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Encyclopedia > Sawmill
Late 19th century sawmill, Cascade Mountains, USA
Late 19th century sawmill, Cascade Mountains, USA
Early 20th century sawmill, maintained at Jerome, Arizona.
Early 20th century sawmill, maintained at Jerome, Arizona.

A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. Oliver Hardy (born Norvell Hardy; January 18, 1892 – August 7, 1957) was an American actor, most remembered for his role in one of the worlds most famous double acts, Laurel and Hardy, with his friend Stan Laurel. ... The Sawmill is a 1922 film featuring Oliver Hardy. ... The Saw Mill River is a 20 mile (32 km) long tributary of the Hudson River that flows from Chappaqua to Yonkers, where it empties into the Hudson. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (791x1160, 242 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sawmill User:Solipsist/additional images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (791x1160, 242 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sawmill User:Solipsist/additional images ... The high street of Jerome, Arizona A stream, stained turquoise-blue, emerges from a spoil pile of copper ore Jerome is a town in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Wooden boards as used in construction. ...

Contents

Sawmill Process

A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of 100 years ago; a log enters on one end and dimensional lumber exits on the other end. Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction...

  • Logging fells and bucks trees to length.
  • Logs are taken by truck, rail or river to the sawmill.
  • Logs are scaled either on the way to the mill or upon arrival at the mill.
  • Decking is the process for sorting the logs by species, size and end use (lumber, plywood, chips).
  • Debarking removes bark from the logs.
  • The head saw, head rig or primary saw, breaks the log into cants (unfinished planks) with a smooth edge.
  • Edging will take the cant and trim off all irregular edges leaving four-sided lumber.
  • Trimming squares the ends at typical lumber lengths.
  • Drying removes naturally occurring moisture from the lumber. This can be done with kilns or air-dried.
  • Planing smoothes the surface of the lumber leaving a uniform width and thickness.
  • Shipping transports the finished lumber to market.[1]

Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs. ... For other uses, see Logarithmic scale. ... Toy constructed from plywood. ... A head saw, gang saw or head rig, is the saw that makes the initial cuts in a log at a sawmill, turning a log into cants, or planks, of wood. ... A lumber edger is a saw used to straighten and smooth rough lumber or bowed stock by making a cut along the sides of the boards. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...

History

Sawmills seem to have existed in the medieval period, as one was sketched by Villard de Honnecourt in c.1250.[2] They are claimed to have been introduced to Madeira following its discovery in c. 1420 and spread widely in Europe in the 16th century.[3] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Self-portrait (?) of Villard de Honnecourt from The Portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt (about 1230) Villard de Honnecourt was possibly a 13th century itinerant master-builder of Picardy in northern France, whose surviving portfolio of drawings (ca 1230s?) is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (MS Fr 19093). ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


The sawmill was also invented by the Dutchman Cornelis Corneliszoon (1550-1607) by applying a pitman arm onto a wind mill, which converted a turning motion into an up-an-down motion. Corneliszoon patented the sawmill on December 15, 1593 and the pitman on December 6, 1597. He built the first sawmill there in 1594. Cornelis Corneliszoon (Born 1550 in Uitgeest, The Netherlands - died ca. ... The Pitman arm is a steering component in an automobile or truck. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ...


Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived and planed, or more often sawn by two men with a whipsaw, using saddleblocks to hold the log, and a pit for the pitman who worked below. Sawing was slow, and required strong and enduring men. The topsawer had to be the stronger of the two because the saw was pulled in turn by each man, and the lower had the advantage of gravity. The topsawyer also had to guide the saw so that the board was of even thickness. This was often done by following a chalkline.


Early sawmills simply adapted the whipsaw to mechanical power, generally driven by a water wheel to speed up the process. The circular motion of the wheel was changed to back-and-forth motion of the saw blade by a Connecting rod known as a pitman (thus introducing a term used in many mechanical applications). A pitman is similar to a crankshaft, but in reverse; a crankshaft converts back-and-forth motion to circular motion. An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ...


Generally, only the saw was powered, and the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand. An early improvement was the development of a movable carriage, also water powered, to steadily move the log through the saw blade.


A small mill such as this would be the center of many rural communities in wood-exporting regions such as the Baltic countries and Canada. The output of such mills would be quite low, perhaps only 500 boards per day. They would also generally only operate during the winter, the peak logging season. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ...


In the United States, the sawmills was introduced soon after the colonisation of Virginia by recruiting skilled men from Hamburgh. Later the metal parts were obtained from the Netherlands,[4] where the technology was far ahead of that in England, where the sawmill remained largely unknown until the late 18th century. The arrival of a sawmill was a large and stimulative step in the growth of a frontier community. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Early mills were taken to the forest, where a temporary shelter was built, and the logs were skidded to the nearby mill by horse or ox teams, often when there was some snow to provide lubrication. As mills grew larger, they were usually established in more permanent facilities on a river, and the logs were floated down to them by log drivers. Loggers at Klarälven. ...


The next improvement was the use of circular saw blades, and soon thereafter, the use of gangsaws, which added additional blades so that a log would be reduced to boards in one quick step. Circular saw blades were extremely expensive and highly subject to damage by overheating or dirty logs. A new kind of technician arose, the sawfiler. Sawfilers were highly skilled in metalworking. Their main job was to set and sharpen teeth. The craft also involved learning how to hammer a saw, whereby a saw is deformed with a hammer and anvil to counteract the forces of heat and cutting. The circular saw was a later introduction, perhaps invented in England in the late 18th century, but perhaps in 17th century Holland, Netherlands. Modern circular saw blades have replaceable teeth, but still need to be hammered.[5] Sawfiler benching a double cut saw A sawfiler is a person who maintains and repairs saws in a saw mill. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Invented in England in 1780, the circular saw (also known as the buzz saw in the USA) is a metal disc or blade with saw teeth on the edge as well as the machine that causes the disk to spin. ...


The introduction of steam power in the 19th century created many new possibilities for mills. They could be built away from water and could be far more mechanized. Scrap lumber from the mill provided a ready fuel source for firing the boiler. Efficiency was increased, but the capital cost of a new mill increased dramatically as well. A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By 1900, the largest sawmill in the world was operated by the Atlantic Lumber Company in Georgetown, South Carolina, using logs floated down the Pee Dee River from as far as the edge of the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina. Location of Georgetown in South Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State South Carolina County Georgetown Government  - Mayor Lynn Wood Wilson Area  - City 7. ... Shad Fishing in February Pee Dee River, Yauhanna, South Carolina The Pee Dee River, also known as the Great Pee Dee River, is a river in South Carolina. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


A restoration project for Sturgeon's Mill in Northern California is underway, restoring one of the last steam-powered lumber mills still using its original equipment.


Current Trends

Oregon Mill using energy efficient ponding to move logs
Oregon Mill using energy efficient ponding to move logs

In the twentieth century the introduction of electricity and high technology furthered this process, and now most sawmills are massive and extremely expensive facilities in which almost every aspect of the work is computerized. Today a mill can make many hundreds of thousands of boards per day. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3872 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3872 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the machine. ...


Small gasoline-powered sawmills run by local entrepreneurs served many communities in the early twentieth century, and specialty markets still today.


The latest trend is the small portable sawmill for personal or semi professional use. Many different models have emerged with different designs and functions. They are especially suitable for producing limited volumes of boards, or specialty milling such as oversized timber. A Trailer-Type Portable Sawmill Portable sawmills became popular in the United States starting in the 1970s, when the 1973 energy crisis and the back to the land movement had led to renewed interest in small woodlots and in self-sufficiency. ...


Technology has changed sawmill operations significantly in recent years, emphasizing increasing profits through waste minimization and increased energy efficiency as well as improving operator safety. The once-ubiquitous rusty, steel conical sawdust burners have for the most part vanished, as the sawdust and other mill waste is now processed into particleboard and related products, or used to heat wood-drying kilns. Everything is used. While the bark may be ground for landscapine barkdust, it may also be burned for heat. Sawdust may make particle board or be pressed into wood pellets for pellet stoves. The larger pieces of wood that won't make lumber are chipped into wood chips and provide a major source of supply for paper mills. Wood by products of the mills will also make Oriented strand board panelng for building construction, a cheaper alternative to plywood for paneling. This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... OSB-production before the press Oriented strand board, or OSB, is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. ...


Additional Images

See also

Large resaw blades used in a sawmill. ... Invented in England in 1780, the circular saw (also known as the buzz saw in the USA) is a metal disc or blade with saw teeth on the edge as well as the machine that causes the disk to spin. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... A Trailer-Type Portable Sawmill Portable sawmills became popular in the United States starting in the 1970s, when the 1973 energy crisis and the back to the land movement had led to renewed interest in small woodlots and in self-sufficiency. ... Sawfiler benching a double cut saw A sawfiler is a person who maintains and repairs saws in a saw mill. ... Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.lumberbasics.org/02lbrman/01.htm
  2. ^ C. Singer et at., History of Technology II (Oxford 1956), 643-4.
  3. ^ Charles E. Peterson, 'Sawdust Trail: Annals of Sawmilling and the Lumber Trade' Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology Vol. 5, No. 2. (1973), pp. 84-5.
  4. ^ Peterson, 94-5.
  5. ^ Norman Ball, 'Circular Saws and the History of Technology' Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 7(3) (1975), pp. 79-89.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sawmill
  • Steam powered saw mills
  • The basics of sawmill (German)

  Results from FactBites:
 
sawmill: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1598 words)
In 1634 a sawmill was in operation on the Piscataqua River between Maine and New Hampshire.
The giant sawmills developed for the most part in the great forest regions west of the Appalachia: in the white-pine belt of the Great Lakes Basin, in the yellow-pine area of the southern United States, and in the fir and redwood forests of the Pacific Northwest.
By 1900, the largest sawmill in the world was operated by the Atlantic Lumber Company in Georgetown, South Carolina, using logs floated down the Pee Dee River from as far as the edge of the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina.
Remote PNG landowners welcome sawmill | Greenpeace International (465 words)
The sawmill is a significant step forward in their quest to say no to destructive and illegal logging and introduce sustainable ecoforestry, which will benefit the whole community.
The sawmill arrived by boat at Ogia, a village on the eastern shore of Lake Murray to a traditional welcome, “sing-sing” and feast prepared by the whole village.
FPCD is providing the sawmill in a “lease to purchase” agreement which allows the clan to pay for the sawmill with future income from the timber it cuts and sells.
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