units: The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... Israeli Police logo The Israeli police (משטרת ישראל) is a civilian force in the State of Israel. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ...

The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) is a Special Forces regiment modelled on the original British SAS and also drawing on the traditions of the Australian World War II Z Special Force commando unit, as well as the Independent Companies which were active in the South Pacific during the same... The Special Air Service of New Zealand (NZ SAS) was formed in June 1955 as an elite New Zealand Army unit capable of undertaking special missions. ... The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) —commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense— is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... The Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is part of Germanys Special Forces. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Categories: Stub | Law enforcement in France ... The EPIGN (Escadron Parachutiste dIntervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) is the parachutist intervention squadron of the French Gendarmerie. ... Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion (Research, Assistance, Intervention, Deterrence) is the counter-terrorist unit of the French National Police. ... Russian special forces showcasing their skills For the Swedish EBM band, see Spetsnaz (band). ... Joint Task Force 2 Special Forces duties in Canada are performed by an elite counter-terrorism unit known as JTF2 (Joint Task Force 2. ...

References

  1. ^ "New Wave of Refusers from Elite Reserve Unit" By Amos Harel and Mazal Mualem, Haaretz, Haaretz, December 22, 2003[1]
  2. ^ Interview in Haaretz, 8/10/04 [2]
  • Muki Betser, Robert Rosenberg: In geheimen Auftrag. Heyne, 1998. - ISBN 3-453-14137-7
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Israeli Special Forces History (2650 words)
Beside Sayeret MATKAL, Unit 101 is considered to be the unit with the most influence on the Israeli infantry oriented units including both special and conventional units.
Sayeret MATKAL was also formed one year after the IDF first helicopter squadron became operational in 1957.
Sayeret MATKAL, then the Israeli unit with the most advanced CT capability (together with Sayeret Golany) was selected to carry out the rescue attempt.
Sayeret Matkal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1391 words)
Sayeret Matkal is also in charge of hostage rescue missions outside of Israel's borders.
Sayeret Matkal has participated in many anti- and counter-terrorist operations, including the storming of a Boeing 707 held by Black September terrorists in 1972 (Operation Isotope), and the killing of a force of bus hijackers in the Gaza Strip.
Although Sayeret Matkal has its own insignia, it is the only unit in the IDF whose soldiers are not allowed to wear it in public due to its classified nature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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