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Encyclopedia > Satire
1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene.
1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene.

Satire is strictly a literary genre, although it is found in the graphic and performing arts as well as the printed word. In satire, human or individual vices, follies, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, or other methods, ideally with an intent to bring about improvement.[1] Although satire is usually meant to be funny, the purpose of satire is not primarily humor in itself so much as an attack on something of which the author strongly disapproves, using the weapon of wit. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Graphic arts is a term applied historically to the art of printmaking and drawing. ... Performance art is art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work. ... Look up Wit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A very common, almost defining feature of satire is its strong vein of irony or sarcasm, but parody, burlesque, exaggeration, juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing. The essential point, however, is that "in satire, irony is militant"[2]. This "militant irony" (or sarcasm) often professes to approve the very things the satirist actually wishes to attack. Ironic redirects here. ... Sarcasm is the sneering, sly, jesting, or mocking of a person, situation or thing. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... In literary criticism, the term burlesque is employed as a term in genre criticism, to describe any imitative work that derives humor from an incongruous contrast between style and subject. ... A double entendre is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ...

Contents

Term

The word satire comes from Latin satura lanx and means "medley, dish of colourful fruits" - it was held by Quintilian to be a "wholly Roman phenomenon" (satura tota nostra est). This derivation properly has nothing to do with the Greek mythological figure satyr[3]. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from its original narrow definition. Robert Elliott wrote: Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ...

"As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; and satura (which had had no verbal, adverbial, or adjectival forms) was immediately broadened by appropriation from the Greek word for “satyr” (satyros) and its derivatives. The odd result is that the English “satire” comes from the Latin satura; but “satirize,” “satiric,” etc., are of Greek origin. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus; St. Jerome, for example, was called by one of his enemies 'a satirist in prose' ('satyricus scriptor in prosa'). Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, and in England, by the 16th century, it was written 'satyre.'"[4]

Satire (in the modern sense of the word) is found in many artistic forms of expression, including literature, plays, commentary, and media such as song lyrics. The term is nowadays applied to many works other than those which would have been considered satire by Quintilian - including, for instance, ancient Greek authors predating the first Roman satires.


Satire and Humour

Satirical works often contain "straight" (non-satirical) humour - usually to give some relief from what might otherwise be relentless "preaching". This has always been the case, although it is probably more marked in modern satire. On the other hand some satire has little or no humour at all. It is not "funny" - and nor is it meant to be.


Humour about a particular subject (politics, religion and art for instance) is not necessarily satirical because the subject itself is often a subject of satire. Nor is humour using the great satiric tools of irony, parody, or burlesque always meant in a satirical sense.


Development

Ancient Egypt

The Satire of the Trades[5] dates to the beginning of the 2 millennium BC and is one of the oldest texts using hyperbole in order to achieve a didactic aim. It describes the various trades in an exaggeratedly disparaging fashion in order to convince students tired of studying that their lot as scribes will be far superior to that of the ordinary man in the street. Some scholars like Helck [6] think that, rather than satirical, the descriptions were intended to be serious. The Satire of the Trades, also called The Instruction of Dua-Kheti, is a work of didactic ancient Egyptian literature. ...


The Papyrus Anastasi I[7] (late 2nd millennium BC) contains the text of a satirical letter in which the writer at first praises the virtues but then mercilessly mocks the meagre knowledge and achievements of the recipient of the letter. Papyrus Anastasi I (officially designated papyrus British Museum 10247) is a satirical papyrus used for the training of scribes during the Ramesside Period. ...


Greece and Ancient Rome

The Greeks had no word for what later would be called a satire, although cynicism and parody were used. In retrospect, the Greek playwright Aristophanes is one of the best known early satirists; he is particularly famous for his political satire in which he criticized the powerful Cleon (as in The Knights) and for the persecution he underwent.[8][9][10][11] This article is about the current understanding of the word cynicism. ... Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ... Political satire is a subgenre of general satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics, politicians and public affairs. ... Cleon (d. ... Aristophanes play The Knights is an unbridled criticism of Cleon, one of the most powerful men in ancient Athens. ...


The oldest form of satire still in use is the Menippean satire by Menippos of Gadara. His own writings are lost, but his admirers and imitators mix seriousness and mocking in dialogues and parodies before a background of diatribe, a cynicistic criticism, a very biting comment by cynics. Menippean Satire is a term employed broadly to refer to satires that are rhapsodic in nature, combining many different targets of ridicule into a fragmented satiric narrative. ... Diatribe A bitter, sharply abusive denunciation, attack or criticism. ... This article is about the ancient Greek school of philosophy. ...


In Rome, the first to discuss satire critically was Quintilian, who invented the term to describe the writings of Lucilius. In the 16th century, most believed that the term satire came from the Greek satyr; satyrs were the companions of Dionysos and central characters of the satyr plays of the Theatre of Ancient Greece. Its derivatives satirical and satirise are indeed, but the style of the Roman satire is rather linked to the satira, or satura lanx, a "dish of fruits" resembling the colourful mockings or figuratively a "medley". Pliny reports that the 6th century BC poet Hipponax wrote satirae that were so cruel that the offended hanged themselves.[12] The confusion with the satyr supported the understanding of satire as biting, like Juvenal, and not mild, like Horace, method of criticism in Early Modern Europe until the 17th century. Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Lucilius is the nomen of the gens Lucilia of ancient Rome. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... Bacchus by Caravaggio Dionysus, the name of a god, is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius. ... Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ... For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... A medley is a collection of related but different things, served as one. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Hipponax of Ephesus was an Ancient Greek iambic poet. ...


Criticism of Roman emperors (notably Augustus) needed to be presented in veiled ironical terms - but the term when applied to Latin works actually titled as "satires" is much wider than in the modern sense of the word, including fantastic and highly coloured humorous writing with little or no real mocking intent. Veils as articles of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, are intended to cover some part of the head or face. ...


Prominent satirists from Roman antiquity include Horace and Juvenal, who were active during the early days of the Roman Empire and are the two most influential Latin satirists. Other important Roman satirists are Lucilius and Persius. Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Lucilius is the nomen of the gens Lucilia of ancient Rome. ... Persius, in full Aulus Persius Flaccus (AD 34-62), was a Roman poet and satirist. ...


Middle Ages

There are examples of satire from the Early Middle Ages, especially songs by goliards or vagants now best known as an anthology called Carmina Burana and made famous as texts of a composition by the 20th century composer Carl Orff. Satirical poetry is believed to have been popular, although little has survived. With the advent of the High Middle Ages and the birth of modern vernacular literature in the 12th century, it began to be used again, most notably by Chaucer. The disrespectful manner was considered "Unchristian" and ignored but for the moral satire, which mocked misbehavior in Christian terms. Examples are Livre des Manières (~1170), and in some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The epos was mocked, and even the feudal society, but there was hardly a general interest in the genre. After the Middle Ages in the Renaissance reawakening of Roman literary traditions, the satires Till Eulenspiegel and Reynard the Fox were published, and also in Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff (1494), Erasmus' Moriae Encomium (1509) and Thomas More's Utopia (1516). Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... The Goliards were a group of clergy who wrote bibulous, satirical Latin poetry in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. ... Carmina Burana (IPA: ; note that the stress is on the first syllable of Carmina, not the second) also known as the Burana Codex is a manuscript collection, now in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich, of more than 1000 poems and songs written in the early 13th century. ... Carl Orff Carl Orff (July 10, 1895) – March 29, 1982) was a 20th-century German composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Till Eulenspiegel (IPA: , Low Saxon: Dyl Ulenspegel, Flemish: Thyl Ulenspiegel) was a trickster who originated in the Middle Low German folklore. ... Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, and by many other spelling variations, is a trickster figure whose tale is told in a number of anthropomorphic fables from medieval Europe. ... A portrait of Sebastian Brant Sebastian Brant (also Brandt) (1457 – May 10, 1521), German humanist and satirist, was born in Strasbourg. ... The ship of fools, depicted in a 1549 German woodcut The ship of fools is an old allegory that has long been used in Western culture in literature and paintings. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basel) The Praise of Folly (Greek title: Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον), Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...


Persia

Main article: Persian satire

Obeid e zakani introduced satire into Persia during the 14th century. Between 1905 and 1911, Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi and other Iranian writers wrote notable satires. Ghol-Agha magazine Persian satire refers to satires in Persian language. ... Obeid e zakani (d. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bibi Khātoon Astarābādi [1] [2] (Persian: بی بی خاتون استرآبادی) (born 1858 or 1859 — died 1921) was a notable Iranian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in the womens movement of Iran. ...


Early modern western satire

The Elizabethan (i.e. 16th century English) writers thought of satire as related to the notoriously rude, coarse and sharp satyr play. Elizabethan "satire" (typically in pamphlet form) therefore contains more straight forward abuse than subtle irony. The French Huguenot Isaac Casaubon pointed out in 1605 that satire in the Roman fashion was something altogether more civilised. 17th century English satire once again aimed at the "amendment of vices" (Dryden). The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Isaac Casaubon (February 18, 1559 - July 1, 1614) was a classical scholar, first in France then later in England, regarded by many at the time as the most learned in Europe. ... There are several people and places named Dryden. ...


Direct social commentary via satire returned with a vengeance in the 16th century, when farcical texts such as the works of François Rabelais tackled more serious issues (and incurred the wrath of the crown as a result). In the Age of Enlightenment, an intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th century advocating rationality, began the breakthrough of English satire, largely due to the creation of Tory and Whig groups and the necessity to convey the true meaning of criticism, especially true for Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, John Dryden and Alexander Pope. Here, astute and biting satire of institutions and individuals became a popular weapon. Although Isaac Casaubon discovered and published Quintilian's writing and presented the original meaning of the term (satira, not satyr), Early Modern satire was already an established genre, but the sense of wittiness (reflecting the "dishfull of fruits") became more important again. François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Isaac Casaubon (February 18, 1559 - July 1, 1614) was a classical scholar, first in France then later in England, regarded by many at the time as the most learned in Europe. ...


Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo-Irish satirists, and one of the first to practice modern journalistic satire. For instance, his A Modest Proposal suggests that poor Irish parents be encouraged to sell their own children as food, while his The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters says that dissenters (from established Church doctrine) are to be vigorously persecuted. In his book Gulliver's Travels he writes about the flaws in human society in general and English society in particular. Swift creates a moral fiction, for instance a world in which parents do not have their most obvious responsibility, which is to protect their children from harm, or in which freedom of religion is reduced to the freedom to conform. His purpose is of course to attack indifference to the plight of the desperately poor, and to advocate freedom of conscience. Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


John Dryden also wrote an influential essay on satire that helped fix its definition in the literary world. John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...


Anglo-American satire

Ebenezer Cooke, author of "The Sot-Weed Factor," was among the first to bring satire to the British colonies; Benjamin Franklin and others followed, using satire to shape an emerging nation's culture through shaping its sense of the ridiculous. Ebenezer Cooke (ca. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...


Mark Twain was a great American satirist: his novel Huckleberry Finn is set in the antebellum South, where the moral values Twain wishes to promote are completely turned on their heads. His hero, Huck, is a rather simple but good-hearted lad who is ashamed of the "sinful temptation" that leads him to help a runaway slave. In fact his conscience – warped by the distorted moral world he has grown up in, often bothers him most when he is at his best. Ironically, he is prepared to do good, believing it to be wrong. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Slave redirects here. ...


Twain's younger contemporary Ambrose Bierce gained notoriety as a cynic, pessimist and black humourist with his dark, bitterly ironic stories, many set during the American Civil War, which satirized the limitations of human perception and reason. Bierce's most famous work of satire is probably The Devil's Dictionary, in which the definitions mock cant, hypocrisy and received wisdom. Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – 1914?) was an American editorialist, journalist, short-story writer and satirist, today best known for his Devils Dictionary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Devils Dictionary, by Ambrose Bierce. ... The word cant can mean more than one thing: Cant is insincere speech, similar to hypocrisy. ... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. ...


Satire in Victorian England

Novelists such as Charles Dickens often used passages of satiric writing in their treatment of social issues. Several satiric papers competed for the public's attention in the Victorian era and Edwardian period, such as Punch and Fun. Dickens redirects here. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... Fun was a Victorian weekly magazine first published on September 21 1861. ...


Perhaps the most enduring examples of Victorian satire, however, are to be found in the Savoy Operas of W. S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan. In fact, in The Yeomen of the Guard, a jester is given lines that paint a very neat picture of the method and purpose of the satirist, and might almost be taken as a statement of Gilbert's own intent: The Savoy Operas are a series of operettas written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 – May 29, 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist and illustrator best known for the fourteen comic operas produced in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ...

"I can set a braggart quailing with a quip,
The upstart I can wither with a whim;
He may wear a merry laugh upon his lip,
But his laughter has an echo that is grim!"

20th century satire

In the 20th century, satire was used by authors such as Aldous Huxley and George Orwell to make serious and even frightening commentaries on the dangers of the sweeping social changes taking place throughout Europe and United States. The film, The Great Dictator (1940) by Charlie Chaplin is a satire on Adolf Hitler. Many social critics of the time, such as Dorothy Parker and H. L. Mencken used satire as their main weapon, and Mencken in particular is noted for having said that "one horse-laugh is worth ten thousand syllogisms" in the persuasion of the public to accept a criticism. Joseph Heller's most famous work, Catch-22, satirizes bureaucracy and the military, and is frequently cited as one of the greatest literary works of the Twentieth Century[13]. Novelist Sinclair Lewis was known for his satirical stories such as Babbitt, Main Street, and It Can't Happen Here. His books often explored and satirized contemporary American values. Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Dorothy Parker (August 22, 1893 – June 7, 1967) was an American writer and poet, best known for her caustic wit, wisecracks, and sharp eye for 20th century urban foibles. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880, Baltimore – January 29, 1956, Baltimore), was a journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, acerbic critic of American life and culture, and a student of the American English. ... A syllogism (Greek: — conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... Sinclair Lewis Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 — January 10, 1951) was an American novelist and playwright. ... Babbitt is a classic novel by the American novelist and playwright Sinclair Lewis, first published in 1922. ... Main Street book cover The satirical novel Main Street by Sinclair Lewis was published in 1920. ... Poster for a stage adaptation of It Cant Happen Here, ca. ...


The film Dr. Strangelove from 1964 was a popular satire on the Cold War. A more humorous brand of satire enjoyed a renaissance in the UK in the early 1960s with the Satire Boom, led by such luminaries as Peter Cook, John Cleese, Alan Bennett, Jonathan Miller, David Frost, Eleanor Bron and Dudley Moore and the television programme That Was The Week That Was. Strangelove redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Peter Cook, see Peter Cook (disambiguation). ... Cleese redirects here. ... Published by Faber/Profile Books in 2005 Alan Bennett (born May 9, 1934) is an English author and actor noted for his work, his boyish appearance and his sonorous Yorkshire accent. ... This article is about the British physician, theatre and opera director, and television presenter; for other people named Jonathan Miller, see Jonathan Miller (disambiguation). ... Sir David Paradine Frost, OBE (born April 7, 1939) is an English television presenter. ... Eleanor Bron (born 14 March 1938) is a British stage, film and television actress and author. ... Dudley Stuart John Moore, CBE (April 19, 1935 – March 27, 2002), was an Academy-Award nominated British comedian, actor and musician. ... That Was The Week That Was, also known as TW3, was a satirical television comedy programme that aired on BBC Television in 1962 and 1963. ...


Contemporary satire

Contemporary popular usage often uses the term "satire" in a very imprecise manner. While satire often uses caricature and parody; by no means all uses of these, and other humorous devices, are satiric. Refer to the careful definition of satire that heads this article. For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ...

Stephen Colbert satirizes an opinionated and self-righteous television commentator on his Comedy Central program in the United States.
Stephen Colbert satirizes an opinionated and self-righteous television commentator on his Comedy Central program in the United States.

Stephen Colbert’s television program The Colbert Report is instructive in the methods of contemporary Western satire. Colbert's character is an opinionated and self-righteous commentator who, in his TV interviews, interrupts people, points and wags his finger at them, and "unwittingly" uses every logical fallacy known to man. In doing so, he demonstrates the principle of modern American satire: the ridicule of the actions of politicians and other public figures by taking all their statements and purported beliefs to their furthest (supposedly) logical conclusion, thus revealing their hypocrisy and stupidity. Other political satire includes various political causes in the past, including the relatively successful Polish Beer-Lovers' Party and the joke political candidates Molly the Dog[14] and Brian Miner [15]. This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ... Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel in the United States. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ... The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the character. ... The Polish Beer-Lovers Party (PPPP; Polish: Polska Partia Przyjaciół Piwa) was founded in 1990, one of its leaders being the satirist Janusz RewiÅ„ski. ...


Cartoonists often use satire as well as straight humour. Garry Trudeau, whose comic strip Doonesbury has charted and recorded many American follies for the last generation, deals with story lines such as Vietnam (and now, Iraq), dumbed-down education, and over-eating at "McFriendly's". Trudeau exemplifies humor mixed with criticism. Recently, one of his gay characters lamented that because he was not legally married to his partner, he was deprived of the "exquisite agony" of experiencing a nasty and painful divorce like heterosexuals. This, of course, satirized the claim that gay unions would denigrate the sanctity of heterosexual marriage. Doonesbury also presents an example of how satire can cause social change. The comic strip satirized a Florida county that had a law requiring minorities to have a passcard in the area; the law was soon repealed with an act nicknamed the Doonesbury Act.[16] Garry Trudeau Garretson Beekman Trudeau (born July 21, 1948, in New York City) is an American cartoonist, best known for the Doonesbury comic strip. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Doonesbury is a comic strip by Garry Trudeau, popular in the United States and other parts of the world. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Like some literary predecessors, many recent television "satires" contain strong elements of parody and caricature; for instance the popular animated series The Simpsons and South Park both parody modern family and social life by taking their assumptions to the extreme; both have led to the creation of similar series. As well as the purely humorous effect of this sort of thing, they often strongly criticise various phenomena in politics, economic life, religion and many other aspects of society, and thus qualify as "satirical". Due to their animated nature, these shows can easily use images of public figures and generally have greater freedom to do so than conventional shows using live actors. For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... Simpsons redirects here. ... This article is about the TV series. ...


Other satires are on the list of satirists and satires. List of satirists and satires Below is a list of writers, cartoonists and others known for their involvement in satire - humorous social criticism. ...


Misconception of satire

Because satire often combines anger and humour it can be profoundly disturbing - because it is essentially ironic or sarcastic, it is often misunderstood. In an interview with Wikinews, Sean Mills, President of The Onion, said angry letters about their news parody always carried the same message. "It’s whatever affects that person," said Mills. "So it’s like, 'I love it when you make a joke about murder or rape, but if you talk about cancer, well my brother has cancer and that’s not funny to me.' Or someone else can say, 'Cancer’s hilarious, but don’t talk about rape because my cousin got raped.' I’m using extreme examples, but whatever it is, if it affects somebody personally they tend to be more sensitive about it."[17] Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Onion is a United States-based parody newspaper published weekly in print and daily online. ...


Common uncomprehending responses to satire include revulsion (accusations of poor taste, or that it's "just not funny" for instance), to the idea that the satirist actually does support the ideas, policies, or people he is attacking. For instance, at the time of its publication, many people misunderstood Swift’s purpose in "A Modest Proposal" – assuming it to be a serious recommendation of economically-motivated cannibalism. Again, some critics of Mark Twain see Huckleberry Finn as racist and offensive, missing the point that its author clearly intended it to be satire (racism being in fact only one of a number of Mark Twain's known pet bugbears attacked in Huckleberry Finn). Taste (sociology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ...


Satire under fire

Because satire is stealthy criticism, it frequently escapes censorship. Periodically, however, it runs into serious opposition. For other uses, see Censor. ...


In 1599, the Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift and the Bishop of London George Abbot, whose offices had the function of licensing books for publication in England, issued a decree banning verse satire. The decree ordered the burning of certain volumes of satire by John Marston, Thomas Middleton, Joseph Hall, and others; it also required histories and plays to be specially approved by a member of the Queen's Privy Council, and it prohibited the future printing of satire in verse.[18] The motives for the ban are obscure, particularly since some of the books banned had been licensed by the same authorities less than a year earlier. Various scholars have argued that the target was obscenity, libel, or sedition. It seems likely that lingering anxiety about the Martin Marprelate controversy, in which the bishops themselves had employed satirists, played a role; both Thomas Nashe and Gabriel Harvey, two of the key figures in that controversy, suffered a complete ban on all their works. In the event, though, the ban was little enforced, even by the licensing authority itself. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... John Whitgift (c. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... There have been several well-known people called George Abbot: George Abbot (1562-1633), Archbishop of Canterbury George Abbot School was named after the aforementioned George Abbot George Abbot (1603?-1648), English Puritan writer George Abbott (1887-1995), Broadway writer, producer and director George Abbott (1911-?)was an ice hockey... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... John Marston (October 7, 1576 - June 25, 1634) was an English poet, playwright and satirist during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... Joseph Hall (July 1, 1574 - September 8, 1656), English bishop and satirist, was born at Bristow park, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire, on the 1st of July 1574. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... Martin Marprelate was the name used by the anonymous author or authors of the Marprelate tracts. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... Gabriel Harvey (c. ...


In Italy the media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi attacked RAI Television's satirical series, Raiot, Daniele Luttazzi's Satyricon, Enzo Biagi, Michele Santoro's Sciuscià, even a special Blob series on Berlusconi himself, by arguing that they were vulgar and full of disrespect to the government. He claimed that he would sue the RAI for 21,000,000 Euros if the show went on. RAI stopped the show. Sabina Guzzanti, creator of the show, went to court to proceed with the show and won the case. However, the show never went on air again. A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a mogul, tycoon, or industrialist is a person who controls a large portion of a particular industry and whose wealth derives primarily from this control. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... Daniele Luttazzi Daniele Luttazzi (born in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Rimini, January 26, 1961), real name Daniele Fabbri, is an Italian comedian, writer, satirist, illustrator and singer/songwriter. ... Satyricon (or Satyrica) is a Latin novel, believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript text of the Satyricon calls him Titus Petronius. ... Enzo Biagi on the cover of one of his books. ... Michele Santoro Michele Santoro (Salerno, July 2, 1951) is an Italian journalist, broadcaster, anchorman, and Member of the European Parliament for Southern with the Olive Tree, part of the Socialist Group and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. ... Look up blob in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 2001 the British television network Channel 4 aired a special edition of the spoof current affairs series Brass Eye, which was intended to mock and satirize the fascination of modern journalism with child molesters and pedophiles. The TV network received an enormous number of complaints from members of the public, who were outraged that the show would mock a subject considered by many to be too "serious" to be the subject of humour. This article is about the British television station. ... Brass Eye is a UK television series of satirical spoof documentaries which aired on Channel 4 in 1997 and was re-run in 2001. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ... Pedophilia or paedophilia (see spelling differences) is the primary or exclusive sexual attraction by adults to prepubescent youths. ...


In 2005, the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy caused global protests by offended Muslims and violent attacks with many fatalities in the Near East. It was not the first case of Muslim protests against criticism in the form of satire, but the Western world was surprised by the hostility of the reaction: Any country's flag in which a newspaper chose to publish the parodies was being burnt in a Near East country, then embassies were attacked, killing 139 people in mainly four countries (see article); politicians throughout Europe agreed that satire was an aspect of the freedom of speech, and therefore to be a protected means of dialogue. Iran threatened to start an International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, which was immediately responded to by Jews with a Israeli Anti-Semitic Cartoons Contest. Although not really satirical, the response to Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses from 1988 was similarly violent; Khomeinei responded with a fatwa, death sentence, for the author, resulting in a 10-year breach of Irano-British diplomatic relations and a continued threat to the author's life. The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... Sub-Zero performing a Head Rip fatality in Mortal Kombat 1 In the Mortal Kombat series of fighting games, a Fatality is a special finishing move that can be used against ones opponent at the end of the final match. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Cartoons by Iranian cartoonist Maziyar Bizhani, submitted to the controversial cartoons of the Holocaust in Iran. ... The Israeli Anti-Semitic Cartoons Contest (Hebrew: תחרות קריקטורות אנטישמיות ישראלית) was initiated by two Israeli artists in response to the Muhammad cartoons controversy and the subsequent Holocaust Cartoon Competition by the Iranian newspaper Hamshahri. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (Devanagari : अहमद सलमान रश्दी Nastaliq:; born 19 June 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... For the verses known as Satanic Verses, see Satanic Verses. ... Grand Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 3, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


In 2006 British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen released Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan a "mockumentary" that satirized everyone, from high society to frat boys. Criticism of the film was heavy, from claims of antisemitism (forgetting the author is Jewish), to the massive boycott of the film by the Kazakh government; the film itself had been a reaction to a longer quarrel between the government and the comedian. This article is about the British comedian. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Kazakh may refer to An ethnic group: the Kazakhs The Kazakh language The Culture of Kazakhstan Suhbat. ...


Satire as prophecy

Satire is often prophetic: the jokes precede actual events.[19] Among the eminent examples is the 1784 presaging of modern Daylight saving time, later actually proposed in 1907. While an American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin anonymously published a letter in 1784 suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by arising earlier to use morning sunlight.[20] In the 1920s an English cartoonist imagined a very laughable thing for that time: a hotel for cars. He drew a Multi-story car park.[19] Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Multi-storey carparks can be found at newer HDB estates in Singapore. ...


See also

Look up Satire in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

List of satirists and satires Below is a list of writers, cartoonists and others known for their involvement in satire - humorous social criticism. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

References

  1. ^ Robert C. Elliott, Satire, in: Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004
  2. ^ Northrop Frye, literary critic, quoted in: Elliott, satire
  3. ^ With the Renaissance mixup of the two, the presumed Greek origin had some influence on the satire making it more aggressive than Roman satire generally was, B.L. Ullman "Satura and Satire" Classical Philology 8:2
  4. ^ Robert C. Elliott, The nature of satire, in: Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Satire", 2004
  5. ^ M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, volume I, 1973, pp.184-193
  6. ^ W. Helck, Die Lehre des DwA-xtjj, Wiesbaden, 1970
  7. ^ Alan H. Gardiner, Egyptian Hieratic Texts - Series I: Literary Texts of the New Kingdom, Part I, Leipzig 1911
  8. ^ POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SATIRE OF ARISTOPHANES in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 2. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 55-59.
  9. ^ J. E. Atkinson Curbing the Comedians: Cleon versus Aristophanes and Syracosius' Decree The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 1 (1992), pp. 56-64
  10. ^ Aristophanes: the Michael Moore of his Day by John Louis Anderson
  11. ^ Sutton, D. F., Ancient Comedy: The War of the Generations (New York, 1993), p.56.
  12. ^ Cuddon, Dictionary of Literary Terms, Oxford 1998, "satire"
  13. ^ [1]"What is Catch-22? And why does the book matter?" BBC
  14. ^ http://www.mollythedog2008.com
  15. ^ http://www.brianminer2008.com
  16. ^ Melnik, Rachel. A picture is worth a thousand politicians, Cartoons catalyze social justice, McGill Tribune (2007-01-23), Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  17. ^ An interview with The Onion, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 25, 2007.
  18. ^ A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640, Vol. III, ed. Edward Arber (London, 1875-94), p.677.
  19. ^ a b Daniele Luttazzi Lepidezze postribolari (2007, Feltrinelli, p.275) (Italian)
  20. ^ Benjamin Franklin, writing anonymously (1784-04-26). "Aux auteurs du Journal" (in French). Journal de Paris (117). Retrieved on 2007-05-16. Its first publication was in the journal's "Économie" section. The revised English version (retrieved on 2007-05-26) is commonly called "An Economical Project", a title that is not Franklin's; see A.O. Aldridge (1956). "Franklin's essay on daylight saving". American Literature 28 (1): 23–29. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.

Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The McGill Tribune is a campus newspaper published by the Students Society of McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Daniele Luttazzi Daniele Luttazzi (born in Santarcangelo di Romagna, Rimini, January 26, 1961), real name Daniele Fabbri, is an Italian comedian, writer, satirist, illustrator and singer/songwriter. ... Feltrinelli may refer to: Feltrinelli (publisher) - Italian publishing house Giangiacomo Feltrinelli - founder of the publishing house Antonio Feltrinelli Prizes (Premi Antonio Feltrinelli) - awarded by the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei since 1950 in various fields of arts, sciences and exceptional endeavours of outstanding moral and humanitarian value. Often referred to as... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Anonymity is the state of not being identifiable within a set, called the anonymity set. When referring to human beings, we say that a person is anonymous when the identity of that person is not known. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Lee, Jae Num. "Scatology in Continental Satirical Writings from Aristophanes to Rabelais" and "English Scatological Writings from Skelton to Pope." Swift and Scatological Satire. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1971. 7-22; 23-53.
  • Jacob Bronowski & Bruce Mazlish, The Western Intellectual Tradition From Leonardo to Hegel, p. 252 (1960; as repub. in 1993 Barnes & Noble ed.).
  • Theorizing Satire: A Bibliography [2], by Brian A. Connery, Oakland University
  • Bloom, Edward A. . "Sacramentum Militiae: The Dynamics of Religious Satire." Studies in the Literary Imagination 5 (1972): 119-42.
  • The Modern Satiric Grotesque. Lexington: U of Kentucky P, 1991.

Theories/Critical approaches to satire as a genre: In medicine and biology, scatology or coprology is the study of feces. ... This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ... François Rabelais (ca. ... For other uses, see Swift (disambiguation). ... Jacob Bronowski (January 18, 1908, Łódź, Congress Poland, Russian Empire - August 22, 1974, East Hampton, New York, USA) was an English-Polish mathematician, best known as the presenter of the BBC television documentary series, The Ascent of Man. ... This article is about the word itself. ...

  • Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism. (See in particular the discussion of the 4 "myths").
  • Emil Draitser. Techniques of Satire: The Case of Saltykov-Shchedrin. (Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994) ISBN 3110126249.
  • Hammer, Stephanie. Satirizing the Satirist.
  • Highet, Gilbert. Satire.
  • Kernan, Alvin. The Cankered Muse

The Plot of Satire. Emil Draitser is an author and professor of Russian at Hunter College, New York. ...

  • Seidel, Michael. Satiric Inheritance.
  • Entopia: Revolution of the Ants (2008), by Rad Zdero.


  Results from FactBites:
 
satire: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (5928 words)
Satire is central to the Roman de Renart and the second part of the Roman de la Rose, and it is an important element in the work of Rutebeuf and in Villon's Testament.
The satire of Horace is mild, gently amused, yet sophisticated, whereas that of Juvenal is vitriolic and replete with moral indignation; Shakespeare later wrote Horatian satire and Jonathan Swift wrote Juvenalian satire.
Although satire is usually witty, and often very funny, the purpose of satire is not primarily humour but criticism of an event, an individual or a group in a clever manner.
satire - Definitions from Dictionary.com (496 words)
Satire, the general term, often emphasizes the weakness more than the weak person, and usually implies moral judgment and corrective purpose: Swift's satire of human pettiness and bestiality.
In this country satire never had more than a sickly and uncertain existence, for the soul of it is wit, wherein we are dolefully deficient, the humor that we mistake for it, like all humor, being tolerant and sympathetic.
Verb satirize is attested from 1601, from Fr.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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