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Encyclopedia > Saxons
A bent irminsul from a relief at Externsteine.

The Saxons or Saxon people were a confederation of Old Germanic tribes whose modern-day descendants in northern Germany are considered ethnic Germans while those in the eastern Netherlands are considered to be ethnic Dutch, those in modern Normandy, ethnic French, and those in southern England, ethnic English. Their earliest known area of settlement is Northern Albingia, roughly that of today’s Holstein. Saxon is: A member of the Saxons, a German people; see Saxon. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Externsteine, Germany The Externsteine are a distinctive rock formation located in the Teutoburger Wald region of northwestern Germany, not far from the city of Detmold at Horn-Bad Meinberg. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...


Saxon participation in the Germanic settlement of Britain was very strong and, at times, dominant, so that particularly in today’s Southern England, the basic population is thought to descend essentially from the ancient Saxon people. Over the past two centuries or so, many continental Saxons settled other parts of the world, especially in the Americas, Australia, Southern Africa, and in areas of the former Soviet Union, where some communities still maintain parts of their cultural and linguistic heritage, often under the umbrella categories “German” and “Dutch”. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


Due to international Hanseatic trading routes and contingent migration during the Middle Ages, Saxons mixed with and had strong influences upon the languages and cultures of the Scandinavian (whence the Saxons originate, in any case) and Baltic peoples, as also upon the Polabian and Pomeranian West Slavic peoples. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Scandinavian can mean: a resident of, or anything relating to Scandinavia any North Germanic language a chess opening, Scandinavian Defense the aviation corpotation Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... The Polabian language was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Country of origin Poland and Germany Common nicknames Classification and breed standards The Pomeranian is a breed of dog in the spitz family, named for the Pomerania region of Poland and East Germany, and classed as a toy dog breed because of its small size. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ...


First mentioned by the Ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy, the pre-Christian settlement of the Saxon people originally covered an area a little more to the Northwest, with parts of the southern Jutland peninsula, Old Saxony and small sections of the eastern Netherlands. During the 5th century AD, the Saxons were part of the people invading the Romano-British province of Britannia. One of these tribes was the Germanic Angles, whose name, taken together with that of the dominant Saxons, led to the formation of the modern term, Anglo-Saxons. This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Pre-Christian - The time before Christianity. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Duchy of Saxony. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...

Contents

Continental Saxons

Ancient Germanic culture Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

Saxons in Saxony

The Saxons appear to have consolidated themselves by the end of the 8th century, when a political entity called the Duchy of Saxony appears. The word 'Saxon' is believed to be derived from the word seax, meaning a variety of single-edged knives. The Saxons were considered by Charlemagne's historian Einhard (Vita Caroli c.7), to be especially war-like and ferocious. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ... Some Merovingian seaxes The remains of a seax together with a reconstructed replica A Seax (also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax), was a type of Germanic single-edged knife. ... This article is about the tool. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ...

Map showing the Saxons' homeland (the Duchy of Saxony [Ger. Herzogtum Sachsen] in the tenth century) in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe.
Map showing the Saxons' homeland (the Duchy of Saxony [Ger. Herzogtum Sachsen] in the tenth century) in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe.

The Saxons long resisted both becoming Christians ("they are much given to devil worship," Einhard said, "and they are hostile to our religion," as when they martyred the Saints Ewald) and being incorporated into the orbit of the Frankish kingdom, but were decisively conquered by Charlemagne in a long series of annual campaigns, the Saxon Wars (772804). During Charlemagne's campaign in Hispania (778), the Saxons advanced to Deutz on the Rhine and plundered along the river. With defeat came the enforced baptism and conversion of the Saxon leaders and their people. Even their sacred tree or pillar, Irminsul, was destroyed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1785, 901 KB) Summary La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1785, 901 KB) Summary La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Eider (-German; Danish: Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c. ... Monument of the Ewalds standing in Dortmund-Aplerbeck, Germany Painting of the Ewaldi-Reliquienschrein at the Church St. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... Events March 25 - The Inscription of Sukabumi from Eastern Java marks the beginning of the Javanese language. ... Cologne-Deutz, often just Deutz, is a former town, presently a borough of Cologne, Germany , Category: ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... Detail of the bent Irminsul on the Externsteine relief. ...


Under Carolingian rule, the Saxons were reduced to tributary status. There is evidence that the Saxons, as well as Slavic tributaries such as the Abodrites and the Wends, often provided troops to their Carolingian overlords. The dukes of Saxony became kings (Henry I, the Fowler, 919) and later the first Emperors (Henry's son, Otto I, the Great) of Germany during the 10th century, but lost this position in 1024. The duchy was divided up in 1180 when Duke Henry the Lion, Emperor Otto's grandson, refused to follow his cousin, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, into war in Lombardy. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Vend redirects here. ... Heinrich I depicted as The Bamberg Knight Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This article is about the year. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ...


During the late Middle Ages, under the Salian emperors, the Teutonic knights and settlers, moved east along the river Elbe into the area of settlement of a western Slavic tribe, the Sorbs. The Sorbs were gradually Germanised. This region subsequently acquired the name Saxony through political circumstances, though it was initially called the March of Meissen. The rulers of Meissen acquired control of the Duchy of Saxony in 1423, and eventually applied the name Saxony to the whole of their kingdom. Since then, this part of eastern Germany has been referred to as Saxony (German: Sachsen), a source of some misunderstanding about the original homeland of the Saxons, mostly in the present-day German state of Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen). Salian family tree The Salian dynasty was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024-1125), also known as the Frankish dynasty after the familys origin and role as dukes of Franconia. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Meissen, with the Albrechtsburg and the Cathedral of Sts. ... The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ...


Saxons in the Balkans

See also: Transylvanian Saxons

In the Middle Ages, groups of Saxon ore miners (called саси, sasi in the South Slavic languages) settled in ore-rich regions of Southeastern Europe. In the 13th and 14th century, Saxons from the Upper Harz and Westphalia settled in and around Chiprovtsi in modern northwestern Bulgaria (then in the Second Bulgarian Empire) to extract ore in the western Balkan Mountains, receiving royal privileges from Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman.[1] It is thought that these miners established Roman Catholicism in this part of the Balkans before being completely Bulgarianized (by marrying Bulgarian women) and merging with the local population.[2] Along with spreading Roman Catholicism, the Saxons also enriched the local vocabulary with Germanic words and introduced a number of mining techniques and metal-working instruments to Bulgaria.[citation needed] Ethnic subgroups that are thought to be partially descended from these Saxons are the Banat Bulgarians and the Krashovani. The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Harz is a mountain range in northern Germany. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... Chiprovtsi (Чипровци) is a town in Montana Province of northwestern Bulgaria, about 30 km from Montana, on the shores of the river Ogosta at the foot of western Stara Planina. ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest records in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. ... Tsar Ivan Shishman of Bulgarian was the son of Tsar Ivan Alexander and his second wife Theodora. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Krashovani (Croatian and Serbian: KraÅ¡ovani, Крашовани, KaraÅ¡ovani or KraÅ¡ovanje, KaraÅ¡evci and KoroÅ¡evci; Romanian: CaraÅŸoveni, CârÅŸoveni, CotcoreÅ£i or CocoÅŸi; also known as Krashovans) are a South Slavic people indigenous to CaraÅŸova and other nearby locations in CaraÅŸ-Severin County within...


Saxons also mined ore in the Osogovo and Belasica mountains (between Bulgaria and FYROM,[3] as well as around Samokov[4] in Rila and in various parts of the Rhodopes[5][6] and around Etropole[7] (all in Bulgaria), but were assimilated without establishing Roman Catholicism there. Osogovo (Bulgarian and Macedonian Cyrillic: Осогово) or Osogovska Planina (Осоговска планина or Осоговска Планина) is a mountain between southwestern Bulgaria (Kyustendil Province) and northeastern Republic of Macedonia. ... Belasica (Macedonian and Bulgarian: Беласица, also transliterated as Belasitsa or Belasitza; Greek: Μπέλες or Κερκίνη) is a mountain range in the region of Macedonia in Southeastern Europe, shared by northwestern Greece (about 50%), southeastern Republic of Macedonia (30%) and southwestern Bulgaria (20%). The area is particularly famous for the Battle of Kleidion of... Samokov (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria. ... Rila as seen from the space Rila as seen from Kostenets Malyovitsa (right), Little Malyovitsa (left) and the Eaglet (middle) Rila (Bulgarian: ) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... Etropole (Етрополе) is a town in western Bulgaria, part of Sofia Province. ...


The Saxons miners in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina—active in Brskovo, Rudnik, Olovo, Novo Brdo and other places—also left a significant trace in the mining and metal-working history of the South Slavs.[8] Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Brskovo (Брсково) is a village in northern Montenegro, within the Municipality of Mojkovac. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population 7,000 Population density Area code +387 32 Mayor Alija Abazović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Novo Brdo/Ново Брдо (Serbian) or Novobërda/Novobërdë (Albanian) is a town and municipality in Kosovo (under UN administration, formally part of Serbia). ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in teal) The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ...


Saxons in Italy and Gaul

In 569, some Saxons accompanied the Lombards into Italy under the leadership of Alboin and settled there.[9] In 572, they raided Gaul as far as Stablo near Riez. Divided, they were easily defeated by the Gallo-Roman general Mummolus. When the Saxons regrouped, a peace treaty was negotiated whereby the Italian Saxons were allowed to settle with their families in Austrasia.[10] Gathering their families and belongings in Italy, they returned to Gaul in two groups in 573. One group proceeded by way of Nice and another via Embrun, joining up at Avignon, where they plundered the territory and were consequently stopped from crossing the Rhone by Mummolus. They were forced to pay compensation for what they had robbed before they could enter Austrasia. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Alboin or Alboïn (d. ... Stavelot is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Riez is a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in southeastern France. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... Mummolus, Mommolus, or Mummulus, born Eunius to one Peonius, Count of Auxerre. ... Austrasia & Neustria Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... Embrun is a town and commune in the Hautes-Alpes département in southeastern France. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Rhône can refer to: Rhône River Rhône (département) in France Rhône (Wine Region) in France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Some Saxons already lived in Gaul at that time. A Saxon king named Eadwacer conquered Angers in 463 only to be dislodged by Childeric I and the Salian Franks, allies of the Roman Empire.[11] It is possible that Saxon settlement of Great Britain began only in response to expanding Frankish control of the Channel coast.[12] Maison dAdam, House of Adam, the oldest house of Angers. ... Childeric I (c. ... The Salian Franks were a subgroup of the Franks. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


A Saxon unit of laeti had been settled at Bayeux — the Saxones Baiocassenses — since the time of the time of the Notitia Dignitatum.[13] These Saxons became subjects of Clovis I late in the fifth century. The Saxons of Bayeux comprised a standing army and were often called upon to serve alongside the local levy of their region in Merovingian miltiary campaigns. They were ineffective against Waroch in this capacity in 579.[14] In 589, the Saxons wore their hair in the Breton fashion at the orders of Fredegund and fought with them as allies against Guntram.[15] Beginning in 626, the Saxons of the Bessin were used by Dagobert I for his campaigns against the Basques. One of their own, Aeghyna, was even created a dux over the region of Vasconia.[16] Laeti, the plural form of laetus, is a Latin word used in the late Roman empire, from the 4th century (if not earlier) onwards, to denote communities of barbari (= foreigners, people from outside the empire) permitted to settle inside the empire on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman... Bayeux (pronounced ) is a small town and commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy, northwestern France. ... The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Look up Levy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Waroch was an early Breton ruler of the Vannetais. ... Breton can refer to: The Breton language A person from Brittany Author André Breton This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Queen Frédégonde, seated on her Throne, gives orders to two young Men of Térouanne to assassinate Sigebert, King of Austrasia. ... Guntram I(c. ... The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasse tribe of Celts who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin. ... Dagobert I (c. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... Aighyna, Aeghyna, Aegyna, Aigino, or Aichina, probably a Saxon, was the duke of Gascony (Vasconia) from 626 or 627 to his death in 638. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ...


Saxons in Britain

Further information: Anglo-Saxon migration

A number of Saxons, along with Angles, Jutes, Frisians and possibly Franks, invaded or migrated to the island of Great Britain (Britannia) around the time of the collapse of Roman authority in the west. Saxon raiders had been harassing the eastern and southern shores of Britannia, for centuries before - prompting the construction of a string of coastal forts called the litora Saxonica or Saxon Shore and many Saxons and other folk had been permitted to settle in these areas as farmers long before the end of Roman rule in Britannia. In A.D. 449, however, following a particularly devastating raid in the north from the Picts and their allies, the Romano-British administration invited two Jutish warlords — traditionally cited as Hengist and Horsa — to occupy the isle of Thanet in north Kent and to act as mercenaries against the Picts at sea. After the Jutes had completed this mission defeating the Picts, they returned with demands for more lands. When this was rejected, they rose in revolt and provoked an insurrection amongst all the settled farming folk of Germanic stock with them. Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Saxon Shore is the collective name given to a series of fortifications built along the south-east coast of what is now England, during the latter years of the Roman occupation of Britain. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 449 (disambiguation). ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Hengest or Hengist (d. ... Horsa, according to tradition, was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native Romano-British and Celtic inhabitants. ... For the area of the same name, see Isle of Thanet. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ...


Four separate Saxon realms emerged:

  1. East Saxons: created the Kingdom of Essex.
  2. Middle Saxons: created the province of Middlesex
  3. South Saxons: led by Aelle, created the Kingdom of Sussex
  4. West Saxons: led by Cerdic, created the Kingdom of Wessex

During the period of the reigns from Ecbert to Alfred, the kings of Wessex emerged as Bretwalda, unifying the country and eventually forging it into the kingdom of England in the face of Danish Viking invasions. The Kingdom of the East Seaxe (one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy) was founded around 500 AD and covered the territory currently occupied by the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire and Middlesex. ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ... Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ... The Kingdom of Sussex, (Suth Seaxe, i. ... Imaginary depiction of Cerdic from John Speeds 1611 Saxon Heptarchy. Cerdic of Wessex (d. ... Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


Historians are divided about what followed: some argue that the takeover of southern Great Britain by the Anglo-Saxons was peaceful. There is, however, only one known account from a native Briton who lived at this time (Gildas) and his description is anything but: Gildas (c. ...

For the fire...spread from sea to sea, fed by the hands of our foes in the east, and did not cease, until, destroying the neighbouring towns and lands, it reached the other side of the island, and dipped its red and savage tongue in the western ocean. In these assaults...all the columns were levelled with the ground by the frequent strokes of the battering-ram, all the husbandmen routed, together with their bishops, priests, and people, whilst the sword gleamed, and the flames crackled around them on every side. Lamentable to behold, in the midst of the streets lay the tops of lofty towers, tumbled to the ground, stones of high walls, holy altars, fragments of human bodies, covered with livid clots of coagulated blood, looking as if they had been squeezed together in a press; and with no chance of being buried, save in the ruins of the houses, or in the ravening bellies of wild beasts and birds; with reverence be it spoken for their blessed souls, if, indeed, there were many found who were carried, at that time, into the high heaven by the holy angels... Some, therefore, of the miserable remnant, being taken in the mountains, were murdered in great numbers; others, constrained by famine, came and yielded themselves to be slaves for ever to their foes, running the risk of being instantly slain, which truly was the greatest favour that could be offered them: some others passed beyond the seas with loud lamentations instead of the voice of exhortation...Others, committing the safeguard of their lives, which were in continual jeopardy, to the mountains, precipices, thickly wooded forests, and to the rocks of the seas (albeit with trembling hearts), remained still in their country.

Wars between the native Romano-Britons and the invading Jutes, Saxons and Angles continued for over 400 years. The Britons of England either fled westwards or northwards or were progressively immersed into the new English culture, as the territory that they controlled gradually shrank in size to contain only Wales, Cornwall, north-westernmost England (Cumbria), and Strathclyde. Some fled over the sea to Brittany, which was called after their old homeland, Britain. The term Romano-British describes the Romanised culture of Britain under the rule of the Roman Empire, when Roman and Christian culture had extensively entered into the life of the native Brythonic and Pictish peoples of Britain. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


Collectively, the Germanic settlers of Great Britain, mostly Saxons, Angles and Jutes, came to be called the Anglo-Saxons. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


Social structure

The Venerable Bede, himself an East Anglian, writing around the year 730, remarks that "the old [that is, the continental] Saxons have no king, but they are governed by several ealdormen [or satrapa] who, during war, cast lots for leadership but who, in time of peace, are equal in power." The regnum Saxonum was divided into three provinces — Westphalia, Eastphalia, and Angria — which comprised about one hundred pagi or Gaue. Each Gau had its own satrap with enough military power to level whole villages which opposed him.[17] Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... An Ealdorman, or Alderman, was the prior magistrate of a British shire in AD 900 to 1100. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... ... Angria, Engria, or Engern (German: ) is a historical region in present-day western German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. ... A Gau (plural Gaue) is a German term for a region within a country, often a (former or actual) province. ...


In the mid ninth century, Nithard first described the social structure of the Saxons beneath their leaders. The caste structure was rigid; in the Saxon language the three castes, excluding slaves, were called the edhilingui (related to the term aetheling), frilingi, and lazzi. These terms were subsequently Latinised as nobiles or nobiliores; ingenui, ingenuiles, or liberi; and liberti, liti, or serviles.[18] According to very early traditions which probably contain a good deal of historical truth, the edhilingui were the descendants of the Saxons who led the tribe out of Holstein and during the migrations of the sixth century.[19] They were a conquering, warrior elite. The frilingi represented the descendants of the amicii, auxiliarii, and manumissi of that caste, while the lazzi represented the descendants of the original inhabitants of the conquered territories, who were forced to make oaths of submission and pay tribute to the edhilingui. Nithard (790 - 844), a Frankish historian, was the illegitimate son of Angilbert, the friend of Charlemagne, by Bertha, a daughter of the great emperor. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Latin is not an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...


The Lex Saxonum regulated the Saxons' unusual society. Intermarriage between the castes was forbidden by the Lex and wergilds were set based upon caste membership. The edhilingui were worth 1,440 solidi, or about 700 head of cattle, the highest wergild on the continent; the price of a bride was also very high. This was six times as much as that of the frilingi and eight times as much as the lazzi. The gulf between noble and ignoble was very large, but the difference between a freeman and an indentured labourer was small.[20] The Lex Saxonum was the Germanic tribal law of the Saxons. ... Weregild (Alternative spellings: wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc. ... For other senses of this word, see solidus, a disambiguation page. ...


According to the Vita Lebuini antiqua, an important source for early Saxon history, the Saxons held an annual council at Marklo where they "confirmed their laws, gave judgment on outstanding cases, and determined by common counsel whether they would go to war or be in peace that year."[21] All three castes participated in the general council; twelve representatives from each caste were sent from each Gau. In 782, Charlemagne abolished the system of Gaue and replaced it with the Grafschaftsverfassung, the system of counties typical of Francia.[22] Charlemagne outlawed the Marklo councils and thus pushed the frilingi and lazzi out of political power. The old Saxon system of Abgabengrundherrschaft, lordship based on dues and taxes, was replaced by a form of feudalism based on service and labour, personal relationships, and oaths.[23] A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Religion

Paganism and politics

Saxon pagan practices were closely related to Saxon political practices. The annual councils of the entire tribe began with invocations of the gods, and the procedure by which dukes were elected in wartime, by drawing lots, probably had pagan significance, that is, giving trust to divine providence to guide the seemingly random decision making.[24] There were also sacred rituals and objects, such as the pillars called Irminsul, which were believed to connect heaven and earth and which were related to Irmin, possibly a war god. Charlemagne had one such pillar chopped down in 772. Detail of the bent Irminsul on the Externsteine relief. ... Irmin was the god of war of the Saxons. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Something of pagan Saxon practice in Britain can be gleaned from place names. The Germanic gods Woden, Frig, Tiw, and Thunor, who are attested to in every Germanic pagan tradition, were worshipped in Wessex, Sussex, and Essex, and they are the only ones directly attested to, though the names of the third and fourth months (March and April) of the Old English calendar bear the names Hrethmonath and Eosturmonath, meaning "month of Hretha" and "month of Eostre", apparently from the names of two goddesses who were worshipped around that season.[25] The pagan Saxons offered cakes to their gods in February (Solmonath) and there was a religious festival associated with the harvest, Halegmonath ("holy month" or month of offerings", September).[26] The pagan calendar began on 25 December and the months of December and January were called Yule (or Giuli) and contained a Modra nict or "night of the mothers", another religious festival of unknown content. This is the article about the belief in Odin among West Germanic peoples, for other uses see Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Look up Frig in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Tyr, the god. ... This article is about Thor, the god of Norse mythology. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ...


The Saxon freemen and servile class remained practising pagans long after their nominal conversion to Christianity. Nursing a hatred of the upper class which, with Frankish assistance, had marginalised them from political power, the lower classes (the plebeium vulgus or cives) were still a problem for Christian authorities as late as 836, when the Translatio S. Liborii remarks on their obstinacy in pagan ritus et superstitio (usage and superstition).[27]


Conversion and resistance

The conversion of the Saxons in England from their original Germanic paganism to Christianity was accomplished in the early to late seventh century under the influence of the already converted Jutes of Kent. In the 630s, Birinus became the "apostle to the West Saxons" and converted Wessex, whose first Christian king was Cynegils. The West Saxons begin to emerge from obscurity only with their conversion to Christianity, and the keeping of written records. The Gewisse, a West Saxon people, were especially resistant to Christianity; but Birinus merely exercised more efforts against them.[28] In Wessex, a bishopric was founded at Dorchester. The South Saxons were first evangelised extensively under Anglian influence; Aethelwalh of Sussex was converted by Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and allowed Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, to evangelise his people beginning in 681. The chief South Saxon bishopric was that of Selsey. The East Saxons were more pagan than the southern or western Saxons; their territory had a superabundance of pagan sites.[29] Their king, Saeberht, was converted early and a diocese was established at London, but its first bishop, Mellitus, was expelled by Saeberth's heirs. The conversion of the East Saxons was only completed under Cedd in the 650s and 660s. ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... Birinus (c. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Imaginary depiction of Cynegils from John Speeds 1611 Saxon Heptarchy. Cynegils (died c. ... Gewissae or Gewisse was a tribal grouping of the upper Thames region of England which formed one of the bases of the kingdom of Wessex. ... The current Bishop of Dorchester is the Right Reverend Colin Fletcher OBE. Dorchester is an episcopal area in the Diocese of Oxford. ... Dorchester-on-Thames is a village on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, England. ... Look up Anglia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aethelwalh, or, more correctly, Æðelwealh, was the first historic King of Sussex. ... Wulfhere (d. ... A list of the Kings etc. ... Wilfrid (c. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Bishop of Chichester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. ... The Kingdom of the East Seaxe (one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy) was founded around 500 AD and covered the territory currently occupied by the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire and Middlesex. ... Saebert (died c. ... The Diocese of London forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... Saint Mellitus (d. ... St. ...


The continental Saxons were evangelised largely by English missionaries in the late seventh and early eighth centuries. Around 695, two early English missionaries, Hewald the White and Hewald the Black were martyred by the vicani, that is, villagers.[30] Throughout the century that followed, it was the villagers and other peasants who were to prove the greatest opponents of Christianisation, while missionaries often received the support of the edhilingui and other noblemen. Saint Lebuin, an Englishman who preached to the Saxons between 745 and 770, built a church and made many friends among the nobility, some of whom were compelled to save him from an angry mob at the annual council at Marklo. Social tensions arose between the Christianity-sympathetic noblemen and the staunchly pagan lower castes.[31] Monument of the Ewalds standing in Dortmund-Aplerbeck, Germany Painting of the Ewaldi-Reliquienschrein at the Church St. ... Monument of the Ewalds standing in Dortmund-Aplerbeck, Germany Painting of the Ewaldi-Reliquienschrein at the Church St. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Fresco of Saint Lebuinus Saint Lebuinus (also known as Lebuin, Lebwin or Liafwin(e)), Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deventer (born in England of Anglo-Saxon parents, date unknown; died at Deventer c. ...


Under Charlemagne, the Saxon Wars had as their chief object the conversion and integration of the Saxons into the Frankish empire. Though much of the highest caste converted readily, forced baptisms and forced tithing made enemies of the lower orders. Even some contemporaries found the methods employed to win over the Saxons wanting, as this excerpt from a letter of Alcuin of York to his friend Meginfrid, written in 796, shows: The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ...

If the light yoke and sweet burden of Christ were to be preached to the most obstinate people of the Saxons with as much determination as the payment of tithes has been exacted, or as the force of the legal decree has been applied for fault of the most trifling sort imaginable, perhaps they would not be averse to their baptismal vows.[32]

Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's successor, reportedly treated the Saxons more as Alcuin would have wished, and, consequently, they were faithful subjects;[33] The lower classes, however, revolted against Frankish overlordship in favour of their old paganism as late as the 840s, when the Stellinga rose up against the Saxon leadership, who were allied with the Frankish emperor Lothair I. After the suppression of the Stellinga, in 851 Louis the German brought relics from Rome to Saxony to foster a devotion to the Roman Catholic Church.[34] Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... The Stellinga (companions, comrades) was a movement of frilingi and lazzi, the lower two of the three Saxon non-slave castes, between 841 and 845. ... Lothair I Lothair I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 2 March 855), king of Italy (818 – 855) and Holy Roman Emperor (840 – 855), was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... Relics can be: Relics: the remains of saints (usually bones), honored in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Vernacular Christianity

In the ninth century, the Saxon nobility became vigorous supporters of monasticism and formed a bulwark of Christianity against the existing Slavic paganism to the east and the Nordic paganism of the Vikings to the north. Indeed, Saxony, once so pagan, became the source of a bold and unique Christianity, as evidenced by the Christian literature in the vernacular Old Saxon; the literary output and wide influence of Saxon monasteries such as Fulda, Corvey, and Verden; and the theological controversy between the Augustinian Gottschalk and the semipelagian Rabanus Maurus.[35] Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious ideas which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and during the process of the Christianization in Northern Europe. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... Fulda is a city in Hessen, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). ... The Imperial Abbey of Corvey (German: Fürstabtei Corvey) was a Benedictine abbey on the River Weser, 2km northwest of Höxter, now in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Gottschalk (Gotteschalchus) (c. ... Semi-Pelagianism is a softer form of Pelagianism, which taught that humanity has the capacity to seek God in and of itself apart from any movement of God’s Word or the Holy Spirit. ... Rabanus Maurus (left) presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (c. ...


From an early date, Charlemagne and Louis the Pious supported Christian vernacular works in order to evangelise the Saxons more efficiently. The Heliand, a verse epic of the life of Christ in a Germanic setting, and Genesis, another epic retelling of the events of the first book of the Bible, were commissioned in the early ninth century by Louis to disseminate scriptural knowledge to the masses.[36] A council of Tours in 813 and then a synod of Mainz in 848 both declared that homilies ought to be preached in the vernacular.[37] The earliest preserved text in the Saxon language is a baptismal vow from the late eighth or early ninth century; the vernacular was used extensively in an effort to Christianise the lowest castes of Saxon society.[38] The Heliand (IPA , ) is an epic poem in Old Saxon, written about 825. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ...


The Saxon name

Modern day state Schleswig-Holstein, bordered on the Angles, in the day of the early Saxons.
Modern day state Schleswig-Holstein, bordered on the Angles, in the day of the early Saxons.
Today's state Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony).
Today's state Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony).

Following the downfall of Henry the Lion, and the subsequent split of the Saxon tribal duchy into several territories, the name of the Saxon duchy was transferred to the lands of the Ascanian family. This led to the differentiation between Lower Saxony, lands settled by the Saxon tribe, and Upper Saxony, as the duchy (finally a kingdom). When the Upper was dropped from Upper Saxony, a different region had acquired the Saxon name, ultimately replacing the name's original original meaning. Download high resolution version (668x910, 12 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (668x910, 12 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... Download high resolution version (668x910, 12 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (668x910, 12 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ...


The Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the term Saxony over the centuries to denote the whole country of Germany (Saksa and Saksamaa respectively) and the Germans (saksalaiset and sakslased, respectively) now. Also there exist in old Finnish word saksa as synonyme of merchant, like voisaksa (butter saler) and kauppasaksa (traveling salesman) Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ...


The label "Saxons" (in Romanian 'Saşi') was also applied to German settlers from Saxony who migrated during the 13th century to south-eastern Transylvania in present-day Romania. The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


In the Celtic languages, the word for the English nationality is derived from the word Saxon. The most prominent example, often used in English, is the Gàidhlig loanword Sassenach (Saxon), often used disparagingly in Scottish English/Scots. England, in Gàidhlig, is Sasainn (Saxony). Other examples are the Welsh Saesneg (the English language), Irish Sasana (England), Breton Saozneg (the English language), and Cornish Sowson (English people) and Sowsnek (English language), as in the famous My ny vynnav kows Sowsnek! (I will not speak English!). The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Sassenach is a Scottish term for someone from England - usually a term of abuse. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...


During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his being from Saxony; in particular, the Venetians greeted the 1709 performance of his opera Agrippina with the cry Viva il caro Sassone, "Long live the beloved Saxon!"[39] “Handel” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Agrippina is an opera by George Frideric Handel. ...


The word also survives as the surnames Saß/Sass and Sachs. The Dutch female first name "Saskia" originally meant "A Saxon woman" (alteration of "Saxia"). Sachs can refer to several people: Albie Sachs, South African Constitutional Court Justice Andrew Sachs, actor Bernard Sachs, (1858-1944), American neurologist Curt Sachs (Kurth Sachs), 1881-1959, music historian who studied musical instruments Eddie Sachs, American racecar driver George Sachs / Georg Sachs (1896-1961), Russia-born German and US... Saskia is a feminine name of Dutch origin. ...


Sources

  • Thompson, James Westfall. Feudal Germany. 2 vol. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1928.
  • Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991.
  • Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M., translator. The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1960.
  • Stenton, Sir Frank M. Anglo-Saxon England. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 1971.
  • Bachrach, Bernard S. Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971.
  • Goldberg, Eric J. "Popular Revolt, Dynastic Politics, and Aristocratic Factionalism in the Early Middle Ages: The Saxon Stellinga Reconsidered." Speculum, Vol. 70, No. 3. (Jul., 1995), pp 467–501.
  • Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005.
  • James Grout: Saxon Advent, part of the Encyclopædia Romana
  • Saxons and Britons

James Westfall Thompson (1869–1941) was an American historian specializing in the history of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and France. ... Timothy Reuter (1947-2002) was a British historian who specialized in the study of medieval Germany, particularly the social, military and ecclesiastical institutions of the Ottonian and Salian periods (10th-12th centuries). ... John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, (September 29, 1916- November 3, 1985) J. M. Wallace-Hadrill was Professor of Mediaeval History at the University of Manchester (1955-61), a Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford (1961-74), Chichele Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford (1974-83) and a Fellow, All... Sir Frank Merry Stenton (1880–September 15, 1967) was a noted 20th century historian of Anglo-Saxon England. ... Meanings of speculum include: A medical tool used for examing body cavities; see Speculum (medical). ...

References

  1. ^ Чипровското въстание 1688 г. Рударството в Чипровско и развитието на града (Bulgarian). Knigite.Abv.bg. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  2. ^ Чипровци (Bulgarian). OMDA.bg. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  3. ^ За лексикалните особености на песните от сборника “Веда Словена” (Bulgarian). BulTreeBank. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  4. ^ История на Самоков (Bulgarian). Zone Bulgaria. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  5. ^ Град Мадан (Bulgarian). Професионална гимназия Васил Димитров, град Мадан. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  6. ^ Върху стотици хиляди декари търсели руда из Пловдивско (Bulgarian). Марица Днес (1999-06-28).
  7. ^ В Етрополе почитат Слънцето и зетьовете (Bulgarian). Standart News. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  8. ^ Матанов, Христо. Югозападните български земи през XIV век (Bulgarian). On-line books about Macedonia. Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  9. ^ Bachrach, 39.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ Stenton, 12.
  12. ^ Ibid.
  13. ^ Bachrach, 10.
  14. ^ Ibid, 52.
  15. ^ Ibid, 63.
  16. ^ Fredegar, IV.54, on p. 66.
  17. ^ Goldberg, 473.
  18. ^ Ibid, 471.
  19. ^ Ibid.
  20. ^ Ibid, 472.
  21. ^ Ibid, 473.
  22. ^ Ibid, 476.
  23. ^ Ibid, 479.
  24. ^ Ibid, 474.
  25. ^ Stenton, 97–98.
  26. ^ Ibid.
  27. ^ Goldberg, 480.
  28. ^ Stenton, 97–98.
  29. ^ Ibid, 102.
  30. ^ Goldberg, 474.
  31. ^ Ibid.
  32. ^ Ibid, 478.
  33. ^ Hummer, 141, based on Astronomus.
  34. ^ Ibid, 143.
  35. ^ Goldberg, 477.
  36. ^ Hummer, 138–139.
  37. ^ Ibid.
  38. ^ Ibid.
  39. ^ Barber, David W. (1996). Bach, Beethoven And the Boys: Music History as it Ought to be Taught. Sound and Vision, Toronto ISBN 0-920151-10-8

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The Anglo-Saxons were speakers of Germanic languages, and they are comprised of the Frisians, Jutes, Saxons, and Angles.
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