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Encyclopedia > Saturn (mythology)
Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c.
Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c.

Saturn (Latin: Saturnus) was a major Roman deity of agriculture and harvest. He was identified in classical antiquity with the Greek deity Cronus, and the mythologies of the two gods are commonly mixed. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (500 × 839 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Saturnus Polidoro Caldara da Caravaggio 16th century File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (500 × 839 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Saturnus Polidoro Caldara da Caravaggio 16th century File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and their own cult and ritual practices. ... Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. ...


Saturn's wife was Rhea's equivalent -- not Magna Mater. Saturn was the father of Ceres, Jupiter, and Veritas, among others. Saturn had a temple on the Forum Romanum which contained the Royal Treasury. Saturn is the namesake of Saturday (dies Saturni), the only day of the week to retain its Roman name in English. The planet Saturn is also named after the Roman god, being the furthest observable planet of the seven classical planets of antiquity. Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea (great Idaean mother of the gods) was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... In Roman mythology, Veritas (truth) was the goddess of truth and a daughter of Saturn. ... The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was a central area of ancient Rome in which commerce, business, trading and the administration of justice took place. ... The god Saturn, after whom Saturday is named. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Naked eye planets. ...


Early concept

Before the influence of Greek culture on the Roman psyche, Rome had their own gods. These gods were referred to as the numina, which means "powers", "presences", or "wills". The early Romans looked at their gods in a much less poetic and more practical way. Their gods were not usually associated with a form much less with a gender, and no stories were told about the numina. They were closely connected with everyday life. The most notable numina were the Lares and Penates. Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) is a Latin term for deity and conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... Lares (pl. ... In Roman mythology, the Di Penates or briefly Penates were originally patron gods (really geniuses) of the storeroom, later becoming household gods guarding the entire household. ...


Originally, Saturn was an ancient Italian god of fruit, and in this light had a more wholesome relationship with Demeter or Gaia. Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 Demeter was a god of the ancient greeks. ... Gaia or Gaea (from the Greek words Ge (γη) = Earth (Pelasgian), and *aia (αια) = grandmother (PIE)) thus Gaia (γαια), can refer to any one of the following: Gaia as myth, Greek goddess (her equivalent in Rome is Terra), in Sumerian mythology she is refered to as Ki; Gaia as metaphor - set of philosophical...


Saturn was one of the numina and was said to be protector of sowers and seeds. His wife, Ops, also helped the harvest. Later, as Greek culture increasingly influenced Roman religion, Saturn became associated with Cronus, the Titan and father of Jupiter. In this way, Saturn was personified, and a great number of stories came into being about him. Numina (presence, singular numen) is a Latin term for deity and conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... A Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ... Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. ... In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek , plural ) were greater even than the gods. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ...


Later concept

Further information: Cronus

In Hesiod's Theogony, a mythological account of the creation of the universe and Zeus' rise to power, Saturn is mentioned as the son of Uranus, the heavens, and Gaia, the earth. Hesiod is an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. He writes that Saturn seizes power, castrating and overthrowing his father Uranus. However, it was foretold that one day a mighty son of Saturn would in turn overthrow him, and Saturn devoured all of his children when they were born to prevent this. Saturn's wife, Ops, hid her sixth child on the island of Crete, and offered Saturn a large stone wrapped in swaddling clothes in his place. Jupiter later overthrew Saturn and the other Titans, becoming the new supreme ruler of the cosmos. Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony (in Greek) Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of ancient Greek religion. ... Uranus is the Latinized form of Ouranos (), the Greek word for sky. ... Gaia (pronounced // or //) (land or earth, from the Greek ; variant spelling Gaea—see also Ge from ) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... A Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Swaddling is an age-old practice of wrapping infants snugly in swaddling cloths, blankets or similar cloth so that movement of the limbs is tightly restricted. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek , plural ) were greater even than the gods. ...


In memory of the Golden Age of man, a mythical age when Saturn was said to have ruled, a great feast called Saturnalia was held during the winter months around the time of the winter solstice. It was originally only one day long, taking place on December 17, but later lasted one week. During Saturnalia, roles of master and slave were reversed, moral restrictions lessened, and the rules of etiquette ignored. It is thought that the festivals of Saturnalia and Lupercalia were the roots of the carnival season. Saturnalia is the feast at which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn, which took place on 17 December. ... The December solstice occurs on December 21 or December 22 of most years, and is known by different names in different hemispheres of Earth: Winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere; the shortest day of the year. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Lupercalia was an annual very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, held on February 15 to honour Faunus, god of fertility and forests. ... Carnival or Carnivale is an annual Christian festival season. ...


Although Saturn changed greatly over time due to the influence of Greek mythology, he was also one of the few distinct Roman deities to predate and retain elements of his original function. As Thomas Paine wrote: Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ...

It is impossible for us now to know at what time the heathen mythology began; but it is certain, from the internal evidence that it carries, that it did not begin in the same state or condition in which it ended. All the gods of that mythology, except Saturn, were of modern invention. The supposed reign of Saturn was prior to that which is called the heathen mythology, and was so far a species of theism that it admitted the belief of only one God. Saturn is supposed to have abdicated the govemment in favour of his three sons and one daughter, Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, and Juno; after this, thousands of other gods and demigods were imaginarily created, and the calendar of gods increased as fast as the calendar of saints and the calendar of courts have increased since.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Saturn (mythology) - MSN Encarta (199 words)
Saturn was the husband of Ops, goddess of plenty.
Besides Jupiter, who was ruler of the gods, Saturn's children also included Juno, goddess of marriage; Neptune, god of the sea; Pluto, god of the dead; and Ceres, goddess of the grain.
In art Saturn is usually shown bearded, carrying a sickle or an ear of corn.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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