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Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, Sawm means 'to abstain from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse [1] The observance of sawm during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.[citation needed] Literally, Sawm means 'to abstain'. Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Other languages

For example, the Muslims of Afghanistan, India, Iran, Bangladesh, and Pakistan use the word rozah which comes from the Indo-Arian language of Dari. In Turkey, Sawm is called oruç, while the Malay community in Malaysia and Singapore call it puasa, which is derived from Sanskrit, upvaasa. Puasa is also used in Indonesia. Interestingly, the word is also found in the Maltese language. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Definition

Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking, smoking, and engaging in sexual intercourse from dawn (fajr) to sunset (maghrib). Fasting is essentially a means of seeking nearness to Allah and increasing one's piety. One of the remote aims of fasting is to sympathize with those less fortunate ones who do not always have food and drink readily available. Also one must try to avoid cursing and thinking evil thoughts. Fasting is also viewed as a means of controlling one's desires (of hunger, thirst, sexuality, anger) and focusing more on devoting oneself to God. Dawn in Peng Chau, Hong Kong. ... The Fajr prayer is the dawn daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Conditions of Fasting

Intention (Niyyah)

For a fast to be valid in the first instance, an intention (niyyah) must be made beforehand; this is considered to form an oath. If this is not said then the fast is not valid. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


General conditions

Throughout the duration of the fast itself, Muslims will abstain from certain provisions that God has otherwise allowed; namely eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse. This is in addition to the standard obligation already observed by Muslims of avoiding that which is not permissible under Qur'anic or Shari'ah law (e.g. ignorant and indecent speech, arguing and fighting, and lustful thoughts). Without observing this standard obligation, Sawm is rendered useless, and is seen simply as an act of starvation.


If one is sick, nursing or travelling, one is considered exempt from fasting. According to the Qur'an, for all other cases, not fasting is only permitted when the act is potentially dangerous to one's health - for example; those elderly who are too weak to fast for extended periods of time, diabetics, nursing, and pregnant women. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Suckling redirects here. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ...


Observing the fast is not permitted for menstruating women. However, when a woman's period has ceased, she must bathe and continue fasting. Any fasts broken/missed due to menstruation must be made up whenever she can before the next month of Ramadan. Women must fast at times when not menstruating, as God indicates that all religious duties are ordained for both men and women. This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ...


Breaking oaths and the consequences

During Ramadan, one who fasts and breaks the oath out of forgetfulness must nevertheless continue, since the fast will remain valid. If, however, one intentionally breaks the fast, by eating, drinking, or smoking, then they must continue for the rest of the day, add one day onto their fast and pay a "penalty'" (fidyah). A fidyah differ from schools of thought. In Malaysia however, a fidyah consists of the amount of rice equivalent of a meal.


However if one intentionally breaks the fast by having sex (without breaking it first by other means such eating etc) a set of "penalty" (kaffarra)shall apply. These exist in three forms, of which the person chooses one:

  • Fasting for an extra 60 consecutive days, if he/she couldn't then;
  • Feeding and clothing 60 people in need, if he/she couldn't then;
  • Freeing a Muslim slave.

Penalties for voluntary fasts at other times of the year, are, however, more lenient; if an oath is given, and circumstances dictate that if broken (or if the one giving the oath deliberately breaks it), one needs to fast for three days consecutively if they cannot initially find 10 poor people to feed and provide clothing for (both of which are commanded before the act of fasting as a form of repentance). The penalties are harsher during Ramadan because all mentally able Muslims are expected to have an increased awareness of the fast at that time.


Beginning and ending the Fast

In accordance with traditions handed down from Muhammad, Muslims eat a pre-dawn meal called the suhoor. All eating and drinking must be finished before Salat-ul-Fajr, the pre-dawn prayer. Unlike the Salat-ul-Zuhr and Salat-ul-Maghrib prayers, which have clear astronomical definitions (noon and sunset), there are several definitions used in practice for the timing of "true dawn" (al-fajr as-sadq), as mentioned in the hadith. These range from when the center of the sun is 12 to 21 degrees below the horizon [1] which equates to about 40 to 60 minutes before civil dawn. There are no restrictions on the morning meal other than the restrictions on Muslims diet. After completing the suhoor, Muslims recite the fajr prayer. No food or water is allowed to go down the throat after the suhoor. However, water unlike food may enter the mouth, but not go down the throat during wudu. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Suhoor is an Islamic Arabic term referringto the meal eaten early in the morning by Muslims before fasting in daylight hours during the Islamic month of Ramadan. ... The Fajr prayer is the dawn daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims. ... The Dhuhr prayer (dh pronounced as th in Thou) is the mid-day prayer recited by practising Muslims. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muslim dietary laws provide a set of rules as to what Muslims eat in their diet. ... The Fajr prayer is the dawn daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims. ... Suhoor is an Islamic Arabic term referringto the meal eaten early in the morning by Muslims before fasting in daylight hours during the Islamic month of Ramadan. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ...


The meal eaten to end the fast is known as al-Iftar. Many Muslims, following the Sunnah of the Prophet, Muhammad, break the fast with dates and water before praying Salat-ul-Maghrib, after which they might eat a more wholesome meal. Iftar (Arabic: إفطار), refers to the evening meal for breaking the daily fast during the Islamic month of Ramadan. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ...


Benefits of fasting

Fasting inculcates a sense of fraternity and solidarity, as Muslims can feel and experience that which their needy and hungry brothers and sisters feel. However, even the poor, needy, and hungry participate in the fast. Moreover, Ramadan is a month of giving charity and sharing meals to break the fast together, the latter offering more reward than if eating alone. Most importantly, the fast is also seen as a great sign of obedience by the believer to Allah. Faithful observance of the Sawm is believed to atone for personal faults and misdeeds and to help earn a place in paradise. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As briefly mentioned earlier, fasting can also be observed voluntarily (as part of the Greater Jihad ): Sawm is intended to teach believers patience and self-control in their personal conduct, to help control passions and temper, to provide time for meditation and to strengthen one's faith. Fasting also serves the purpose of cleansing the inner soul and freeing it of harm. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


While fasting in the month of Ramadan is considered Fard (obligatory), Islam also prescribed certain days for non-obligatory, voluntary fasting, such as: This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ...

  • each Monday and Thursday of a week
  • the 13th, 14th, and 15th day of each lunar month
  • six days in the month of Shawwal (the month following Ramadan)
  • the Day of Arafat (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Islamic (Hijri) calendar)
  • the Day of Ashura (10th of Muharram in the Hijri calendar), with one more day of fasting before or after it (For Sunni Muslims only. It is prohibited in Shia Islam)

Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ...

Times when fasting is forbidden

Although fasting is considered a pious act in Islam, there are times when fasting is prohibited. There are certain days on which fasts are prohibited:

  • Eid ul-Adha
  • Eid ul-Fitr
  • Day of Ashura [10th of Muharrum] (For Shia Muslims- however they can do a faqa, which is a fast from morning to mid day prayers)
  • Ayyam at-Tashriq (the 11th, 12th and 13th of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah).
  • As often as possible in the months of Rajab and Shaban before Ramadhan

Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ...

Fasting in the Qur'an

In the Qur'an, in verse 183 of the second chapter (2:183), God says, "fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you."

  • يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

'O those who believe, the fasts have been enjoined upon you as were enjoined upon those before so that you be God-fearing.' [Surah Baqarah, 183] Sūrata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ...


Fasting in other religions

Main article: fasting

Lent in Christianity, Yom Kippur, Tisha B'av, Fast of Esther, Tzom Gedalia the Seventeenth_of_Tamuz, and the Tenth_of_Tevet, all in Judaism, are also times of fasting. Nevertheless, the fasting practices are different from one another. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) generally fast for 24 hours on the first Sunday of each month. Like Muslims, they refrain from all drinking and eating unless they are children or are physically unable to fast. Fasting is also a feature of ascetic traditions in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Mahayana traditions that follow the Brahma's Net Sutra may recommend that the laity fast " during the six days of fasting each month and the three months of fasting each year" [Brahma's Net Sutra, minor precept 30]. Members of the Bahá'í Faith observe a Nineteen Day Fast from sunrise to sunset during March each year. Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר , IPA: ), also known in English as the Day of Atonement, is the most solemn of the Jewish holidays. ... Tisha BAv (Hebrew: תשעה באב or ט׳ באב), or the Ninth of Av, is an annual fast day in Judaism. ... The Fast of Esther known as Taanit Ester is a Jewish fast from dusk until dawn, commemorating the three day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. ... The Fast of Gedalia (or Gedaliah) is a Jewish fast from dawn till dusk to commemorate the death of a Jew of that name. ... Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Hebrew: Shiva Assar BeTammuz) is the seventeenth day on the Hebrew month of Tammuz. ... Tenth of Tevet, in Hebrew asarah btevet, the tenth day of the Hebrew calendar month of Tevet, a minor fast day in Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The Nineteen Day Fast (March 2 - March 20) is a nineteen-day period of the year, during which members of the Baháí Faith adhere to a sunrise to sunset fast. ...


See also

Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... For information on the volume of the Talmud with this name, see Taanit (Talmud). ...

References

  1. ^ Fasting and Tafsir Ma'ariful Qur'an - Haq Islam

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Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... In Islam, Prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and final Prophet of Allah. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ...

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Sawm (571 words)
Sawm is decreed for all Muslims above 13 (girls) and 14 (boys), and in good health.
Sawm was established in 624 CE (2 H), from which year the above passage is taken.
Sawm is one of the pillars of Islam, and practiced by a majority of the people even in the most secular Muslim countries.
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