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Encyclopedia > Sauropsid
?Sauropsid
Fossil range: Late Carboniferous - Recent
Eastern Water dragon, Physignathus lesueurii
Eastern Water dragon, Physignathus lesueurii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
(unranked) Amniota
Class: Sauropsida/Reptilia

Goodrich1916
The Pennsylvanian is a geologic (sub)period lasting from roughly 325 million years before the present (BP) to 286 million years BP. As with most other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x709, 95 KB)Eastern Water Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) - photo taken by me at the Australian National Botanic Gardens 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Physignathus cocincinus Physignathus lesueurii Water dragons are large diurnal arboreal agamid lizards in the genus Physignathus. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicatas Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Classes and Clades Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Groups See text. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia(mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines(turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata(lizards& snakes)           Sphenodontida(tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia(crocodiles)           Class Aves(birds) The amniotes are a microphylum of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Reptilia (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Edwin Stephen Goodrich (b. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Clades

Subclass Anapsida
Subclass Diapsida
Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...

Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha
Infraclass Archosauromorpha

Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals. The Sauropsida includes all modern and most extinct "reptiles", but excludes synapsids. Living sauropsids include lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Extinct sauropsids include non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and many others. Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Groups Order Rhynchosauria Order Trilophosauria Order Prolacertiformes Plesion     Archosauriformes Division        Archosauria Archosauromorpha (Greek for ruling reptiles form) are a diverse group or Infraclass of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian, but only became common during the Triassic. ... Classes and Clades Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Families Many, see text. ... Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae Snakes (from Old English snaca, and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European base snag- or sneg-, to crawl), also known as ophidians, are cold blooded... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (, winged lizards, often referred to as pterodactyls, ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Families Plesiosaurs (IPA ) (Greek: plesios, near to + sauros, lizard) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... Taxonomy See text Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ...

Contents


History of the Term "Sauropsida"

The terms "Sauropsida" ("Lizard Faces") and "Theropsida" ("Beast Faces") were coined in 1916 by E.S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards, birds, and their relatives on one hand (Sauropsida) and mammals and their extinct relatives (Theropsida) on the other. This division is supported by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, and other features such as the structure of the forebrain. According to Goodrich both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, the Protosauria ("First Lizards") which included some Paleozoic amphibians as well as early reptiles. Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edwin Stephen Goodrich (b. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... The Paleozoic Era is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... Subclasses and Orders Order Temnospondyli- extinct Subclass Lepospondyli- extinct Subclass Lissamphibia   Anura   Caudata   Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia) are a taxon of animals that include all tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs. ...


In 1956 D.M.S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged very early in reptilian history, and so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria among them. He also reinterpreted the Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Eosuchia, Millerosauria, Chelonia (turtles), Squamata (lizards and snakes), Rhynchocephalia, Crocodilia, "thecodonts" (paraphyletic basal Archosauria), non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and sauropyterygians. 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Meredith Seares Watson FRS (18 June 1886–23 July 1973) was the Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, London from 1921 to 1951. ... Families Procolophonoidea Owenettidae Procolophonidae ?Sclerosauridae Pareiasauroidea ?Rhipaeosauridae Pareiasauridae The Procolophonia are an suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian till the end of the Triassic period. ... Eosuchians are an extinct order of diapsid reptiles. ... The milleretids is an extinct group of anapsids that lived in South Africa during the Upper Permian. ... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... Suborders Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards Sauria- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Squamata (scaled reptiles) is the largest recent order of reptiles, including lizards and snakes. ... Species Sphenodon punctatus Sphenodon guntheri The tuatara is the only surviving member of Rhynchocephalia (modernly known as either Sphenodontia or Sphenodontida), an order that has survived virtually unchanged for 200 million years. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Thecodont (socket-toothed reptile), is a catch-all (paraphyletic) group, now considered an obsolete term, that was formerly used to describe a group of the earliest archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group are subgroups that diverged very early from the others. ... -1... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (, winged lizards, often referred to as pterodactyls, ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Taxonomy See text Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ... Groups ?Placodontia Pachypleurosauridae Nothosauridae    Plesiosauria Sauropterygia (lizard flippers) is a group of very successful aquatic reptiles that flourished during the Age of the Dinosaurs before they became extinct. ...


This classification supplemented, but was never as popular as, the classification of the reptiles (according to Romer's classic Vertebrate Paleontology) into four subclasses according to the positioning of temporal fenestrae, openings in the sides of the skull behind the eyes. Those divisions were: Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 _ November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution. ... Vertebrate Paleontology is an advanced textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Alfred Sherwood Romer, published by the University of Chicago Press. ... Temporal fenestræ refer to cranial holes. ...

All of the above but Synapsida fall under Sauropsida. Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... The postorbital is one of the bones in vertebrate skulls which forms a portion of the dermal skull roof and, sometimes, a ring about the orbit. ... The squamosal is a bone of the head of higher vertebrates. ... Euryapsida are a group of tetrapod animals that are distinguished by a single opening behind the orbit (temporal fenestra). ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...


Sauropsida versus Reptilia

In the current cladistic system, the Linnean classification of the Class Reptilia into four subclasses has been replaced. Euryapsida is variously considered a subgroup of Diapsida or rejected altogether. Reptilia is often considered a clade including the most recent common ancestor of Crocodylia, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Chelonia, plus all descendants of that ancestor. (Controversially, this includes birds and excludes all synapsids.) Clade Sauropsida includes all amniotes sharing more recent ancestry with Clade Reptilia than with Mammalia. The term "Theropsida" is usually replaced by Synapsida, which now refers to both the old subclass Synapsida plus the mammals. This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Linnaean taxonomy classifies living things into a hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Euryapsida are a group of tetrapod animals that are distinguished by a single opening behind the orbit (temporal fenestra). ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Subfamilies Family Crocodylidae    Crocodylinae    Alligatorinae    Gavialinae Crocodylia (or crocodylians) is an order of large reptiles that scientists believe branched off from class Reptilia about 220 million years ago. ... Suborders Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards Sauria- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Squamata (scaled reptiles) is the largest recent order of reptiles, including lizards and snakes. ... Species Sphenodon punctatus Sphenodon guntheri The tuatara is the only surviving member of Rhynchocephalia (modernly known as either Sphenodontia or Sphenodontida), an order that has survived virtually unchanged for 200 million years. ... An order of Reptiles, called the Crown Group. Its distinctive characteristic is that part of its vertebrae, ribs, and sternum unite with its dermal plates so as to form a firm shell. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


Anapsids are generally thought to reflect the ancestral amniote condition. If so, they might not form a natural group, but might simply be a paraphyletic assemblage of primitive amniotes. It is also possible that some anapsids (notoriously turtles) are actually diapsids that lost their temporal fenestrae secondarily, which would make the group polyphyletic. Orders Testudines (Turtles, tortoises & terrapins) Mesosauria - extinct Millerettidae - extinct Nyctiphruretidae - extinct Pareiasauridae - extinct Procolophonidae - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Groups See text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ...


In the 2004 edition of his textbook, Michael J. Benton uses the term "Class Sauropsida" to refer to all non-synapsid, non-avian amniotes, although most systematists would include Aves (birds), as in the original sense of the taxon. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael J. Benton is a professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol. ... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Taxonomy

Amniote systematics is still being researched, with many issues still disputed (notably the origins of turtles and of snakes, respectively). This scheme should be seen as provisional. In biology, systematics is the study of the diversity of organism characteristics, and especially how they relate evolutionarily. ... Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ...


Amniota Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ...

Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... Groups See cladograms below Parareptilia (at the side of reptiles) is a subclass or clade of Reptiles which are variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida. ... Mesosaurus was a small marine reptile that lived during the late Carboniferous of the Permian period, roughly 280 to 220 million years ago. ... The milleretids is an extinct group of anapsids that lived in South Africa during the Upper Permian. ... The bolosaurids is an extinct group of anapsids from the Permian. ... Groups See taxonomy The Procolophonomorpha are an order or clade of early reptiles that appeared during the Middle Permian. ... Families Procolophonoidea Owenettidae Procolophonidae ?Sclerosauridae Pareiasauroidea ?Rhipaeosauridae Pareiasauridae The Procolophonia are an suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian till the end of the Triassic period. ... Genera Bradysaurus Nochelesaurus Embrithosaurus Deltavjatia Velosauria Shihtienfenia Pareiasuchus Pareiasaurus Scutosaurus Elginia Nanopareia Anthodon The Pareiasaurs - family Pareiasauridae - are a group of medium-sized to very large (60 cm to 3 meters long), stocky, early, reptilian herbivores, that flourished during the Permian period. ... Families See text Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudinata, most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. ... An order of Reptiles, called the Crown Group. Its distinctive characteristic is that part of its vertebrae, ribs, and sternum unite with its dermal plates so as to form a firm shell. ... Groups Captorhinidae Romeriida Protorothyrididae Diapsida Eureptilia is one of the two major clades of the Sauropsida, the other being Anaspida or Parareptilia. ... Genera See text Captorhinidae (also known as cotylosaurs, or stem reptiles) were the earliest and most primitive reptiles. ... Protorothyrididae was a clade of small, lizard-like reptiles, possibly the ancestors of turtles and tortoises. ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Genera (see text) Synonyms Araeoscelida Araeoscelidia or Araeoscelida is a clade of extinct diapsid reptiles superficially resembling lizards. ... Families  ?Protoavidae Longisquamidae Coelurosauravidae Drepanosauridae Avicephala is an extinct order of bizarre diapsid reptiles that lived during the Late Permian and Triassic periods. ... A replacement for the taxon Eosuchia, proposed by Alfred Romer in 1947. ... Groups Utatsusaurus Parvinatator Eoichthyosauria Grippidae/Grippidia Ichthyosauria Ichthyopterygia (fish flippers) was a designation introduced by Sir Richard Owen in 1840 to designate the Jurassic Ichthyosaurs that were known at the time, but the term is now used more often for both true Ichthyosauria and their more primitive early and middle... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Groups ?Placodontia Pachypleurosauridae Nothosauridae    Plesiosauria Sauropterygia (lizard flippers) is a group of very successful aquatic reptiles that flourished during the Age of the Dinosaurs before they became extinct. ... Placodonts were a group of marine reptiles that lived during the Triassic period, becoming extinct at the end of the period. ... Families Simosauridae Germanosauridae Nothosauridae Nothosaurs were Triassic marine sauropterygian reptiles that may have lived like seals of today, catching food in water but coming ashore on rocks and beaches. ... Families Cryptoclididae Elasmosauridae Plesiosauridae Pliosauridae Plesiosaurs (PLEE-see-oh-SORES) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Species Sphenodon punctatus Sphenodon guntheri The tuatara is the only surviving member of Rhynchocephalia (modernly known as either Sphenodontia or Sphenodontida), an order that has survived virtually unchanged for 200 million years. ... Suborders Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards Sauria- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Squamata (scaled reptiles) is the largest recent order of reptiles, including lizards and snakes. ... Groups Order Rhynchosauria Order Trilophosauria Order Prolacertiformes Plesion     Archosauriformes Division        Archosauria Archosauromorpha (Greek for ruling reptiles form) are a diverse group or Infraclass of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian, but only became common during the Triassic. ... Groups Cteniogenidae Simoedosauridae Champsosauridae Choristodera is an order of semi-aquatic diapsid reptiles which ranged from the Middle Jurassic, or possibly Late Triassic, to upper Eocene, or upper Oligocene. ... Genera Trilophosaurus Tricuspisaurus Variodens Trilophosaurs were lizard-like Triassic diapsid reptiles related to the archosaurs. ... Genera Mesosuchus Howesia Stenaulorhynchys Rhynchosaurus Otischalia Isalorhynchus Hyperodepedon Rhynchosaurs were a group of unusual Triassic diapsid reptiles related to the archosaurs. ... Families See text Prolacertiformes (sometimes called Protorosaurs) were a bizarre order of diapsid reptiles that lived during the Permian and Triassic Periods. ... Groups Proterosuchidae     Erythrosuchidae         Euparkeriidae             Archosauria Archosauriformes (Greek for ruling reptiles, + form) are a clade of diapsid reptiles that developed from Archosauromorph ancestors some time in the Late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... Thecodont (socket-toothed reptile), is a catch-all (paraphyletic) group, now considered an obsolete term, that was formerly used to describe a group of the earliest archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. ... Genera see Taxonomy Proterosuchidae (or Chasmatosuchidae) are an early, most certainly paraphyletic, assemblage of basal archosaurs whose fossils are known from the the Latest Permian of Russia and the Early Triassic of southern Africa, Russia, China, Australia, and Antarctica. ... Genera see Taxonomy Erythrosuchidae are a family of large basal archosaurian carnivores that lived from the later Early Triassic (Olenekian) to the early Middle Triassic (Anisian). ... -1... Subtaxa Phytosauridae Prestosuchidae Ornithosuchidae Stagonolepididae Rauisuchidae Poposauridae Crocodylomorpha     Sphenosuchia     Crocodilia Crurotarsi (cross-ankles) is a node-based taxon created by Paul Sereno in 1991 to supplant the old term Pseudosuchia. ... Phytosaurs - family Phytosauridae or Parasuchidae - were a group of large (2 to 12 meters long - average size 3 to 4 meters) semi-aquatic predatory thecodonts that flourished during the Late Triassic period. ... Genera Batrachotomus Mandasuchus Prestosuchus Ticinosuchus Saurosuchus Yarasuchus Prestosuchidae are a group of Triassic carnivorous archosaurs. ... Families Family Prestosuchidae Family Rauisuchidae Family Poposauridae Rauisuchia are a poorly known assemblage of predatory and mostly large (often 4 to 6 meters) Triassic archosaurs. ... Genera Aetosaurus Coahomasuchus Desmatosuchus Longosuchus Neoaetosauroides Paratypothorax Redondasuchus Stagonolepis Typothorax The Aetosaurs (family Stagonolepididae or Aetosauridae) are an extinct clade of heavily armoured, medium to large sized, Late Triassic herbivorous archosaurs. ... Genera Rauisuchus Fasolasuchus Lotosaurus Heptasuchus Tikisaurus ?Teratosaurus ?Postosuchus Rauisuchidae are a group of large (upto 6 meters or more) predatory Triassic archosaurs, and constitute advanced representatives of the larger group Rauisuchia. ... Genera Bomsgroveia Poposaurus Postosuchus Sillosuchus Shuvosaurus Teratosaurus The Poposauridae are a family of large (around 2. ... Groups see taxonomy The Crocodylomorpha are an important group of archosaurs that include the living crocodilians and their extinct relatives. ... Subfamilies Family Crocodylidae    Crocodylinae    Alligatorinae    Gavialinae Crocodylia (or crocodylians) is an order of large reptiles that scientists believe branched off from class Reptilia about 220 million years ago. ... Superorders Dinosauromorpha    Lagosuchians    Dinosauria Pterosauromorpha    Pterosauria    Scleromochlus    Sharovipteryx Ornithodira is a division of the Archosauromorpha (and perhaps Archosauria) clade. ... Schleromochlus is the name of an archosaur from the early Triassic era, sharing many similarities in form with the pterosaurs which evolved years later, leading to speculation that it may have been an ancestor. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (TEH-row-sore, winged lizards) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Lagerpeton is the name given to a genus of reptile from the Ladinian (Middle Triassic). ... Species Lagosuchus was a small archosaur from the mid-Triassic. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Genera Aliwalia Herrerasaurus ? Chindesaurus ? Caseosaurus Herrerasaurids are among the oldest known dinosaurs, appearing in the fossil record about 228 million years ago (mid-Triassic). ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Groups Saturnalia Prosauropoda Sauropoda The Sauropodomorpha were a group of long-necked, herbivorous dinosaurs that eventually dropped down on all fours and became the largest animals that ever the walked the earth. ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ...

External links

  • Tree of Life Describes the early amniote clades
  • University of Bristol Taxonomic hierarchy of the vertebrates, according to Benton 2004

References

  • Benton, M. J. (2004), Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd
  • Colbert, E.H. (1969), Evolution of the Vertebrates, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  • Goodrich, E.S. (1916). On the classification of the Reptilia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 89B: 261–276.
  • Romer, A.S., Vertebrate Paleontology University of Chicago Press, 1933; 3rd ed. 1966.
  • Watson, D.M.S. (1957). On Millerosaurus and the early history of the sauropsid reptiles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 1957, V.240, N.673, P.325-400.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sauropsid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (591 words)
Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals.
Living sauropsids include lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds.
Watson, D.M.S. On Millerosaurus and the early history of the sauropsid reptiles.
Sauropsid (284 words)
Living sauropsids include lizards, snakes turtles, and crocodiles.
Extinct sauropsids include dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, Ichthyosaurs, and many others.
E.S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards, birds, and their relatives on one hand (Sauropsida) and mammal-like reptiles and mammals (Theropsida) on the other.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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