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Encyclopedia > Saxitoxin

Saxitoxin Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3aS-(3a-α,4-α,10aR*))2,6-diamino-
4-(((amino-carbonyl)oxy)methyl)-3a,4,8,9-tetrahydro-
1H,10H-pyrrolo(1,2-c)purine-10,10-diol
Identifiers
CAS number 35523-89-8
PubChem         37165
Chemical data
Formula C10H17N7O4 
Mol. weight 299.29
SMILES N=C1N[C@@H](COC(N)=O)[C@H]3[C@]
2(N=C(N)N3)N1CCC2(O)O
Complete data

Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin found in marine dinoflagellates (algae). It is a selective sodium channel blocker. The United States military isolated saxitoxin and assigned it the chemical weapon designation TZ. It is unique among toxins in that it acts in a matter of minutes. The LCt50 of TZ is 5 mg·min/. IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that exist in a cells plasma membrane and regulate the flow of sodium (Na+) ions into it. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Chemical, biological, and radiological warfare agents are sometimes assigned what is termed a military symbol. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


The medical importance of saxitoxin is in relation to red tide in shellfish and causes the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) food poisoning. The blocking of the sodium channel produces a flaccid paralysis that leaves its victim calm and conscious through the progression of symptoms. Death is from respiratory failure. See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ...


It is listed in schedule 1 of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Though its early isolation and characterization were related to military efforts, saxitoxin has been more important to cellular research in describing the function of the sodium channel. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ...


Glycoside S. was used in "Prison Break" to kill the president so the female VP could take office.


See also

A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin, tetrodonic acid, TTX) is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote, which blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the pores of the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. ...

External links

  • http://www.uaf.edu/seagrant/issues/PSP/PSP.pdf
  • http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/stx/saxi.htm

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saxitoxin (691 words)
Saxitoxin is usually consumed thought the eating of bivalve shellfish, such as clams or muscles [6].
Bivalve shellfish accumulate saxitoxin by feeding on the toxic dinoflagellate algae.
Saxitoxin’s name comes from saxidomus giganteus (the butter clam) from which the chemical was first extracted and identified [1].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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