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Encyclopedia > Satemization
Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. The supposed area of origin of Satemization is shown in darker red (Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna cultures).
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Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. The supposed area of origin of Satemization is shown in darker red (Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna cultures).
Hypothetical situation around 2000 BC. The Corded Ware horizon is underlaid in yellow.
Enlarge
Hypothetical situation around 2000 BC. The Corded Ware horizon is underlaid in yellow.

Centum-Satem is an isogloss of the Indo-European family. The Andronovo culture in the context of late 3rd millennium Indo-European expansion The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC. The culture is named... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... Corded ware is pottery having an ornamental pattern created by a cord impressed in the unfired clay. ... An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


The Satem languages include Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic (Baltic and Slavic) (Slavic has incomplete Satem), Albanian, Armenian, Luwian and perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Thracian, and Dacian. Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Balto-Slavic languages are an Indo-European language family, consisting of the (possibly genetically related) Baltic languages and Slavic languages. ... The Baltic languages are a group of genetically-related languages spoken in the Northern Europe and belonging to the Indo-European language family. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is part of the Anatolian branch of the Indo European language family and has been preserved in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ...


The Centum languages include Anatolian (excluding Luwian), Italic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Tocharian and a number of minor and little known extinct groups (such as Venetic and the ancient Macedonian language and probably the Illyrian languages). The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct languages, either Indo-European or (in some classifications) closely related to Indo-European, which were spoken in Asia Minor, including Hittite. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is part of the Anatolian branch of the Indo European language family and has been preserved in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, both those spoken by the ancient Celts, and those used by their modern descendants, the Gaels, Welsh, Cornish and Bretons. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. ... Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. ... The Ancient Macedonian language (provisional ISO-DIS 639-3. ... The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in pre-Roman times. ...

Contents


Satem

The Satem those languages show the characteristic change of the so-called Proto-Indo-European palato-velars (*ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵh) into affricate and fricative consonants articulated in the front of the mouth. For example, *ḱ became Sanskrit ś, Avestan, Russian and Armenian s, Lithuanian š, Albanian th, etc. At the same time, the protolanguage velars (*k, *g, *gh) and labio-velars (*kw, *gw, *gwh) merged in the Satem group, the latter losing their accompanying lip-rounding. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... Yasna 28. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ...



The Satem shift is conveniently illustrated with the word for '100', Proto-Indo-European *ḱmtom, which became e.g. Avestan satem (hence the name of the group), Lithuanian šimtas, Russian sto, etc., as contrasted with Latin centum (pron. [kentum]), English hund(red)- (with /h/ from earlier *k, see Grimm's law), Greek (he)katon, Welsh cant, etc. Yasna 28. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Grimms law (also known as the [First] Germanic Sound Shift; German: Erste Deutsche (Germanische) Lautverschiebung) was the first non-trivial systematic sound change ever to be discovered; its formulation was a turning-point in the development of linguistics, enabling the introduction of rigorous methodology in historical linguistic research. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Centum

In the Centum languages, the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). Most of the Centum languages preserve Proto-Indo-European labio-velars (*kw, *gw, *gwh) or their historical reflexes as distinct from plain velars; for example, PIE *k, *kw > Latin c /k/, qu /kw/, Greek /k/, /p/ (or /t/ before front vowels), Gothic /h/, /hw/, etc. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Gothic language (*gutiska razda, *𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺𐌰 𐍂𐌰𐌶𐌳𐌰) is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths and specifically by the Visigoths. ...


The name Centum comes from the Latin word centum '100', pronounced [kentum] < PIE *ḱmtom, illustrating the falling together of *k and *. Compare Sanskrit śata- or Russian sto, in which * changed into a fricative. The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Origins of the sound change

Originally, it was thought that the centum-satem isogloss was the original dialect division of the Indo-European languages. Now, this is not widely accepted by most historical linguists and there are other theories. One theory is that the satem sound change occurred independently in the various branches of Indo-European, for example Luwian has the satem sound change while the rest of Anatolian is centum. Another theory is the the sound change occurred in one area of the Indo-European languages and diffused to other areas, but not reaching the areas that became the centum areas. Slavic which have incomplete satem are used as an example of the diffusion of the satem sound change since the Slavic languages are spoken between those languages will full satem, Indo-Iranian and the centum languages such as Germanic. Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is part of the Anatolian branch of the Indo European language family and has been preserved in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct languages, either Indo-European or (in some classifications) closely related to Indo-European, which were spoken in Asia Minor, including Hittite. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ...


See also

  • Indo-European languages

  Results from FactBites:
 
Centum-Satem isogloss - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1284 words)
The supposed area of origin of Satemization is shown in darker red (Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna cultures).
The Satem languages show the characteristic change of the so-called Proto-Indo-European palato-velars (*ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ) into affricate and fricative consonants articulated in the front of the mouth.
Incomplete Satemization in Baltic, and, to a lesser extent, Slavic, is taken as an indication of the diffusion of the satem sound change, or, alternatively, due to loans via early contact of Proto-Baltic and Proto-Germanic speakers.
Wikipedia: Satem (203 words)
The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, plus a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Thracian and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages).
By contrast, in the remainder of the Indo-European family (the so-called Centum languages), palato-velars lost their palatal component and merged with plain velars, while labio-velars remained distinct.
The Satem group is a paraphyletic group and thus not a phylogenetic unit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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