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Encyclopedia > Saxon people

The Saxon people or Saxons were a large Germanic people located in what is now northwestern Germany and a small section of the eastern Netherlands. It is important to note that the historical Saxons did not inhabit the modern German federal state called Saxony. They are first mentioned by the geographer Ptolemy as a people of southern Jutland and present-day Schleswig-Holstein, hence they appear subsequently to have expanded to the south and west. The word 'Saxon' is believed to be derived from the word seax, meaning a variety of single-edged knife. The Saxons were considered by Charlemagne, and some historians, to be especially war-like and ferocious. Odin riding on Sleipnir (Ardre image stone, 8th century). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the mainland part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Categories: Weapon stubs ... It has been suggested that knifemaking be merged into this article or section. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; German: Karl der Große, from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of king Pepin the Short, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 781. ...

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Continental Saxons

A known number of Saxons remained in continental Europe dwelling in a territory known as Old Saxony. The Anglo-Saxon historian Bede writing around the year 730 remarks that "the old Saxons have no king, but they are governed by several eorldermen (satrapas) who during war cast lots for leadership, but who in time of peace are equal in power". However, the territory appears to have consolidated itself and by the end of the 8th century there was a political entity called the Duchy of Saxony. World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Old Saxony is the fatherland of the Saxons and the place from which their raids and later colonisations of Britannia were mounted. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Bede depicted in an early medieval manuscript Depiction of Bede from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 Bede (Latin Beda), also known as Saint Bede or, more commonly, the Venerable Bede (ca. ... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ...


The Saxons long avoided becoming Christians (see Ewald the Black) and being incorporated into the orbit of the Frankish kingdom, but were decisively conquered by Charlemagne in a long series of annual campaigns (772 - 804). With defeat came the enforced baptism and conversion of the Saxon leaders and their people. Even their sacred tree, Irminsul, was destroyed. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Ewald the Black and his companion Ewald the Fair were two priests and natives of Northumbria, England. ... The Franks or the Frankish people were one of several west Germanic federations. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; German: Karl der Große, from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of king Pepin the Short, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 781. ... Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. ... Events March 25 - The Inscription of Sukabumi from Eastern Java marks the beginning of the Javanese language. ... A Catholic baptism Baptism is any water purification ritual practiced in any of various religions including Christianity, Mandaeanism, and Sikhism, and has its origins with the Jewish ritual of mikvah. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... Detail of the bent Irminsul on the Externsteine relief. ...


Under Carolingian rule, the Saxons were reduced to a tributary status. There is evidence that the Saxons, as well as Slavic tributaries like the Abodrites and the Wends, often provided troops to their Carolingian overlords. The dukes of Saxony became kings (Henry I, the Fowler, 919) and later the first Emperors (Henry's son, Otto I, the Great) of Germany during the 10th century, but lost this position in 1024. The duchy was divided up in 1180 when Duke Henry the Lion, Emperor Otto's grandson, refused to follow his cousin, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, into war in Italy. The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe particularly the Sorbs living in modern-day Germany. ... Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This article is about the year. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ...


The region in southeastern Germany known as the Kingdom of Saxony between 1806 to 1918 and the Free State of Saxony after 1990, was not a traditional homeland of the Saxon peoples. This region acquired its name through political circumstances and was originally called the Margravate (German: Markgrafschaft) of Meissen. The rulers of this area acquired control of the Duchy of Saxony in 1423 and eventually applied the name Saxony to the whole of their kingdom. Since then this section of southeastern Germany has been referred to as Saxony (German: Sachsen), a source of many misunderstandings about the original homeland of the Saxons, mostly in the present-day German state of Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen). 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Old town of Meißen. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ...


The label "Saxons" was generally applied to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to south-eastern Transylvania in present-day Romania, where their descendants numbered a quarter of a million in the early decades of the 20th century. Most have left since World War II, many of them during the 1970s and 1980s due to the Romanianisation policies of the Ceauşescu regime. Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian: Saşi) are a population of German origin that were settled in the south and north-east of Transylvania starting with the 12th century. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal; Hungarian: Erdély; German: Siebenbürgen; see also other languages) forms the western and central parts of Romania. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA ) (January 26, 1918 - December 25, 1989) was the leader of Communist Romania from 1965 until shortly before his execution. ...


Invasion of Britain

A number of Saxons, along with Angles, Jutes, Frisians and possibly Franks, invaded or migrated to the island of Great Britain (Britannia) around the time of the collapse of Roman authority in the west. Saxon raiders had been harassing the eastern and southern shores of Britannia for centuries before - prompting the construction of a string of coastal forts called the litora Saxonica or Saxon Shore and many Saxons and other folk had been permitted to settle in these areas as farmers long before the end of Roman rule in Britannia. However, in 449 following a particularly devastating raid in the north from the Picts and their allies the Romano-British administration invited two Jutish warlords - namely Hengist and Horsa - to occupy the island of Thanet in north Kent and act as mercenaries against the Picts at sea. After the Jutes had executed this mission and defeated the Picts they returned with demands for more lands. When this was rejected they rose in revolt and provoked an insurrection amongst all the settled farming folk of Germanic stock with them. Angles (German: Angeln, Old English: Englas, Latin: singular Anglus, plural Anglii) were Germanic people, from Angeln in Schleswig, who settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria in the 5th century. ... The Jutes were a Germanic people who are believed to have originated from Jutland in modern Denmark and part of the Frisian coast. ... The Roman historian Tacitus, in his Germania, mentioned the Frisians among people he grouped together as the Ingvaeones. ... The Franks or the Frankish people were one of several west Germanic federations. ... Britannia, the British national personification. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation) The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine... The Saxon Shore is the collective name given to a series of fortifications built along the south-east coast of what is now England, during the latter years of the Roman occupation of Britain. ... This article is about the Saxons, a Germanic people. ... Britannia, the British national personification. ... Events August 3 - The Second Council of Ephesus opens, chaired by Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hengest or Hengist (d. ... Horsa, according to tradition, was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native Romano-British and Celtic inhabitants. ... William Cobbett in 1827 when he rode to the Island The Isle of Thanet is an area of northeast Kent, England. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Jutes were a Germanic people who are believed to have originated from Jutland in modern Denmark and part of the Frisian coast. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Three separate Saxon Kingdoms emerged


1. The East Saxons: Settled around Colchester, creating the area of Essex.


2. The South Saxons: led by Aelle, created the area of Sussex Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ...


3. The West Saxons: led by Cerdic, ruled the Kingdom of Wessex from their capital Winchester. Cerdic of Wessex (c. ...


During the period of Ecbert to Alfred the kings of Wessex emerged as Bretwalda, unifying the country, with the shorter-lived Middlesex eventually became part of the kingdom of England in the face of Danish Viking invasions. The title of Bretwalda was one perhaps used by some of the kings of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of southern Britain (the so-called heptarchy kingdoms) in the second half of the first millennium AD. Such a king was considered to be the overlord of several English kingdoms. ... Middlesex is an area of south-eastern England, it is traditionally regarded as one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... The name Viking is a borrowed word from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ...


Historians are divided about what followed. Some argue that the takeover of lowland Britain by the Anglo-Saxons was peaceful. However, there is only one known account from a native Briton who lived at this time (Gildas) and his description is anything but: Gildas (c. ...

"For the fire...spread from sea to sea, fed by the hands of our foes in the east, and did not cease, until, destroying the neighbouring towns and lands, it reached the other side of the island, and dipped its red and savage tongue in the western ocean. In these assaults...all the columns were levelled with the ground by the frequent strokes of the battering-ram, all the husbandmen routed, together with their bishops, priests, and people, whilst the sword gleamed, and the flames crackled around them on every side. Lamentable to behold, in the midst of the streets lay the tops of lofty towers, tumbled to the ground, stones of high walls, holy altars, fragments of human bodies, covered with livid clots of coagulated blood, looking as if they had been squeezed together in a press; and with no chance of being buried, save in the ruins of the houses, or in the ravening bellies of wild beasts and birds; with reverence be it spoken for their blessed souls, if, indeed, there were many found who were carried, at that time, into the high heaven by the holy angels...Some, therefore, of the miserable remnant, being taken in the mountains, were murdered in great numbers; others, constrained by famine, came and yielded themselves to be slaves for ever to their foes, running the risk of being instantly slain, which truly was the greatest favour that could be offered them: some others passed beyond the seas with loud lamentations instead of the voice of exhortation...Others, committing the safeguard of their lives, which were in continual jeopardy, to the mountains, precipices, thickly wooded forests, and to the rocks of the seas (albeit with trembling hearts), remained still in their country."

Gildas Sapiens
De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniæ c.560AD

Wars between the native Romano-Britons and the invading Jutes, Saxons and Angles continued for over 400 years with the Britons being gradually driven to and contained in the mountain strongholds of Wales and Scotland. The term Romano-British describes the Romanised culture of Britain under the rule of the Roman Empire, when Roman and Christian culture had extensively entered into the life of the native Brythonic and Pictish peoples of Britain. ... The Jutes were a Germanic people who are believed to have originated from Jutland in modern Denmark and part of the Frisian coast. ... Angles (German: Angeln, Old English: Englas, Latin: singular Anglus, plural Anglii) were Germanic people, from Angeln in Schleswig, who settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria in the 5th century. ... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ...


Collectively the Germanic settlers of Britain, mostly Saxons, Angles and Jutes, came to be called the Anglo-Saxons. A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms circa 600CE. The Anglo-Saxons were culturally-related Germanic tribes from Angeln, a peninsula in what is now Lower Saxony in northwestern Germany. ...


Both Old English and modern Middle Low German are derived from Old Saxon. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ...


Modern remnants of the Saxon name

Since reunification in 1990, three federal states of Germany derive their name from the Saxons: Niedersachsen, or Lower Saxony, whose area corresponds roughly to the traditional Saxon lands between the Netherlands and the Elbe River; Sachsen-Anhalt, or Saxony-Anhalt, located around the city of Magdeburg; and the Free State of Sachsen, or Saxony, which includes the city of Dresden. German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). After the GDRs first free elections on 18... This article is about the year. ... Germany is a federal republic made up of 16 states, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe â–¶ (help· info), Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe, Hungarian Elba) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Magdeburg, the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, lies on the Elbe river. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Dresden, the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ...


In the Finnish and Estonian languages the words that historically applied to ancient Saxons have changed their meaning over the centuries to denote the whole country of Germany (Saksa in both) and the Germans (saksalaiset and sakslased, respectively) now. In some Celtic languages the word for the English nationality is derived from Saxon, e.g. the Scottish term Sassenach, and the Welsh term Sais. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Sassenach is a Scottish term for someone from England - usually a term of abuse. ...


The German-speaking minority in Romania is still referred to as Transylvanian Saxons as well. Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian: Saşi) are a population of German origin that were settled in the south and north-east of Transylvania starting with the 12th century. ...


External links

  • James Grout: Saxon Advent, part of the Encyclopædia Romana

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saxons - Search Results - MSN Encarta (217 words)
Saxons, Germanic people who first appear in history after the beginning of the Christian era.
The Saxons or Saxon people were a confederation of Old Germanic tribes whose modern-day descendants in northern Germany are considered ethnic Germans while those in the eastern...
Anglo-Saxon is the collective term usually used to describe the culturally and linguistically similar peoples living in the south and east of the island of Great Britain (modern...
Saxon people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1045 words)
The Saxon people or Saxons were a large Germanic people located in what is now northwestern Germany and a small section of the eastern Netherlands.
The Saxons long avoided becoming Christians (see Ewald the Black) and being incorporated into the orbit of the Frankish kingdom, but were decisively conquered by Charlemagne in a long series of annual campaigns (772 - 804).
The label "Saxons" was generally applied to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to south-eastern Transylvania in present-day Romania, where their descendants numbered a quarter of a million in the early decades of the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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