FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray

Satyajit Ray (left) on the set of Two, 1964
Born May 2, 1921(1921-05-02)
Calcutta, India
Died April 23, 1992 (aged 70)
Calcutta, India
Spouse(s) Bijoya Das (1948-1992)

Satyajit Ray (Bengali: সত্যজিত রায় or সত্যজিৎ রায় Shottojit Rae ) (May 2, 1921April 23, 1992) was a Bengali Indian filmmaker and polymath. He was one of the most highly regarded filmmakers of the 20th century. Born in the city of Calcutta, into a Bengali family prominent in the world of arts and letters, Ray studied at Presidency College and at the Visva-Bharati University, at the poet Rabindranath Tagore's Santiniketan. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing the Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves during a visit to London. Image File history File links SatyajitProduction. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Image File history File links SatyajitRay2. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Located at 86/1, College Street, in Kolkata, India, Presidency College, Calcutta offers undergraduate and graduate degree courses in natural sciences, humanities and social sciences. ... Established by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921, the Visva Bharati University (Bangla: বিশ্ব-ভারতী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়), located at Santiniketan, West Bengal in India is a Central University. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... , Santiniketan (Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 kilometres north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... Italian neorealism is a film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... The Bicycle Thief redirects here. ...


Ray directed thirty-seven films, including feature films, documentaries and shorts. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali, won eleven international prizes, including Best Human Document at Cannes. Along with Aparajito and Apur Sansar, the film forms the Apu trilogy. Ray worked on an array of tasks, including scripting, casting, scoring, cinematography, art direction, editing and designing his own credit titles and publicity material. Apart from making films, he was a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, graphic designer and film critic. Ray received many major awards in his career, including an Academy Honorary Award in 1992. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Early American actor William Garwood starred in numerous short films, many of which were only 20 minutes in length Short subject is a format description originally coined in the North American film industry in the early period of cinema. ... Pather Panchali (Bengali: পথের পাঁচালী Pôther Pãchali) is the 1955 directorial debut of Satyajit Ray. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Aparajito (Bengali: অপরাজিত, Ôporajito, meaning The Unvanquished) is an award-winning 1956 Bengali film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Third and last of the famous Apu Trilogy, a series of films about a boy named Apu in early twentieth century Bengal by Satyajit Ray. ... The Apu trilogy is a series of three films directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The term art director, is an overall title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. ... This lists the Personal Awards Ray achieved by Satyajit Ray apart from several distinctions his films earned worldwide. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ...

Contents

Early life

Satyajit Ray, 1932
Satyajit Ray, 1932

Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back at least ten generations.[1] Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Raychowdhury was a writer, illustrator, philosopher, publisher and amateur astronomer, and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in 19th century Bengal. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an able illustrator and a critic. Ray was born to Sukumar and Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was barely three, and the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied economics at Presidency College in Kolkata, though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he study at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, and general low impression about the intellectual life at Santiniketan.[2] His mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore finally convinced him to try this route. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate oriental art. He later admitted that he learnt much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose[3] and Benode Behari Mukherjee on whom Ray later produced a documentary film, "The Inner Eye". With visits to Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta, Ray developed an admiration for Indian art.[4] Image File history File links Boy_ray. ... Image File history File links Boy_ray. ... Upendrokishore Ray (Bangla:উপেন্দ্রকিশোর রায়), also known as Upendrokishore Raychowdhury (উপেন্দ্রকিশোর রায়চৌধুরী) was a famous Bengali writer, painter, violin player and composer. ... Brahmo Samaj is a social and religious movement founded in Kolkata, India in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... A well-known photo of Sukumar Ray Sukumar Ray (Bangla:সুকুমার রায়) (1887-1923) was a Bengali nonsense poet, story writer and playwright. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Nonsense verse is a form of poetry, normally composed for humorous effect, which is intentionally and overtly paradoxical, silly, witty, whimsical or just plain strange. ... Childrens books redirects here. ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... Established by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921, the Visva Bharati University (Bangla: বিশ্ব-ভারতী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়), located at Santiniketan, West Bengal in India is a Central University. ... , Santiniketan (Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 kilometres north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). ... The Orient is a term traditionally used in Western culture to refer to the Middle East (Southwest Asia and Egypt), South Asia and East Asia. ... The paintings of Nandalal Bose are considered among Indias best modern paintings by many critics. ... Benodebehari Mukherjee (Bengali: ) (1904 - 1980) was an Indian artist. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Jain cave in Ellora Ellora is an ancient village 30 km (18. ... The Trimurti-Sadasiva Statue The Elephanta Caves are the focal point of the Elephanta Island, located in the Mumbai harbour off the coast of Mumbai (Bombay), India. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ...


Ray left Santiniketan in 1943 before completing the five-year course and returned to Calcutta, where he took a job with a British advertising agency, D.J. Keymer. He joined as a "junior visualiser", earning just eighty rupees a month. Although on one hand, visual design was something close to Ray's heart and, for the most part, he was treated well, there was palpable tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm (the former were much better paid), and Ray felt that "the clients were generally stupid".[5] Around 1943, Ray became involved with Signet Press, a new publishing house started up by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books published from Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, and Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India. He also worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay, renamed as Am Antir Bhepu (The mango-seed whistle). Ray was deeply influenced by the work, which became the subject of his first film. In addition to designing the cover, he illustrated the book; many of his illustrations ultimately found their place as shots in his groundbreaking film.[6] The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... Visual design is the interpretation and extension of a brands attributes, platform, and personality through the use and layout of elements such as images, color palette, typography, etc. ... Signet Press in Kolkata (previously Calcutta), West Bengal, India is a publishing house established by D. K. Gupta. ... D. K. Gupta was the founder of the publishing house Signet Press in Kolkata (then Calcutta), West Bengal, India. ... Jim Corbett can refer to three different people: Gentleman Jim James J. Corbett (1866 - 1933) was the Heavyweight Champion of the World in boxing. ... Man-Eaters of Kumaon is a book written by Jim Corbett. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Cover of an edition of the Discovery of India The Discovery of India was written by Indias first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during his imprisonment in 1942-1946 at Ahmednagar. ... Bibhutibhushan Bandhopadhyay Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay (Bengali: Bibhutibhushon Bôndopaddhae; last name also rendered as Banerjee or Banerji) was a Bengali novelist and writer. ...


Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947, through which he was exposed to many foreign films. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who would inform him of the latest American films showing in the city. He came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion of films, chess and western classical music.[7] In 1949, Ray married Bijoya Das, his distant cousin and longtime sweetheart. The couple had a son, Sandip, who is now a prominent film director in his own right. In the same year, Jean Renoir came to Calcutta to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. It was then that Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had been on his mind for some time, and Renoir encouraged him to proceed.[8] In 1950, Ray was sent to London by D.J. Keymer to work at its head office. During his three months in London, he watched 99 films. Among these was the neorealist film Ladri di biciclette Bicycle Thieves (1948) by Vittorio De Sica which had a profound impact on him. Ray later said that he came out of the theater determined to become a filmmaker.[9] Chidananda Dasgupta is an Indian filmmaker, a leading film critic, a film historian and one of the founders of Calcutta Film Society. ... Calcutta Flm Society was a film society in the city of Kolkata (then Calcutta), West Bengal, India. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... RAF redirects here. ... Bijoya Ray (Hindi: बिजोया रय, Urdu: بِجویا رے) is the widow of the famous film director Satyajit Ray. ... Sandip Ray (b. ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... The River is a 1951 film directed by Jean Renoir. ... Italian neorealism is a film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... The Bicycle Thief redirects here. ... Vittorio De Sica (July 7, 1902–November 13, 1974) was an Italian neorealist director and actor. ...


The Apu Years (1950–1958)

Wide open eyes, a continual motif in the Apu Trilogy
Wide open eyes, a continual motif in the Apu Trilogy
Ray during his years at Santiniketan.
Ray during his years at Santiniketan.

Ray had now decided that Pather Panchali, the classic bildungsroman of Bengali literature, published in 1928 by Bibhutibhusan Bandopadhyay, would be the subject matter for his first film. This semi-autobiographical novel describes the growing up of Apu, a small boy in a Bengal village. Ray completed a treatment of the film on sea while returning to India from London. Satyajit Ray is mainly known as director of cinemas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x778, 195 KB) Summary Screen Shot from Pather Panchali (1955), directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x778, 195 KB) Summary Screen Shot from Pather Panchali (1955), directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Image File history File links Ray_stu. ... Image File history File links Ray_stu. ... , Santiniketan (Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 kilometres north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ...


Ray gathered around him an inexperienced crew, although both his cameraman Subrata Mitra and art director Bansi Chandragupta went on to achieve great acclaim. The cast consisted of mostly amateur artists. Shooting started in late 1952, using Ray's personal savings. He had hoped once the initial shots had been completed, he would be able to obtain funds to support the project; however, such funding was not forthcoming. Pather Panchali was shot over the unusually long period of three years, because shooting was possible only from time to time, when Ray or production manager Anil Chowdhury could arrange further money. With a loan from the West Bengal government, the film was finally completed and released in 1955 to great critical and popular success, sweeping up numerous prizes and having long runs in both India and abroad. During the making of the film, Ray refused funding from sources who demanded a change in script or the supervision of the producer, and ignored advice from the government (which finally funded the film anyway) to incorporate a happy ending in having Apu's family join a "development project".[10] Even greater help than Renoir's encouragement occurred when Ray showed a sequence to John Huston who was in India scouting locations for "The Man Who Would Be King." The sequence is the remarkable vision Apu and his sister have of the train running through the countryside. It was the only sequence Ray had filmed due to his small budget. Huston notified Monroe Wheeler at the New York Museum of Modern Art that a major talent was on the horizon. In India, the reaction to the film was enthusiastic, The Times of India wrote that "It is absurd to compare it with any other Indian cinema [...] Pather Panchali is pure cinema".[11] In the United Kingdom, Lindsay Anderson wrote a glowing review of the film.[11] However, the reaction was not uniformly positive. François Truffaut is reported to have walked out halfway through the screening at Cannes saying, "I don’t want to see a movie of peasants eating with their hands."[12] Bosley Crowther, then the most influential critic of The New York Times, wrote a scathing review of Panchali that the film's distributor Ed Harrison thought would kill off the film when it was released in the United States, but instead it enjoyed an exceptionally long run. Subrata Mitra (Bangla: সুব্রত মিত্র) was an Indian cinematographer. ... The term art director, is an overall title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. ... Bansi Chandragupta was an indian Art director, regarded among the greatest of Indian Art directors of cinema. ... Anil Chowdhury was a production controller or production manager in several films in the Bengali film industry located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 19 districts. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... The Times of India, often abbreviated as TOI, is one of Indias leading daily newspapers, owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. ... Lindsay Gordon Anderson (April 17, 1923 - August 30, 1994), was a Scottish film critic, and a film, theatre and documentary director. ... François Roland Truffaut (French IPA: ) (February 6, 1932 – October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Bosley Crowther (July 13, 1905 – March 7, 1981) was an American film critic. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Ray's international career started in earnest after the success of his next film, Aparajito (The Unvanquished). This film shows the eternal struggle between the ambitions of a young man, Apu, and the mother who loves him. Many critics, notably Mrinal Sen and Ritwik Ghatak, rank it even higher than the first film. Aparajito won the Golden Lion in Venice. Before the completion of the Trilogy, Ray completed two other films. The first is the comic Parash Pathar (The Philosopher's Stone), which was followed by Jalsaghar (The Music Room), a film about the decadence of the Zamindars, considered one of his most important works.[13] Aparajito (Bengali: অপরাজিত, Ôporajito, meaning The Unvanquished) is an award-winning 1956 Bengali film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... The Golden Lion (it: Leone dOro) is the name of the highest prize given to a film at the Biennale Venice Film Festival. ... The Venice Film Festival ( ) is the oldest film festival in the world. ... Parash Pathar (The Philosophers Stone, 1958) was Satyajit Rays first film apart from the Apu trilogy. ... Jalsaghar (1958), known in the U.S. and Europe as The Music Room, is the 4th feature film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ...


Ray had not thought about a trilogy while making Aparajito, and it occurred to him only after being asked about the idea in Venice.[14] The final installation of the series, Apur Sansar (The World of Apu) was made in 1959. Just like the two previous films, a number of critics find this to be the supreme achievement of the trilogy (Robin Wood, Aparna Sen). Ray introduced two of his favourite actors Soumitra Chatterjee and Sharmila Tagore in this film. The film finds Apu living in a nondescript Calcutta house in near-poverty. He becomes involved in an unusual marriage with Aparna, the scenes of their life together forming "one of the cinema's classic affirmative depiction of married life",[15] but tragedy ensues. After Apur Sansar was harshly criticised by a Bengali critic, Ray wrote an eloquent article defending it—a rare event in Ray's film making career (the other major instance involved the film Charulata, Ray's personal favourite).[16] His success had little influence on his personal life in the years to come. Ray continued to live with his mother, uncle and other members of his extended family in a rented house.[17] Third and last of the famous Apu Trilogy, a series of films about a boy named Apu in early twentieth century Bengal by Satyajit Ray. ... Robin Wood (born February 23, 1931, in London, England) is a film critic and author, acclaimed for his reviews of films from Alfred Hitchcock, Howard Hawks and Satyajit Ray, among others. ... Aparna Sen (née Dasgupta) (Bengali: অপর্ণা সেন Ôporna Shen) (October 25, 1945 - ) is a Bengali Indian actress and film director and mother of actress Konkona Sen Sharma. ... Soumitra Chatterjee (born 1935) is a Bengali actor from India, most famous for his frequent collaborations with the great Indian director Satyajit Ray. ... See Tagore for disambiguation Sharmila Tagore (Bengali: ) is a renowned Indian film actress from Bengal, who as of April 2005 heads the Indian Film Censor Board. ...


From Devi to Charulata (1959–1964)

Reversal of the gaze, Charulata looking at Amal
Reversal of the gaze, Charulata looking at Amal
Ray used shadows and lights, as well as the mists of Darjeeling to reflect the emotions of the characters of Kanchenjungha film
Ray used shadows and lights, as well as the mists of Darjeeling to reflect the emotions of the characters of Kanchenjungha film

During this period, Ray composed films on the Raj period (such as Devi), a documentary on Tagore, a comic film (Mahapurush) and his first film from an original screenplay (Kanchenjungha). He also made a series of films that, taken together, are considered by critics among the most deeply felt portrayal of Indian women on screen.[18] Image File history File linksMetadata Charulata1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Charulata1. ... Look up Gaze in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (5587x1716, 1381 KB)Darjeeling panorama taken by Mjanich. ... Download high resolution version (5587x1716, 1381 KB)Darjeeling panorama taken by Mjanich. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ... Kanchenjungha is a 1962 film by Indian film director Satyajit Ray, his first original screenplay and colour film. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Devi (The Goddess) is a 1960 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, starring Soumitra Chatterjee and Sharmila Tagore. ... See comedian Stand up comedian List of Comedians List of British comedians comics comic book comic strip underground comics alternative comics web comic sprite comics manga graphic novel List of comic characters This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ...


Ray followed Apur Sansar by Devi (The Goddess), a film in which studies the superstitions in the Hindu society. Sharmila Tagore starred as Doyamoyee, a young wife who is deified by her father-in-law. Ray was worried that the censor board might block his film, or at least make him re-cut it, but Devi was spared. In 1961, on the insistence of Prime-minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Ray was commissioned to make a documentary on Rabindranath Tagore, on the occasion of the poet's birth centennial, a tribute to the person who probably influenced Ray most. Due to limited real footage of Tagore available, Ray faced the challenge of making a film out of mainly static material, and he remarked that it took as much work as three feature films.[19] In the same year, together with Subhas Mukhopadhyay and others, Ray was able to revive Sandesh, the children's magazine his grandfather once published. Ray had been saving money for some years now to make this possible.[20] A duality in the name (Sandesh means both "news" in Bengali and also a sweet desert popular in Bengal) set the tone of the magazine (both educational and entertaining), and Ray soon found himself illustrating the magazine, and writing stories and essays for children. Writing became his major source of income in the years to come. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Rabindranath Tagore is a 1961 documentary on the life and works of noted Bengali author Rabindranath Tagore. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... A centennial is a 100-year anniversary of an event, or the celebrations pertaining thereto. ... Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Bangla: সুভাষ মুখোপাধ্যায় Shubhash Mukhopaddhae) (February 12, 1919 - July 8, 2003) was one of the foremost Bengali poets of the 20th century. ... A Sandesh Issue, with cover design by Satyajit Ray Sandesh (Bengali: , Shondesh) is a Bengali childrens magazine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1962, Ray directed Kanchenjungha, which was his first original screenplay and colour film. The film tells the story of an upper-class family spending an afternoon in Darjeeling, a picturesque hill town in West Bengal, where the family tries to engage their youngest daughter to a highly-paid engineer educated in London. The film was first conceived to take place in a large mansion, but Ray later decided to film it in the famous hill town, using the many shades of light and mist to reflect the tension in the drama. An amused Ray noted that while his script allowed shooting to be possible under any lighting conditions, a commercial film contingent present at the same time in Darjeeling failed to shoot a single shot as they only wanted to do so in sunshine.[21] Kanchenjungha is a 1962 film by Indian film director Satyajit Ray, his first original screenplay and colour film. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ...


In the sixties, Ray visited Japan and took particular pleasure in meeting filmmaker Akira Kurosawa, for whom he had very high regard. While at home, he would take an occasional break from the hectic city life by going to places like Darjeeling or Puri to complete a script in isolation. Kurosawa redirects here. ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ...


In 1964 Ray made Charulata (The Lonely Wife), the culmination of this period of work, and regarded by many critics as his most accomplished film.[22] Based on Nastanirh, a short story of Tagore, the film tells the tale of a lonely wife, Charu, in 19th century Bengal, and her growing feelings for her brother in law, Amal. Often referred to as Ray's Mozartian masterpiece, Ray himself famously said the film contained least flaws among his work, and his only work, that given a chance, he would make exactly the same way.[23] Madhabi Mukherjee's performance as Charu, and the work of both Subrata Mitra and Bansi Chandragupta in the film have been highly praised. Other films in this period include Mahanagar (The Big City), Teen Kanya (Three Daughters), Abhijan (The Expedition) and Kapurush o Mahapurush (The Coward and the Holy Man). Charulata (The Lonely Wife) is a 1964 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring Soumitra Chatterjee, Madhabi Mukherjee and Sailen Mukherjee. ... Nastanirh (also Nashtanir), (1901), or The Broken Nest is a Bengali novella by Rabindranath Tagore who was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Hindu philosopher, visual artist, playwright, composer, and novelist. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Madhabi Mukherjee is a famous Bengali film actress who starred in two of Satyajit Rays films Charulata and Mahanagar. ...


New directions (1965–1982)

In the post-Charulata period, Ray took on projects of increasing variety, ranging from fantasy to science fiction to detective films to historical drama. Ray also made considerable formal experimentation during this period, and also took closer notice to the contemporary issues of Indian life, responding to a perceived lack of these issues in his films. The first major film in this period is Nayak (The Hero), the story of a screen hero traveling in a train where he meets a young sympathetic female journalist. Starring Uttam Kumar and Sharmila Tagore, the film explores, in the twenty-four hours of the journey, the inner conflict of the apparently highly successful matinée idol. In spite of receiving a Critics prize in Berlin, the reaction to this film was generally muted.[24] For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... The historical drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous persons. ... Nayak (The Hero, 1966) was directed by Satyajit Ray from his second entirely original screenplay (after Kanchenjungha). ... Uttam Kumar (Bangla: উত্তম কুমার ) (3 September 1926 - 24 July 1980) was a legendary Bengali actor. ... Matinée Idol is a term used mainly to describe film or theatre stars who are adored to the point of adulation by their fans. ...


In 1967, Ray wrote a script for a film to be called The Alien, based on his short story Bankubabur Bandhu ("Banku Babu's Friend") which he wrote in 1962 for Sandesh, the Ray family magazine. The Alien had Columbia Pictures as producer for this planned U.S.-India co-production, and Peter Sellers and Marlon Brando as the leading actors. However, Ray was surprised to find that the script he had written had already been copyrighted and the fee appropriated by Mike Wilson. Wilson had initially approached Ray as an acquaintance of a mutual friend, Arthur C. Clarke, to represent him in Hollywood. The script Wilson had copyrighted was credited as Mike Wilson & Satyajit Ray, despite the fact that he only contributed a single word in it. Ray later stated that he never recieved a penny for the script.[25] Brando later dropped out of the project, and though an attempt was made to replace him with James Coburn, Ray became disillusioned and returned to Calcutta.[26][27] Columbia expressed interest in reviving the project several times in the 1970s and 1980s, but nothing came of it. When E.T. was released in 1982, Clarke and Ray saw similarities in the film to the earlier Alien script — Ray discussed the collapse of the project in a 1980 Sight & Sound feature, with further details revealed by Ray's biographer Andrew Robinson (in The Inner Eye, 1989). Ray believed that Spielberg's film would not have been possible without his script of The Alien being available throughout America in mimeographed copies (a charge Spielberg denies).[28] The Alien was a science fiction film under production in the late 1960s which was eventually cancelled. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... James Coburn in Sam Peckinpahs Cross of Iron (1977). ... For the Atari 2600 video game based on the movie, see E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (Atari 2600). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... Sight & Sound is a British monthly magazine about film. ... W. Andrew Robinson (born 1957) is a British author and newspaper editor. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ...


In 1969, Ray made what would be commercially the most successful of his films. Based on a children's story written by his grandfather, Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne (The Adventures of Goopy and Bagha) is a musical fantasy. Goopy the singer and Bagha the drummer, equipped by three boons allowed by the King of Ghosts, set out on a fantastic journey in which they try to stop an impending war between two neighbouring kingdoms. Among his most expensive enterprises, it turned out to be very hard to finance; Ray abandoned his desire to shoot it in colour, turning down an offer that would have forced him to cast a certain Bollywood actor as the lead.[29] Ray next made a film from a novel by the young poet and writer, Sunil Gangopadhyay. Featuring a musical structure acclaimed as even more complex than Charulata,[30] Aranyer Din Ratri (Days and Nights in the Forest) traces four urban young men going to the forests for a vacation, trying to leave their petty urban existence behind. All but one of them get engaged into revealing encounters with women, which critics consider a revealing study of the Indian middle class. Ray cast Bombay-based actress Simi Garewal as a tribal woman, who was pleasantly surprised to find that Ray could envision someone as urban as her in that role. Goopy (on the right) and Bagha Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne, written and directed by the late Satyajit Ray, is a popular Indian childrens film. ... The musical film is a film genre in which several songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Sunil Gangopadhyay was born on September 7, 1934 at Faridpur in what is now Bangladesh. ... Aranyer Din Ratri (Days and Nights in the Forest) is a film released in 1970 and directed by Satyajit Ray. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Image:Simi Grewal. ...


After Aranyer, Ray made a foray into contemporary Bengali reality, which was then in state of continuous flux due to the leftist Naxalite movement. He completed the so-called Calcutta trilogy: Pratidwandi (1970), Seemabaddha (1971), and Jana Aranya (1975), three films which were conceived separately, but whose thematic connections form a loose trilogy. Pratidwandi (The Adversary) is about an idealist young graduate; if disillusioned, still uncorrupted at the end of film, Jana Aranya (The Middleman) about how a young man gives in to the culture of corruption to make a living, and Seemabaddha (Company Limited) about an already successful man giving up morals for further gains. Of these, the first, Pratidwandi, uses an elliptical narrative style previously unseen in Ray films, such as scenes in negative, dream sequences and abrupt flashbacks. In the 1970s, Ray also adapted two of his popular stories as detective films. Though mainly targeted towards children and young adults, both Sonar Kella (The Golden Fortress) and Joy Baba Felunath (The Elephant God) found some critical following.[31] Map showing the districts affected by the Naxalite movement Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. ... Three films by Satyajit Ray: Pratidwandi (The Adversary) (1971) Seemabaddha (Company Limited)(1971) Jana Aranya (The Middleman)(1976) This trilogy is not as famous as the Apu trilogy by the director. ... Pratidwandi or Pratidandi is a 1972 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Seemabaddha is a 1971 film by Satyajit Ray. ... This is a film made by Satyajit Ray, based on the novel of same name by Mani Shankar Mukherjee. ... Sonar Kella (Bengali: সোনার কেল্লা), also Shonar Kella (The Golden Fortress) is a 1974 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring the actors Soumitra Chatterjee, Santosh Dutta, Siddartha Chatterjee, Kusal Chakravarty among others. ... Joi Baba Felunath (The Elephant God) is a 1978 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring the actors Soumitra Chatterjee, Santosh Dutta, Siddartha Chatterjee, Utpal Dutt among others. ...


Ray considered making a film on the Bangladesh Liberation War but later abandoned the idea, commenting that as a filmmaker he was more interested in the travails and journeys of the refugees and not politics.[32] In 1977, Ray completed Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players), an Urdu film based on a story by Munshi Premchand, set in Lucknow in the state of Oudh, a year before the Indian rebellion of 1857. A commentary on the circumstances that led to the colonization of India by the British, this was Ray's first feature film in a language other than Bengali. This is also his most expensive and star-studded film, featuring likes of Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, Amjad Khan, Shabana Azmi, Victor Bannerjee and Richard Attenborough. Ray made a sequel to Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne in 1980, a somewhat overtly political Hirak Rajar Deshe (Kingdom of Diamonds) — where the kingdom of the evil Diamond King or Hirok Raj is an allusion to India during Indira Gandhi's emergency period.[33] Along with his acclaimed short film Pikoo (Pikoo's Day) and hour long Hindi film Sadgati this was the culmination of his work in this period. Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) is a 1977 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based on the short story of the same name by Munshi Premchand, featuring the actors Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, David Abraham and Tom Alter. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Premchand redirects here. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Combatants Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi. ... Sanjeev Kumar (Hindi: संजीव कुमार) (July 9, 1938 – November 6, 1985) was an Indian actor in Bollywood movies. ... Saeed Jaffrey (born 8 January 1929) is an Indian actor. ... Amjad Khan (top), Sholay (1975) Amjad Khan (12 November 1940–27 July 1992) was an acclaimed Indian actor. ... Shabana Azmi (Hindi: शबाना आज़मी, born 18 September 1950 in New Delhi, India) is one of the leading actresses of parallel cinema. ... Victor Bannerjee is an Indian actor of Bengali descent, working in Hindi, Bengali and English language films. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (born 29 August 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... For other uses, see Sequel (disambiguation). ... Hirak Rajar Deshe is the second movie of the Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne series directed by Satyajit Ray. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... The Indian Emergency of (1975 - 77) is a 18-month period between 1975 and 1977, when President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, upon advice by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution of India, effectively bestowing her the power to rule by decree, suspending... Pikoor Diary (Pikoos Day) is a short film primarily made for television by Satyajit Ray. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ...


The last phase (1983–1992)

A well-known photo of Sukumar Ray, on whom Ray made a documentary in 1987

In 1983, while working on Ghare Baire (Home and the World), Ray suffered a heart attack that would severely limit his output in the remaining 9 years of his life. Ghare Baire was completed in 1984 with the help of Ray's son (who would operate the camera from then on) because of his health condition. He wanted to film this Tagore novel on the dangers of fervent nationalism for a long time, and even wrote a (weak, by his own admission) script for it in the 1940s.[34] In spite of rough patches due to his illness, the film did receive some critical acclaim, and it contained the first full-blown kiss in Ray's films. In 1987, he made a documentary on his father, Sukumar Ray. Image File history File links Sukumar. ... Image File history File links Sukumar. ... Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) is a 1984 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based upon the novel Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) by Rabindranath Tagore. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Ray's last three films, made after his recovery and with medical strictures in place, were shot mostly indoors, have a distinctive style. They are more verbose than his earlier films and are generally regarded as inferior to his earlier body of work. The first, Ganashatru (An Enemy of the People) is an adaptation of the famous Ibsen play, and considered the weakest of the three.[35] Ray recovered some his form in his 1990 film Shakha Proshakha (Branches of the Tree).[36] In it, an old man, who has lived a life of honesty, comes to learn the of the corruption three of his sons indulge in with the final scene shows him finding solace only in the companionship of the fourth, uncorrupted but mentally ill son. After Shakha Prashakha, Ray's swan song Agantuk (The Stranger) is lighter in mood, but not in theme. A long lost uncle's sudden visit to his niece's house in Calcutta raises suspicion as to his motive and far-ranging questions about civilization. Plot Spoiler warning: External links satyajitray. ... The original frontpage of Henrik Ibsens En folkefiende, 1882. ... Shakha Proshakha is a 1990 Satyajit Ray film. ... Agantuk (or The stranger) is a 1991 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ...


In 1992, Ray's health deteriorated due to heart complications. He was admitted to a hospital, and would never recover. An honorary Oscar was awarded to him weeks before his death, which he received in a gravely ill condition. He died on April 23, 1992. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Film craft

Satyajit Ray considered script-writing to be an integral part of direction. This is one reason why he initially refused to make a film in any language other than Bengali. In his two non-Bengali feature films, he wrote the script in English, which under his supervision translators then interpreted in Hindi or Urdu. Ray's own eye for detail was matched by that of his art director Bansi Chandragupta, whose influence on the early Ray films were so important that Ray would always write scripts in English before creating a Bengali version, so that the non-Bengali Chandragupta would be able to read it. Camera work in Ray's early films garnered high regard for the craft of Subrata Mitra, whose (bitter) departure from Ray's crew, according to a number of critics, lowered the quality of cinematography in his films.[37] Though Ray openly praised Mitra, his single-mindedness made him to take over operation of the camera since Charulata, causing Mitra to stop working for Ray after 1966. Pioneering works of Subrata Mitra included development of "bounce lighting", a technique of bouncing light off cloth to create a diffused realistic light even on a set. Ray also acknowledged debt to Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut of the French New Wave for introducing new technical and cinematic innovations.[38] Bangla redirects here. ... Subrata Mitra (Bangla: সুব্রত মিত্র) was an Indian cinematographer. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... François Roland Truffaut (French IPA: ) (February 6, 1932 – October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ... François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ...


Though Ray had a regular editor in Dulal Datta, he usually dictated the editing while Datta did the actual work. In fact, because of financial reasons and Ray's meticulous planning, his films were mostly cut "on the camera" (apart from Pather Panchali). At the beginning of his career, Ray worked with Indian classical musicians, including Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan and Ali Akbar Khan. However, the experience was painful for him as he found that their first loyalty was to musical traditions, and not to his film; also, his greater grasp of western classical forms, which he regarded as essential, especially for his films set in an urban milieu, stood in the way.[39] This led him to compose his own scores starting from Teen Kanya. Ray used actors of diverse backgrounds, from famous film stars to people who have never seen a film (such as in Aparajito).[40] Robin Wood and others have lauded him as the best director of children, pointing out memorable performances including Apu and Durga (Pather Panchali), Ratan (Postmaster) and Mukul (Sonar Kella). Depending on the talent or experience of the actor Ray's direction would vary from virtually nothing (actors like Utpal Dutt) to using the actor as "a puppet" (Subir Banerjee as Apu or Sharmila Tagore as Aparna). According to actors working for Ray, his customary trust in the actors would occasionally be tempered by his ability to treat incompetence with "total contempt".[41] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Film editing. ... Dulal Datta was a film editor in the Bengali film industry located in Kolkata (previously Calcutta), West Bengal, India. ... The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... For other persons named Ravi Shankar, see Ravi Shankar (disambiguation). ... Vilayat Khan on the cover of his raga Shree CD for India Archive Music (cover photo: Lyle Wachowsky) Vilayat Khan (Bangla: বিলায়েত খাঁ Bilaeet Khã) (August 8, 1928 –March 13, 2004) was one of Indias well known sitar maestros, born in Gauripur in Mymensingh, Bengal (now in Bangladesh). ... Ustad Ali Akbar Khan (Bengali: ) is a North Indian classical musician of the Maihar gharana who plays the sarod. ... A movie star is a celebrity who is well known for his or her starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures. ... Robin Wood (born February 23, 1931, in London, England) is a film critic and author, acclaimed for his reviews of films from Alfred Hitchcock, Howard Hawks and Satyajit Ray, among others. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Subir Banerjee is an Indian actor who played the young Apu in Pather Panchali and Aparijito. ...


Literary works

Cover of a collection of Satyajit Ray's short stories
Cover of a collection of Satyajit Ray's short stories

Ray created two very popular characters in Bengali children's literatureFeluda, a sleuth, and Professor Shonku, a scientist. He also wrote short stories which were published as volumes of 12 stories, always with names playing on the word twelve (for example Eker pitthe dui, or literally "Two on top of one"). Ray's interest in puzzles and puns is reflected in his stories, Feluda often has to solve a puzzle to get to the bottom of a case. The Feluda stories are narrated by Topshe, his cousin, something of a Watson to Feluda's Sherlock. The science fictions of Shonku are presented as a diary discovered after the scientist himself had mysteriously disappeared. Ray's short stories give full reign to his interest in the macabre, in suspense and other aspects that he avoided in film, making for an interesting psychological study.[42] Most of his writings have now been translated into English, and are finding a new group of readers. Ray behind the camera Satyajit Ray, a Bengali film director from India was well known for his contribution to Bangla literature. ... Image File history File links Ekerpithedui. ... Image File history File links Ekerpithedui. ... Childrens books redirects here. ... A sketch of Feluda Feluda (Bengali: ফেলুদা) is a fictional character starring in a series of novels and short stories written by the famous Indian film director and writer Satyajit Ray. ... Gumshoe redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the profession. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Dr Watson (left) and Sherlock Holmes, by Sidney Paget. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ...


Most of his screenplays have also been published in Bengali in the literary journal Eksan. Ray wrote his autobiography encompassing his childhood years, Jakhan Choto Chilam (1982) and essays on film: Our Films, Their Films (1976), along with Bishoy Chalachchitra (1976), Ekei Bole Shooting (1979). During the mid-1990s, Ray's film essays and an anthology of short stories were also published in the West. Our Films, Their Films is an anthology of film criticism by Ray. The book contains articles and personal journal excerpts. The book is presented in two sections — Ray first discusses Indian film, before turning his attention towards Hollywood and specific international filmmakers (Charlie Chaplin, Akira Kurosawa) and movements like Italian neorealism. His book Bishoy Chalachchitra was translated in 2006 as Speaking of Films, and contains a compact description of his philosophy of different aspects of the cinema. Ray also wrote a collection of nonsense verse named Today Bandha Ghorar Dim, which includes a translation of Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky". He also authored a collection of humorous stories of Mullah Nasiruddin in Bengali. Bangla redirects here. ... Jakhan Choto Chilam is an autobiographical book by the famed film director Satyajit Ray. ... Our Films, Their Films is an anthology of film criticism by noted Bengali filmmaker, composer and writer Satyajit Ray. ... Bishoy Chalachchitra is a collection of writings on films by the acclaimed film director Satyajit Ray. ... Ekei Bole Shooting is a non-fiction Bengali book by the acclaimed film director Satyajit Ray. ... Our Films, Their Films is an anthology of film criticism by noted Bengali filmmaker, composer and writer Satyajit Ray. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the ticket sales and the number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ... Italian neorealism is a film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... Bishoy Chalachchitra is a collection of writings on films by the acclaimed film director Satyajit Ray. ... Nonsense verse is a form of poetry, normally composed for humorous effect, which is intentionally and overtly paradoxical, silly, witty, whimsical or just plain strange. ... Today Bandha Ghorar Dim is a collection of nonsense rhymes by the acclaimed Indian film director Satyajit Ray in Bengali. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... For other uses, see Jabberwocky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nasreddin (disambiguation). ...


Satyajit Ray designed two typefaces named Ray Roman and Ray Bizarre. Ray Roman won an international competition in 1970. In certain circles of Calcutta, Ray continued to be known as an eminent graphic designer, well into his film career. Ray illustrated all his books and designed covers for them, as well as creating all publicity material for his films. “Font” redirects here. ...


Critical and popular response

Ray's work has been described as reverberating with humanism and universality, and of deceptive simplicity with deep underlying complexity.[43][44] Superlative praise has often been heaped on his work by many, including Akira Kurosawa, who declared, "Not to have seen the cinema of Ray means existing in the world without seeing the sun or the moon." But his detractors find his films glacially slow, moving like a "majestic snail."[45] Some find his humanism simple-minded, and his work anti-modern and claim that they lack new modes of expression or experimentation found in works of Ray's contemporaries like Jean-Luc Godard. As Stanley Kauffman wrote, some critics believe that Ray "assumes [viewers] can be interested in a film that simply dwells in its characters, rather than one that imposes dramatic patterns on their lives."[46] Ray himself commented that this slowness is something he can do nothing about, and Kurosawa defended him by saying "they [Ray's films] are not slow at all. It can be described as flowing composedly, like a big river". See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Kurosawa redirects here. ... Since the beginnings of mechanization and even industrialization, there has been a strand of opinion which rejects, objects to, or has been highly critical of the costs of the changes that these trends brought about. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... Stanley Kauffmann (24 April 1916 – ) is an American film critic, theater critic, and author. ...


Critics have often compared Ray to artists in the cinema and other media, such as Anton Chekhov, Renoir, De Sica, Howard Hawks or Mozart. Shakespeare has also been invoked,[47][48] for example by the writer V. S. Naipaul, who compared a scene in Shatranj Ki Khiladi to a Shakespearian play, as "only three hundred words are spoken but goodness! – terrific things happen."[49] It is generally acknowledged, even by those who were not impressed by the aesthetics of Ray's films, that he was virtually peerless in that his films encompass a whole culture with all its nuances, a sentiment expressed in Ray's obituary in the The Independent, which exclaimed, "Who else can compete?"[50] However, it is a common opinion that the films he made after his heart attack had lost some of the vitality of his earlier works. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... Vittorio De Sica (July 7, 1902–November 13, 1974) was an Italian neorealist director and actor. ... Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, KB, TC (b. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ...


Early in 1980, Ray was openly criticized by an Indian M.P. and former actress Nargis Dutt, who accused Ray of "exporting poverty," demanding he make films to represent "Modern India."[51] On the other hand, a common accusation levelled against him by advocates of socialism across India was that he was not "committed" to the cause of the nation's downtrodden classes, with some commentators accusing Ray of glorifying poverty in Pather Panchali and Asani Sanket through lyricism and aesthetics. They also accused him of providing no solution to conflicts in the stories, and being unable to overcome his bourgeoisie background. Agitations during the naxalite movements in the 1970s once came close to causing physical harm to his son, Sandip.[52] In a public debate during the 1960s, Ray and the openly Marxist filmmaker Mrinal Sen engaged in an argument. Sen criticized him for casting a matinée idol like Uttam Kumar, which he considered a compromise, while Ray shot back by saying that Sen only attacks "easy targets", i.e. the Bengali middle-classes. His private life was never a subject of media scrutiny, although some believe Ray had an affair with Madhabi Mukherjee in 1960s.[53] A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Nargis will always be remembered as Radha in the Magnum Opus Mother India. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map showing the districts affected by the Naxalite movement Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Uttam Kumar (Bangla: উত্তম কুমার ) (3 September 1926 - 24 July 1980) was a legendary Bengali actor. ... Madhabi Mukherjee is a famous Bengali film actress who starred in two of Satyajit Rays films Charulata and Mahanagar. ...


Legacy

Ray with his Academy Award just days before his death.
Ray with his Academy Award just days before his death.

Satyajit Ray is a cultural icon in India and in Bengali communities worldwide. Following his death, the city of Calcutta came to a virtual standstill, as hundreds of thousands of people gathered around his house to pay him their last respects.[54] Satyajit Ray's influence has been widespread and deep in Bengali cinema, a number of Bengali directors including Aparna Sen, Rituparno Ghosh, Gautam Ghose in India, and Tareq Masud, Tanvir Mokammel in Bangladesh have been influenced by his film craft. Across the spectrum, filmmakers such as Budhdhadeb Dasgupta, Mrinal Sen[55] and Adoor Gopalakrishnan have acknowledged his seminal contribution to Indian cinema. Beyond India, filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese,[56] James Ivory,[57] Abbas Kiarostami and Elia Kazan have reportedly been influenced by his cinematic style. Ira Sachs's 2005 work Forty Shades of Blue was a loose remake of Charulata, and in the 1995 film My Family, the final scene is duplicated from the final scene of Apur Sansar. Similar references to Ray films are found, for example, in recent works such as Sacred Evil,[58] the Elements trilogy of Deepa Mehta and even in films of Jean-Luc Godard.[59] Image File history File links Satyajit-ray-oscar-180. ... Image File history File links Satyajit-ray-oscar-180. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Aparna Sen (née Dasgupta) (Bengali: অপর্ণা সেন Ôporna Shen) (October 25, 1945 - ) is a Bengali Indian actress and film director and mother of actress Konkona Sen Sharma. ... Rituparno Ghosh (Bangla: ঋতুপর্ণ ঘোষ Ritupôrno Ghosh) is a young Bengali film director whose work has met with considerable critical acclaim in recent years, both in his native India and abroad. ... Gautam Ghose is one of the acclaimed film directors of modern India, Gautam is a professional photojournalist. ... Tareque Masud (Bangla: তারেক মাসুদ) is a Bangladeshi film director who makes films in Bangla. ... Tanvir Mokammel (Bangla: তানভীর মোকাম্মেল) (b 1955) is a Bangladeshi film director. ... Budhdhadeb Dasgupta is a poet and prominent contemporary Indian filmmaker. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Adoor Gopalakrishnan standing next to his portrait Adoor Gopalakrishnan (b. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (b. ... James Francis Ivory (born June 7, 1928) is an award-winning American film director, best known for the results of his long collaboration with Merchant Ivory Productions, which included both Indian-born producer Ismail Merchant and screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. ... Abbas Kiarostami (Persian: `Abbās Kiyārostamī; born 22 June 1940) is an internationally acclaimed Iranian film director, screenwriter, and film producer. ... Elia Kazan, (Greek: Ηλίας Καζάν, IPA: ), (September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American film and theatre director, film and theatrical producer, screenwriter, novelist and cofounder of the influential Actors Studio in New York in 1947. ... Ira Sachs (b. ... Forty Shades of Blue is a 2005 movie directed by Ira Sachs. ... My Family is a 1995 film directed by Gregory Nava and written by Gregory Nava and his wife, Anna Thomas. ... Sacred Evil is a English Supernatural/Surreal Film directed by Abhigyan Jha and Abhiyan Rajhans. ... Deepa Mehta ( दीपा मेहता ),(born 1950 in Amritsar Punjab, India) is a controversial Indian-Canadian film director and screenwriter who is based in Toronto and Delhi. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the...


The character Apu Nahasapeemapetilon in the American animated television series The Simpsons was named in homage to Ray. Ray along with Madhabi Mukherjee, was the first Indian film personality to feature in a foreign stamp (Dominica). Many literary works include references to Ray or his work, including Saul Bellow's Herzog and J. M. Coetzee's Youth. Salman Rushdie's Haroun and the Sea of Stories contains fish characters named Goopy and Bagha, a tribute to Ray's fantasy film. In 1993, UC Santa Cruz established the Satyajit Ray Film and Study collection, and in 1995, the Government of India set up Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute for studies related to film. In 2007, British Broadcasting Corporation declared that two Feluda stories would be made into radio programs.[60] During the London film festival, a regular "Satyajit Ray Award" is given to first-time feature director whose film best captures "the artistry, compassion and humanity of Ray's vision". Wes Anderson has claimed Ray as an influence on his work; his most recent film, The Darjeeling Limited, set in India, is dedicated to Ray. Apu redirects here. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Madhabi Mukherjee is a famous Bengali film actress who starred in two of Satyajit Rays films Charulata and Mahanagar. ... Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... Herzog cover Herzog is a 1964 novel by Saul Bellow. ... John Maxwell Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced kut-SAY-uh) (born 9 February 1940) is a South African/Australian author, having emigrated from South Africa in 2002, and having been granted Australian citizenship on 6 March 2006. ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie (Devanagari : अख़्मद सल्मान रश्दी Nastaliq:; born 19 June 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Haroun and the Sea of Stories is a 1990 childrens book[1] by Salman Rushdie. ... The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC or UC Santa Cruz) is a coeducational public university located in Santa Cruz, California. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute is a film institute in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American writer, producer, and director of films and commercials. ... The Darjeeling Limited is a comedy-drama film of a journey through India by three brothers, played by Owen Wilson, Adrien Brody and Jason Schwartzman. ...


Awards, honours and recognitions

Numerous awards were bestowed on Ray throughout his lifetime. When Ray was awarded honorary doctorates by Oxford University, he was the second film personality to be so honored after Chaplin. He was awarded the Legion of Honor by the President of France in 1987 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1985. The Government of India awarded him the highest civilian honour Bharat Ratna shortly before his death. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded Ray an honorary Oscar in 1992 for Lifetime Achievement. In 1992 he was posthumously awarded the Akira Kurosawa Award for Lifetime Achievement in Directing at the San Francisco International Film Festival; it was accepted on his behalf by actress Sharmila Tagore.[61] The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For the Jamaican musician named Charlie Chaplin, see Charlie Chaplin (singer). ... Medal for the officer class, decorated with a rosette Napoleon wearing the Grand Cross The President of France is the Grand Master of the Legion. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is an annual award given by the Indian government for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Bharat Ratna is Indias highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. ... Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ... The San Francisco International Film Festival held in March 1957 in San Francisco was the first North American Film Festival. ... See Tagore for disambiguation Sharmila Tagore (Bengali: ) is a renowned Indian film actress from Bengal, who as of April 2005 heads the Indian Film Censor Board. ...

Further information: Awards conferred on Satyajit Ray

This table lists the various honours conferred upon the noted Indian film director Satyajit Ray reflecting worldwide critical acclaim for his work and vision. ...

See also


Works of Satyajit Ray

Cinema: Pather Panchali (Song of the Little Road) (1955) • Aparajito (The Unvanquished) (1957) • Parash Pathar (The Philosopher's Stone) (1958) • Jalsaghar (The Music Room) (1958) • Apur Sansar (The World of Apu) (1959) • Devi (The Goddess) (1960) • Teen Kanya (Two Daugters/Three Daughters) (1961) • Rabindranath Tagore (1961) • Kanchenjungha (1962) • Abhijan (The Expedition) (1962) • Mahanagar (The Big City) (1963) • Charulata (The Lonely Wife) (1964) • Two (1965) • Kapurush (The Coward) (1965) • Mahapurush (The Holy Man) (1966) • Nayak (The Hero) (1966) • Chiriyakhana (The Zoo) (1967) • Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne (The Adventures of Goopy and Bagha) (1969) • Aranyer Din Ratri (Days and Nights in the Forest) (1970) • Pratidwandi (The Adversary) (1971) • Seemabaddha (Company Limited) (1971) • Sikkim (1971) • The Inner Eye (1972) • Ashani Sanket (Distant Thunder) (1973) • Sonar Kella (The Golden Fortress) (1974) • Jana Aranya (The Middleman) (1976) • Bala (1976) • Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) (1977) • Joi Baba Felunath (The Elephant God) (1978) • Hirak Rajar Deshe (Kingdom of Diamonds) (1980) • Pikoor Diary (Pikoo's Day) (1981) • Sadgati (The Deliverance) (1981) • Ghare Baire (Home and the World) (1984) • Sukumar Ray (1987) • Ganashatru (An Enemy of the People) (1989) • Shakha Proshakha (Branches of the Tree) (1990) • Agantuk (The Stranger) (1991)
Literature on Cinema: Our Films, Their Films - Bishoy Chalachchitra - Ekei Bole Shooting
Literary creations: Feluda - Professor Shanku - Tarini khuro - more...
See also: Awards conferred on Satyajit Ray - Filmography of Satyajit Ray - Apu trilogy - Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute
Awards
Preceded by
Sophia Loren, Myrna Loy
Academy Honorary Award
1992
Succeeded by
Federico Fellini

Pather Panchali (Bengali: পথের পাঁচালী Pôther Pãchali) is the 1955 directorial debut of Satyajit Ray. ... Aparajito (Bengali: অপরাজিত, Ôporajito, meaning The Unvanquished) is an award-winning 1956 Bengali film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Parash Pathar (The Philosophers Stone, 1958) was Satyajit Rays first film apart from the Apu trilogy. ... Jalsaghar (1958), known in the U.S. and Europe as The Music Room, is the 4th feature film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Third and last of the famous Apu Trilogy, a series of films about a boy named Apu in early twentieth century Bengal by Satyajit Ray. ... Devi (The Goddess) is a 1960 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, starring Soumitra Chatterjee and Sharmila Tagore. ... Teen Kanya /Three Daughters is a film which was released in 1961, directed by Satyajit Ray, and based upon short stories by Rabindranath Tagore. ... Rabindranath Tagore is a 1961 documentary on the life and works of noted Bengali author Rabindranath Tagore. ... Kanchenjungha is a 1962 film by Indian film director Satyajit Ray, his first original screenplay and colour film. ... Plot Spoiler warning: Soumitra Chatterjee plays Narsingh, a taxi driver. ... Mahanagar (The Big City, 1963) is a 1963 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Charulata (The Lonely Wife) is a 1964 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring Soumitra Chatterjee, Madhabi Mukherjee and Sailen Mukherjee. ... Two is a short film directed by the Indian director Satyajit Ray. ... Kapurush (The Coward, 1965) is a 1965 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Mahapurush (The Holy Man, 1965) is a 1965 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Nayak (The Hero, 1966) was directed by Satyajit Ray from his second entirely original screenplay (after Kanchenjungha). ... Chiriakhana or Chiriyakhana (meaning the zoo in Bengali) is the name of the Bengali cinema, by Satyajit Ray, starring Uttam Kumar, released in 1967. ... Goopy (on the right) and Bagha Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne, written and directed by the late Satyajit Ray, is a popular Indian childrens film. ... Aranyer Din Ratri (Days and Nights in the Forest) is a film released in 1970 and directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Pratidwandi or Pratidandi is a 1972 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Seemabaddha is a 1971 film by Satyajit Ray. ... Sikkim is a documentary by Satyajit Ray,made in 1971. ... This is a documentary film on the blind artist Benode Bihari Mukherjee by Satyajit Ray Category: ... Ashani Sanket (1973; English title: Distant Thunder) is a Bengali-language film by the renowned Indian director Satyajit Ray. ... Sonar Kella (Bengali: সোনার কেল্লা), also Shonar Kella (The Golden Fortress) is a 1974 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring the actors Soumitra Chatterjee, Santosh Dutta, Siddartha Chatterjee, Kusal Chakravarty among others. ... This is a film made by Satyajit Ray, based on the novel of same name by Mani Shankar Mukherjee. ... Bala is a 1976 documentary film, by Satyajit Ray, about the Bharatanatyam dancer Balasaraswati. ... Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) is a 1977 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based on the short story of the same name by Munshi Premchand, featuring the actors Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, David Abraham and Tom Alter. ... Joi Baba Felunath (The Elephant God) is a 1978 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring the actors Soumitra Chatterjee, Santosh Dutta, Siddartha Chatterjee, Utpal Dutt among others. ... Hirak Rajar Deshe is the second movie of the Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne series directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Pikoor Diary (Pikoos Day) is a short film primarily made for television by Satyajit Ray. ... Sadgati (The Deliverance) is a film,primarily made for TV,by Satyajit Ray. ... Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) is a 1984 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based upon the novel Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) by Rabindranath Tagore. ... Sukumar Ray is a short documentary film made by Satyajit Ray . ... Plot Spoiler warning: External links satyajitray. ... Shakha Proshakha is a 1990 Satyajit Ray film. ... Agantuk (or The stranger) is a 1991 film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Our Films, Their Films is an anthology of film criticism by noted Bengali filmmaker, composer and writer Satyajit Ray. ... Bishoy Chalachchitra is a collection of writings on films by the acclaimed film director Satyajit Ray. ... Ekei Bole Shooting is a non-fiction Bengali book by the acclaimed film director Satyajit Ray. ... A sketch of Feluda Feluda (Bengali: ফেলুদা) is a fictional character starring in a series of novels and short stories written by the famous Indian film director and writer Satyajit Ray. ... Professor Shonku(in the middle) Professor Shanku(Professor Shonku) is a fictional scientist created by Satyajit Ray in a sereis of science-fictions. ... Tarini khuro is a fictional character created by Satyajit Ray. ... Ray behind the camera Satyajit Ray, a Bengali film director from India was well known for his contribution to Bangla literature. ... This table lists the various honours conferred upon the noted Indian film director Satyajit Ray reflecting worldwide critical acclaim for his work and vision. ... Satyajit Ray is mainly known as director of cinemas. ... The Apu trilogy is a series of three films directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute is a film institute in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Image File history File links SatyajitProduction. ... Buddhadev Dasgupta is a poet and prominent contemporary Indian filmmaker. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Gautam Ghose is one of the acclaimed film directors of modern India, Gautam is a professional photojournalist. ... Rituparno Ghosh (Bangla: ঋতুপর্ণ ঘোষ Ritupôrno Ghosh) is a young Bengali film director whose work has met with considerable critical acclaim in recent years, both in his native India and abroad. ... Tarun Majumdar (also often credited as Tarun Mazumdar) (Bengali: ) is a Bengali Indian film director who makes films in Bengali and is notable for his depiction of Bengali culture and society. ... Hrishikesh Mukherjee is one of the most famous Indian film directors. ... Bimal Roy (July 12, 1909—January 7, 1966), nicknamed Bimalda, was one of the most successful Hindi film directors of all time. ... Aparna Sen (née Dasgupta) (Bengali: অপর্ণা সেন Ôporna Shen) (October 25, 1945 - ) is a Bengali Indian actress and film director and mother of actress Konkona Sen Sharma. ... Hiralal Sen Hiralal Sen (Bengali:হীরালাল সেন) (1866 – 1917) was a Bengali photographer generally considered one of Indias first filmmakers. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Tapan Sinha is a well respected Bengali Indian Bollywood based film director. ... Pramathesh Chandra (P.C.) Barua (1903–1951) was a famous actor, director, and screenwriter of Indian films in the pre-independence era. ... Chhabi Biswas (Bengali: )(b. ... Victor Bannerjee is an Indian actor of Bengali descent, working in Hindi, Bengali and English language films. ... Jaya Bachchan (born April 9, 1948), is an Indian film actress, married to the film star Amitabh Bachchan since 1973. ... Sabitri Chatterjee (born 22 February 1937) is an Indian Bengali female actor whose career as an actor spans more than 50 years. ... Soumitra Chatterjee (born 1935) is a Bengali actor from India, most famous for his frequent collaborations with the great Indian director Satyajit Ray. ... Rabi Ghosh as Bagha (on left) in a screenshot in Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne,one of his most memorable characters Rabi Ghosh (born:1931,death:1997) was an extremely famous actor from India. ... Uttam Kumar (Bangla: উত্তম কুমার ) (3 September 1926 - 24 July 1980) was a legendary Bengali actor. ... Kajol Devgan, née Mukherjee (Bengali: কাজল দেবগন Kajol Debgôn, Marathi: काजोल देवगण), born August 5, 1974 in Mumbai, India, popularly known as Kajol, is an award-winning popular Bollywood actress. ... Madhabi Mukherjee is a famous Bengali film actress who starred in two of Satyajit Rays films Charulata and Mahanagar. ... Konkona Sen Sharma is a Indian actress. ... Suchitra Sen (April 6, 1929) or April 6, 1931[1] (Bangla: সুচিত্রা সেন) is a Bengali actress who has attained legendary status because of her performances in Bengali cinema. ... See Tagore for disambiguation Sharmila Tagore (Bengali: ) is a renowned Indian film actress from Bengal, who as of April 2005 heads the Indian Film Censor Board. ... Billwamangal (Pronounced Billomongol) was a 1919 Bengali silent film by Jyotish Banerjee. ... Dena Paona (Bengali: ) is a 1931 Bengali film directed by Premankur Atarthi, starring Amar Mullick, Durga Das Bannerjee, Jahar Ganguly and others. ... Dhirendra Nath Ganguly, better known as D.G, was a Bengali Film enterpreuner who set up the Indo British Film company in 1918. ... Hiralal Sen Hiralal Sen (Bengali:হীরালাল সেন) (1866 – 1917) was a Bengali photographer generally considered one of Indias first filmmakers. ... The Indo British Film Co was a film production company set up by Dhirendra Nath Ganguly in 1918. ... Kanan Devi (1916? - July 17, 1992) was among the early singing stars of Indian cinema, and is credited popularly as the first star actress of Bengali Cinema. ... The Madan Theatre Company has its roots in 1902 when Jamshedji Framji Madan, a wine merchant who came to Calcutta from Bombay as a child, started his entertainment business by acquiring two theatre companies in Calcutta and then beginning film exhibitions . ... The Minerva Theatre is a is a theatre in Calcutta, built in 1893. ... New Theatres, Calcutta was formed by B. N. Sircar (Birendranath Sircar, the recipient of Dadasaheb Phalke Award of 1970). ... Pramathesh Chandra (P.C.) Barua (1903–1951) was a famous actor, director, and screenwriter of Indian films in the pre-independence era. ... The Royal Bioscope Company was the first film production company in Bengal, and possibly the first in India, set up by Hiralal Sen, along with Matilal Sen, Deboki Lal Sen and Bholanath Gupta, in 1898. ... The Star Theatre is a theatre in Calcutta, built in 1883. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... 36 Chowringee lane is a movie produced by Shashi Kapoor. ... Aparajito (Bengali: অপরাজিত, Ôporajito, meaning The Unvanquished) is an award-winning 1956 Bengali film directed by Satyajit Ray. ... Third and last of the famous Apu Trilogy, a series of films about a boy named Apu in early twentieth century Bengal by Satyajit Ray. ... Billwamangal (Pronounced Billomongol) was a 1919 Bengali silent film by Jyotish Banerjee. ... Charulata (The Lonely Wife) is a 1964 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, featuring Soumitra Chatterjee, Madhabi Mukherjee and Sailen Mukherjee. ... Chokher Bali (meaning Eye Sore) is the movie version of a novel called Binodini by Rabindranath Tagore, the acclaimed Bengali author and poet. ... Dena Paona (Bengali: ) is a 1931 Bengali film directed by Premankur Atarthi, starring Amar Mullick, Durga Das Bannerjee, Jahar Ganguly and others. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) is a 1984 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based upon the novel Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) by Rabindranath Tagore. ... Hansuli Banker Upokotha is a 1962 film made by Tapan Sinha starring Kali Bannerjee, Dilip Roy, Robi Ghosh and others. ... Saptapadi is a 1957 Bengali film by Ajoy Kar, starring Suchitra Sen, Uttam Kumar, Utpal Dutt and Pahari Sanyal. ... Jibon Theke Neya (Bengali: ) is a Bengali film by Bangladeshi filmmaker Zahir Raihan that is based on the Language movement. ... Matir Moina (Bengali: মাটির ময়না), also spelled as Matir Moyna, and known in English as The Clay Bird is a Bangla film directed by Tareque Masud, a Bangladeshi film director. ... Meghe Dhaka Tara (The Cloud-Covered Star) is a 1960 film by director Ritwik Ghatak. ... Neel Akasher Neechey is a 1959 film directed by Mrinal Sen, starring Kali Bannerjee, Manju Dey, Bikash Roy and others. ... Pather Panchali (Bengali: পথের পাঁচালী Pôther Pãchali) is the 1955 directorial debut of Satyajit Ray. ... Saptapadi is a 1961 Bengali film by Ajoy Kar, starring Suchitra Sen, Uttam Kumar, Chhabi Biswas and Pahari Sanyal. ... Tahader Katha is an award winning bengali feature film directed by Budhhadeb Dasgupta. ... Titli Review Image:Http://www. ... Unishe April (19th April) (1994) is an award-winning feature film directed by Rituparno Ghosh. ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is a motion picture and stage, Academy Award-winning actress, widely considered to be the most popular Italian actress. ... Myrna Loy (August 2, 1905 – December 14, 1993) was an American motion picture actress. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ... Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered film-makers of the 20th century. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Seton 1971, p. 36
  2. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 46
  3. ^ Seton 1971, p. 70
  4. ^ Seton 1971, pp. 71–72
  5. ^ Robinson 2003, pp. 56–58
  6. ^ Robinson 2005, p. 38
  7. ^ Robinson 2005, pp. 40–43
  8. ^ Robinson 2005, pp. 42–44
  9. ^ Robinson 2005, p. 48
  10. ^ Seton 1971, p. 95
  11. ^ a b Seton 1971, pp. 112–15
  12. ^ "Filmi Funda Pather Panchali (1955)", The Telegraph, 2005-04-20. Retrieved on 2006-04-29. 
  13. ^ Malcolm D. Satyajit Ray: The Music Room. guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  14. ^ Wood 1972, p. 61
  15. ^ Wood 1972
  16. ^ Ray mentions this in Ray 1993, p. 13
  17. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 5
  18. ^ Palopoli S. Ghost 'World'. metroactive.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  19. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 277
  20. ^ Seton 1971, p. 189
  21. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 142
  22. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 157
  23. ^ Antani J. Charulata. Slant magazine. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  24. ^ Dasgupta 1996, p. 91
  25. ^ http://www.satyajitrayworld.com/raysfilmography/unmaderay.aspx
  26. ^ Neumann P. Biography for Satyajit Ray. Internet Movie Database Inc. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
  27. ^ The Unmade Ray. Satyajit Ray Society. Retrieved on 2006-11-04.
  28. ^ Newman J. "Satyajit Ray Collection receives Packard grant and lecture endowment", UC Santa Cruz Currents online, 2001-09-17. Retrieved on 2006-04-29. 
  29. ^ Seton 1971, pp. 291–297
  30. ^ Wood 1972, p. 13
  31. ^ Rushdie 1992
  32. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 206
  33. ^ Robinson 2003, pp. 188–189
  34. ^ Robinson 2003, pp. 66–67
  35. ^ Dasgupta 1996, p. 134
  36. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 353
  37. ^ Dasgupta 1996, p. 91
  38. ^ Sen A. Western Influences on Satyajit Ray. Parabaas. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
  39. ^ Robinson 2003, pp. 315–318
  40. ^ Ray 1994, p. 100
  41. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 307
  42. ^ Nandy 1995
  43. ^ Malcolm D. The universe in his backyard. guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  44. ^ Swagrow M. An Art Wedded to Truth. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  45. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 157
  46. ^ Robinson 2003, pp. 352–353
  47. ^ Wood 1972
  48. ^ Ebert R. The Music Room (1958). suntimes.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
  49. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 246
  50. ^ Robinson 2005, pp. 13–14
  51. ^ Robinson 2003, pp. 327–328
  52. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 205
  53. ^ Robinson 2003, p. 362
  54. ^ Amitav Ghosh. Satyajit Ray. Doom Online. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  55. ^ Mrinal Sen. Our lives, their lives. Little Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  56. ^ Chris Ingui. Martin Scorsese hits DC, hangs with the Hachet. Hatchet. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  57. ^ Sheldon Hall. Ivory, James (1928-). Screen Online. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  58. ^ SK Jha. Sacred Ray. Telegraph India. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  59. ^ André Habib. Before and After: Origins and Death in the Work of Jean-Luc Godard. Senses of Cinema. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  60. ^ Datta S. Feluda goes global, via radio. Financial Express. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  61. ^ San Francisco International Film Festival site (retrieved 11 February 2007

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Cooper, D (2000), The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521629802, <http://assets.cambridge.org/052162/0260/sample/0521620260WSN01.pdf>.
  • Dasgupta, C (1996), The cinema of Satyajit Ray, Penguin India, ISBN 0140247807.
  • Ganguly, S (2001), Satyajit Ray: In search of the modern, Indialog, ISBN 8187981040.
  • Mitra, S (1983), "The Genius of Satyajit Ray", India Today.
  • Nandy, A (1995), "Satyajit Ray's Secret Guide to Exquisite Murders", The Savage Freud and Other Essays on Possible and Retrievable Selves, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691044104.
  • Nyce, B (1988), Satyajit Ray: A Study of His Films, Praeger Publishers, ISBN 0275926664.
  • Ray, S (1993), Our films, their films (3 ed.), Asia Book Corp of Amer, ISBN 0863113176.
  • Ray, S (1994), My Years with Apu, Viking, ISBN 0670862150.
  • Ray, S (2005), Speaking of films, Penguin India, ISBN 0144000261.
  • Robinson, A (2003), Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye: The Biography of a Master Film-Maker, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 1860649653.
  • Robinson, A (2005), Satyajit Ray: A Vision of Cinema, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 1845110749.
  • Rushdie, S (1992), Imaginary Homelands, Penguin, ISBN 0140140360.
  • Seton, M (1971), Satyajit Ray: Portrait of a director, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253168155.
  • Wood, R (1972), The Apu trilogy, November Books Ltd, ISBN 0856310034.
  • Biswas, M, ed. (2006), Apu and after: Revisiting Ray's cinema, Seagull Books.

External links

Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
Persondata
NAME Ray, Satyajit
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Film maker, writer
DATE OF BIRTH May 2, 1921
PLACE OF BIRTH Kolkata, India
DATE OF DEATH April 23, 1992
PLACE OF DEATH Kolkata, India

Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the Brāhmī script of Mauryan India. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Jaman is an internet download service and online community for independent and world cinema, created by Gaurav Dhillon. ... Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933), is an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his contributions to welfare economics for his work on famine, human development theory... Andrew Robinson. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Satyajit Ray - definition of Satyajit Ray in Encyclopedia (518 words)
Satyajit Ray (May 2 1921 - April 23 1992) was a Bengali film director whose films are perhaps the greatest testament to Bengali and Indian cinema.
Satyajit Ray won the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1985 for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema.
Satyajit Ray was also a prolific writer in Bengali.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m