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Encyclopedia > Satellite television

Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. In many areas of the world, satellite television services supplement older terrestrial signals, providing a wider range of channels and services, including subscription-only services. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air, OTA or broadcast television) was the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery prior to the advent of cable and satellite television. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ...

Contents

History

The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. The first geosynchronous communication satellite, Syncom 2 was launched in 1963. The world's first commercial communication satellite, called Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird), was launched into synchronous orbit on April 6, 1965. The first national network of satellite television, called Orbita, was created in Soviet Union in 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations. The first domestic North American satellite to carry television was Canada’s geostationary Anik 1, which was launched in 1972 [1]. ATS-6, the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite, was launched in 1974. The first Soviet geostationary satellite to carry Direct-To-Home television, called Ekran, was launched in 1976. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The original Telstar had a roughly spherical shape. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A geosynchronous orbit is a geocentric orbit that has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. ... Syncom (for synchronous communication satellite) started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications. ... INTELSAT I Early Bird Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb The early bird catches the worm) was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... Orbita is a Soviet-Russian system of broadcasting and delivering TV-signal via satellites. ... Molniya (lightning) was a military communications satellite system used by the Soviet Union. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ... In radio communications, a downlink is the link from a satellite to a ground station. ... Anik 1 was a Canadian geosynchronous communications satellite that was launched in 1972 by a Delta rocket. ... ATS-6, Advanced Test Satellite # 6 was the worlds first educational satellite as well as worlds first experimental Direct Broadcast Satellite. ... Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. ... A Satellite dish antenna A satellite dish is a type of parabolic reflector antenna designed with the specific purpose of transmitting signals to and/or receiving from satellites. ... Ekran (Экран, Screen) was a Soviet-Russian type of geostationary satellite, developed for a national system of Direct-To-Home television. ...


Technology

Satellites used for television signals are generally in either highly elliptical (with inclination of +/-63.4 degrees and orbital period of about 12 hours) or geostationary orbit 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earth’s equator. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) in diameter. The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite. The transponder 'retransmits' the signals back to Earth but at a different frequency band (to avoid interference with the uplink signal), typically in the C-band (4–8 GHz) or Ku-band (12–18 GHz) or both. The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink. Look up uplink in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... C band (compromise band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. ... The Ku band (kay-yoo kurz-under band) is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 11 to 18 GHz. ...


A typical satellite has up to 32 transponders for Ku-band and up to 24 for a C-band only satellite, or more for hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 27 MHz and 50 MHz. Each geo-stationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2 degrees from the next satellite (to avoid interference). For Ku the spacing can be 1 degree. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites and 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain (as water is an excellent absorber of microwaves). In satellite communications, rain fade refers to the absorption of a microwave Radio Frequency (RF) signal by rain or snow, and is especially prevalent in frequencies above 11 GHz. ...


The downlinked satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance (see inverse-square law), is collected by a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish’s focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn. This feedhorn is essentially the flared front-end of a section of waveguide that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and 'conducts' them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter or LNB. The LNB amplifies the relatively weak signals, filters the block of frequencies in which the satellite TV signals are transmitted, and converts the block of frequencies to a lower frequency range in the L-band range. The evolution of LNBs was one of necessity and invention. This diagram shows how the law works. ... A parabolic reflector (also known as a parabolic dish or a parabolic mirror) is a reflective device formed in the shape of a paraboloid of revolution. ... In satellite dish and antenna design parlance, a feedhorn (or feed horn) is a horn antenna used to convey radio waves between the transceiver (transmitter and/or receiver) and the reflector. ... Look up waveguide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ku-band LNB with both sides uncovered. ... L band (20-cm radar long-band) is a portion of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging roughly from 0. ...


The original C-Band satellite TV systems used a Low Noise Amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish. The amplified signal was then fed via very expensive 50 Ohm impedance coaxial cable to an indoor receiver or in other designs fed to a downconverter (a mixer and a voltage tuned oscillator with some filter circuitry) for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled, typically by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend. But this simple design evolved. Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ...


Designs for microstrip based converters for Amateur Radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-Band. Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, and technologically more easily handled block of frequencies (intermediate frequency). Cross-section of microstrip geometry. ... An intermediate frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. ...


The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable could be used to connect the indoor receiver with the satellite TV dish and LNB, and that the technology for handling the signal at L-Band and UHF was far cheaper than that for handling the signal at C-Band frequencies. The shift to cheaper technology from the 50 Ohm impedance cable and N-Connectors of the early C-Band systems to the cheaper 75 Ohm technology and F-Connectors allowed the early satellite TV receivers to use, what were in reality, modified UHF TV tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to another lower intermediate frequency centered on 70 MHz where it was demodulated. This shift allowed the satellite television DTH industry to change from being a largely hobbyist one where receivers were built in low numbers and complete systems were expensive (costing thousands of Dollars) to a far more commercial one of mass production. Type N connector (male) Type N connector (female) Picture to show the similarity between 50ohm and 75ohm N connectors The N connector (in full, Type N connector) is a threaded RF connector used to join coaxial cables. ... Male F Connector The F connector is a type of RF connector commonly used for over the air terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or (in older installations) with RG-59/U cable. ... Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... An intermediate frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. ... A Satellite dish antenna A satellite dish is a type of parabolic reflector antenna designed with the specific purpose of transmitting signals to and/or receiving from satellites. ...


Direct broadcast satellite dishes are fitted with an LNBF, which integrates the feedhorn with the LNB.


The satellite receiver demodulates and converts the signals to the desired form (outputs for television, audio, data, etc.). Sometimes, the receiver includes the capability to unscramble or decrypt; the receiver is then called an Integrated receiver/decoder or IRD. The cable connecting the receiver to the LNBF or LNB must be of the low loss type RG-6 or RG-10, etc. It cannot be standard RG-59. In telecommunications, a scrambler is a device that transposes or inverts signals or otherwise encodes a message at the transmitter to make the message unintelligible at a receiver not equipped with an appropriately set descrambling device. ... Encrypt redirects here. ... An integrated receiver/decoder is an electronic device used to receive and decode digital signals. ... RG-6/U is a common type of coaxial cable used in a wide variety of residential and commercial applications. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


(A new form of omnidirectional satellite antenna, which does not use a directed parabolic dish and can be used on a mobile platform such as a vehicle, was recently announced by the University of Waterloo. [1]) The University of Waterloo (also referred to as UW, UWaterloo, or Waterloo) is a medium-sized research-intensive public university in the city of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ...


Standards

Analog television distributed via satellite is usually sent scrambled or unscrambled in NTSC, PAL, or SECAM television broadcast standards. The analog signal is frequency modulated and is converted from an FM signal to what is referred to as baseband. This baseband comprises the video signal and the audio subcarrier(s). The audio subcarrier is further demodulated to provide a raw audio signal. NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... Baseband is an adjective that describes signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from 0 to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal frequency; it is sometimes used as a noun for a band of frequencies starting at 0. ...


If the signal is a digitized television signal or multiplex of signals, it is typically QPSK. Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). ...


In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, are generally based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S. MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... Official DVB logo, found on compliant devices DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted open standards for digital television. ...


The conditional access encryption/scrambling methods include BISS, Conax, Digicipher, Irdeto, Nagravision, PowerVu, Viaccess, Videocipher, and VideoGuard. Many conditional access systems have been compromised. Conditional access (CA) is the protection of content by requiring certain criteria to be met before granting access to the content. ... Basic Interoperable Scrambling System developed by the European Broadcasting Union and a consortium of hardware manufacturers. ... Conax is a crypting system for digital television. ... DigiCipher 2, or simply DCII, is the name of the digital signal compression standard used on many communications satellite television and audio signals. ... Irdeto Access is a provider of content protection technologies for digital video and IP networks. ... Nagravision is a company of the Kudelski Group that develops conditional access systems for cable and satellite television. ... PowerVu is a conditional access system for digital television developed by Scientific Atlanta. ... Viaccess is an encrypting system for digital television developed by France Télécom. ... VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling equipment for satellite television invented in 1983 by Linkabit systems, which was bought out by MA/COM in 1985. ... VideoGuard, produced by NDS, is a digital encryption system for use with conditional access television broadcasting. ...


Categories of usage

There are three primary types of satellite television usage: reception direct by the viewer, reception by local television affiliates, or reception by headends for distribution across terrestrial cable systems. Cable television headend is a master facility for receiving television signals for processing and distribution over a cable television system. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ...


Direct to the viewer reception includes direct broadcast satellite or DBS and television receive-only or TVRO, both used for homes and businesses including hotels, etc. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. ... Television receive-only, or TVRO is a term used in North America to refer to the reception of satellite television from FSS-type satellites, generally on C-band analogue; free-to-air and unconnected to a commercial DBS provider. ...


Direct broadcast via satellite

Direct broadcast satellite, (DBS) also known as "Direct-To-Home" is a relatively recent development in the world of television distribution. “Direct broadcast satellite” can either refer to the communications satellites themselves that deliver DBS service or the actual television service. DBS systems are commonly referred to as "mini-dish" systems. DBS uses the upper portion of the Ku band. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. ...


Modified DBS systems can also run on C-band satellites and have been used by some networks in the past to get around legislation by some countries against reception of Ku-band transmissions.


Most of the DBS systems use the DVB-S standard for transmission. With Pay-TV services, the datastream is encrypted and requires proprietary reception equipment. While the underlying reception technology is similar, the Pay-TV technology is proprietary, often consisting of a Conditional Access Module and smart card. DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... A conditional access module (CAM) is an electronic device, usually incorporating a slot for a smart card, which equips a DVB television or set-top box with the appropriate hardware facility to view conditional access content that has been encrypted using a conditional access system. ... Smart card used for health insurance in France. ...


This measure assures satellite television providers that only authorised, paying subscribers have access to Pay TV content but at the same time can allow free-to-air (FTA) channels to be viewed even by the people with standard equipment (DBS receivers without the Conditional Access Modules) available in the market. Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ...


Television receive-only

The term Television receive-only, or TVRO, arose during the early days of satellite television reception to differentiate it from commercial satellite television uplink and downlink operations (transmit and receive). This was before there was a DTH satellite television broadcast industry. Satellite television channels at that time were intended to be used by cable television networks rather than received by home viewers. Satellite TV receiver systems were largely constructed by hobbyists and engineers. These TVRO system operated mainly on the C band frequencies and the dishes required were large; typically over ten feet in diameter. Consequently TVRO is often referred to as "big dish" satellite television. Television receive-only, or TVRO is a term used in North America to refer to the reception of satellite television from FSS-type satellites, generally on C-band analogue; free-to-air and unconnected to a commercial DBS provider. ... A Satellite dish antenna A satellite dish is a type of parabolic reflector antenna designed with the specific purpose of transmitting signals to and/or receiving from satellites. ... C band (compromise band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. ...


TVRO systems are designed to receive analog and digital satellite feeds of both television or audio from both C-band and Ku-band transponders on FSS-type satellites. The higher frequency Ku-band systems tend to be Direct To Home systems and can use a smaller dish antenna because of the higher power transmissions and greater antenna gain. U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... An Ontario Highway 407 toll transponder In telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR, XPNDR or TPDR) has the following meanings: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency (see also broadcast translator). ... Fixed Service Satellite (or FSS), is the official classification for geostationary communications satellites used chiefly for broadcast feeds for television and radio stations and networks, as well as for telephony, data communications, and also for direct-to-home (DTH) cable and satellite TV channels (although this role has been somewhat... Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. ...


TVRO systems tend to use larger rather than smaller satellite dish antennas, since it is more likely that the owner of a TVRO system would have a C-band-only setup rather than a Ku band-only setup. Additional receiver boxes allow for different types of digital satellite signal reception, such as DVB/MPEG-2 and 4DTV. 4DTV is the name of the digital TVRO communications satellite receiver box manufactured by Motorola. ...


The narrow beam width of a normal parabolic satellite antenna means it can only receive signals from a single satellite at a time. Simulsat is a quasi-parabolic satellite earthstation antenna that is capable of receiving satellite transmissions from 35 or more C- and Ku-band satellites simultaneously. Simulsat is a quasi-parabolic satellite earthstation antenna that is capable of receiving satellite transmissions from 35 or more C and Ku Band satellites simultaneously. ...


Satellite television by continent and country

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Africa

South African-based Multichoice's DStv is the main digital satellite television provider in sub-Saharan Africa, broadcasting principally in English, but also in Portuguese, German and Afrikaans. Canal Horizons, owned by France's Canal+, is the main provider in French-speaking Africa. Another entrant into the satellite television circuit in Africa is MyTvAfrica, a subsidiary of Dubai based Strong Technologies. Satellite television has been far more successful in Africa than cable, primarily because the infrastructure for cable television does not exist and would be expensive to install since majority of Africans cannot afford paid cable television. Furthermore, maintaining a cable network is expensive due to the need to cover larger and more sparsely populated areas though there are some terrestrial pay-TV and MMDS services. M-Net (originally an abbreviation for Electronic Media Network) is a subscription-funded television channel in South Africa, established in 1986 by a consortium of newspaper companies. ... Digital Satellite Television (also known as DStv) is MultiChoices multi-channel digital satellite TV service in Africa, launched in 1995. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Canal+ (Canal Plus, meaning Channel Plus/More in French) is a French premium pay television channel launched in 1984. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Multichannel multipoint distribution service, also known as MMDS or wireless cable, is a wireless telecommunications technology, used for general-purpose broadband networking or, more commonly, as an alternative method of cable television programming reception. ...


GTV GTV, a British-based company, has become the second in sub-saharan Africa providing digital satellite television with the focus first on Kenya Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Congo ETC.


HITV

HiTV a new satellite tv company in Nigeria on eutelsat w4.11900h27500. High Televison (also known as HiTV) is Entertainment Highways multi-channel digital satellite TV service in Nigeria, launched in 2006. ...


The Americas

Canada

See also: Multichannel television in Canada

In Canada, the two legal DBS services available are Bell Canada’s ExpressVu and StarChoice. The CRTC has refused to license American satellite services, but nonetheless hundreds of thousands (up to a million by some estimates) of Canadians access or have accessed American services [2] — usually these services have to be billed to an American address and are paid for in U.S. dollars. Whether such activity is grey market or black market is the source of often heated debate between those who would like greater choice and those who argue that the protection of Canadian firms and Canadian culture is more important. The vast majority of Canadians now receive their television service through some sort of multichannel television platform, such as cable television or satellite television, as opposed to an antenna-based system providing only conventional stations. ... Bell Canada Enterprises (TSX: BCE, NYSE: BCE), legally BCE Inc. ... Bell ExpressVu is the division of Bell Canada which sells digital television services in Canada. ... StarChoice is Canadas second direct broadcast satellite television distributor (the other being Bell ExpressVu), and is majority-owned by cable TV operator Shaw Communications Inc. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... USD redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


In October 2004, Quebec judge Danièle Côté ruled Canada's Radiocommunication Act to be in direct violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, insofar as it bans reception of unlicensed foreign television services. The judgment gave the federal government a one-year deadline to remedy this breach of the Constitution. However, this contradicts prior Supreme Court of Canada decisions and, at last word in late 2004, was expected to be appealed. [citation needed] This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Radiocommunication Act is an Act of Parliament respecting radiocommunication in Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ...


In addition, Canadian satellite providers continue to be plagued by the unquestionably black market devices which "pirate" or "steal" their signals as well as by a number of otherwise completely lawful devices which can be reprogrammed to receive pirate TV. Pirate decryption most often refers to the reception of compromised Pay TV or pay radio signals without authorisation from the original broadcaster. ...


One cable TV CEO (Karl Péladeau of Québecor, which owns Vidéotron) is on public record as demanding conditions be placed on the CRTC license issued to Bell ExpressVu, due to BEV’s reputation for vastly inferior security compared to its cable rivals and Shaw Cable–owned StarChoice. Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (and often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio waves transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in... ... Vidéotron Limited is an integrated communications company active in cable television, interactive multimedia development, video on demand, wireless communication and Internet access services, serving Quebec, Canada. ... Bell ExpressVu is the division of Bell Canada Enterprises that provides satellite television service across Canada. ... Shaw is Canadas second largest cable television operator, after Rogers Communications. ...


Although there are no official statistics, the use of American satellite services in Canada appears to be declining as of 2004.


Some would claim that this is probably due to a combination of increasingly aggressive police enforcement and an unfavourable exchange rate between the Canadian and U.S. currencies. As the U.S. dollar has been declining as of 2005 versus other international currencies, the decline in DirecTV viewership in Canada may well be related not to a cost difference as much as to the series of smart card swaps which have rendered the first three generations of DirecTV access cards (F, H and HU) all obsolete. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Latin America

Latin America’s main satellite system are SKY Latin America, which has approximately 1.4 million subscribers in each of Brazil and Mexico and DirecTV Latin America, which provides service to the rest of the Americas, with a total of approximately 1.3 million subscribers. Pay-TV is not popular among Latin American because fees are expensive in PPP terms. SKY Latin America is two closely related pay-TV providers, one based in Mexico, the other in Brazil. ... A standard DirecTV satellite dish with 1 LNB on a roof DirecTV (trademarked as DIRECTV) is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service based in El Segundo, California, USA, that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America except for Mexico. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ...


The service offered in Brazil includes Digital TV with full Dolby Digital surround support, mts and multiple subtitle options, a first for the Brazilian market. A recent update to Sky's services in Brazil is Sky+ which allows the customer to record a program while watching another one, this service is however very expensive resulting in very few clients subscribing to this add-on.


United States

Currently, there are two primary satellite television services available to United States consumers: Dish Network and DirecTV. DISH Network is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that provides satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the United States, owned by parent company EchoStar Communications Corporation. ... A standard DirecTV satellite dish with 1 LNB on a roof DirecTV (trademarked as DIRECTV) is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service based in El Segundo, California, USA, that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America except for Mexico. ...


Over the past three decades, various U.S. satellite services have come and gone or combined to form the current primary services. In 1975 RCA created Satcom 1, the first satellite built especially for use by the then three national television networks (CBS, NBC, and ABC). Later that same year, HBO leased a transponder on Satcom 1 and began transmission of television programs via satellite to cable systems. Owners of cable systems paid $10,000 to install 3-meter dishes to receive TV signal in C-band. In 1976 Taylor Howard built an amateur system, which consisted of a converted military surplus radar dish and a satellite receiver designed and built by Howard, for home satellite reception. Taylor's system could be used for receiving TV programs both from American and Soviet communication satellites. In 1977 Pat Robertson launched the first satellite-delivered basic cable service called the CBN Cable Network. RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... Satcom 1 was an American communications satellite operated by RCA Americom and launched on December 13, 1975. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... This article is about the television network. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... C band (compromise band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. ... Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ... ABC Family is an American cable television network currently owned by Disney-ABC Television Group, a division of The Walt Disney Company. ...


USSB was a direct-to-home service founded in 1981. In the early 1990's they partnered with Hughes and continued operation until purchased in 1998 by DirecTV. United States Satellite Broadcasting was a satellite television company that ran from 1981 to 1998. ... Hughes Electronics Corporation was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to General Motors for $5 billion. ...


In 1991 Primestar launched as the first North American DBS service. Hughes’s DirecTV, the first national high-powered upper Ku-band DBS system, went online in 1994. The DirecTV system became the new delivery vehicle for USSB. News Corporation currently holds a 38% stake, which it is in the process of selling to Liberty Media. In 1996, EchoStar’s Dish Network went online in the United States and has gone on to similar success as DirecTV’s primary competitor. The AlphaStar service launched in 1996 and went into bankruptcy in 1997. Dominion Video Satellite Inc's Sky Angel also went online in the United States in 1996 with its DBS service geared toward the faith and family market. Sky Angel uses Echostar receivers. Primestar sold its assets to Hughes in 1999 and switched off. PrimeStar is a now-defunct U.S. direct broadcast satellite organization formed in 1991. ... EchoStar Communications Corporation (NASDAQ: DISH) is the parent company of DISH Network and the maintainer of the satellite fleet that provides the signal that DISH Network markets. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Sky Angel is a multi-channel, direct-to-home satellite television and radio service that specializes in Christian and family-friendly programming. ...


In 2004, Cablevision’s Voom service went online, specifically catering to the emerging market of HDTV owners and aficionados, but folded in April 2005. The service’s “exclusive” high-definition channels are currently being migrated to the Dish Network system. Commercial DBS services are the primary competition to cable television service, although the two types of service have significantly different regulatory requirements (for example, cable television has public access requirements, and the two types of distribution have different regulations regarding carriage of local stations). For other uses, see Cablevision (disambiguation). ... The VOOM logo Voom was a direct broadcast satellite television provider serving the United States. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... Look up public access television in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

90cm multiple-LNA toroidal satellite dish
90cm multiple-LNA toroidal satellite dish

The majority of ethnic-language broadcasts in North America are carried on Ku band free-to-air. The largest concentration of ethnic programming is on Galaxy 25 at 97° W. Pittsburgh International Telecommunications and GlobeCast World TV offers a mix of free and pay-TV ethnic channels in the internationally-standard DVB-S format, as do others. Home2US Communications Inc. also offers several ethnic channels on AMC-4 at 101° W, as well as other free and pay-TV channels. Several U.S.-English language network affiliates (representing CBS, NBC, ABC, PBS, FOX, the CW (formerly the WB and UPN), ION Network and MyNetworkTV) are available as free-to-air broadcasts, as are the three U.S.-Spanish language networks (Univisión, Telefutura and Telemundo). The number of free-to-air specialty channels is otherwise rather limited. Specific FTA offerings tend to appear and disappear rather often and typically with little or no notice, although sites such as LyngSat do track the changing availability of both free and pay channels worldwide. Download high resolution version (1323x1895, 67 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1323x1895, 67 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Galaxy 25 (G-25), formerly known as Intelsat Americas 5 (IA-5) (formerly Telstar 5) is a medium-powered communications satellite in the Clarke orbit at 97 degrees west, above a point in the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles west of the Galapagos Islands. ... Globecast World TV, a division of France Telecom, is a direct-to-home provider of free-to-air and Nagravision-encrypted ethnic television and audio channels via the Intelsat Americas 5 satellite. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Does not meet WP:CORP If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... PBS redirects here. ... FOX redirects here. ... “The CW” redirects here. ... The Warner Bros. ... UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) was a television network in over 200 markets in the United States. ... ION Television is a broadcast and cable television network first broadcast on August 31, 1998 under the name PAX TV (early on in its development, it was called PaxNet). ... MyNetworkTV (sometimes written My Network TV, and unofficially abbreviated MyNet, MyTV, MNT, or MNTV) is a television network in the United States, owned by News Corporation. ... This redirect page is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... TeleFutura is a U.S. Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by Univision with headquarters in Miami, Florida. ... Telemundo is an American television network based in Hialeah, Florida. ...


Asia

Bangladesh

There are several satellite providers in Bangladesh. The main ones are listed below:

  1. Bangla Vision
  2. NTV
  3. RTV
  4. ATN Bangla
  5. Channel I
  6. Channel 1
  7. Boishaki TV
  8. ETV
  9. DESH TV
  10. Digonto
  11. Islamic TV
  12. STVUS

The name NTV is used by several television broadcasters throughout the world: Nippon Television (Nittele) - Shiodome, Tokyo, Japan NTV (CJON-TV) - St. ... RTV can mean: room temperature vulcanization, such as with silicone rubber, using a chemical instead of heat radio-television, such as with national broadcasting companies like RTV Belgium REDtv. ... ATN Bangla is a Bengali language digital cable television channel. ... Channel I is a privately-owned Television network in Bangladesh. ... In North America, channel 1 is a former broadcast (over-the-air) television channel (44-50 MHz, with visual at 45. ... ETV may stand for: Television stations or networks ETV (South Carolina Educational Television), South Carolina’s statewide network of 11 public television stations, eight public radio stations and a closed-circuit educational telecommunications system in more than 2000 schools, colleges, businesses, and government agencies. ...

India

India has the indigenously built INSAT series satellites from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) along with some private operators [3]. INSAT 4A, INSAT-2E, INSAT-3C and INSAT-3E carry multiple channels for Indian television viewers.1. Netherlands-based SES Global-owned NSS 6, Thaicom-2 and Telstar 10 are the other major private satellites over India. Notable service providers offering a bouquet of multiple channels are state-owned Doordarshan, News Corporation owned STAR TV, Sony owned Sony Entertainment Television and Zee TV. Image taken by INSAT 2-E Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) is a series of multipurpose satellites launched by ISRO for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, and search and rescue services. ... The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... NSS-6 is communications satellite owned by New Skies Satellites. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: , LSE: NCRA) is an American media conglomerate company and one of the worlds largest. ... Star TV can refer to the following: Star TV (Ukraine): An electronic/club music channel in Ukraine Star TV (Turkey): A general entertainment channel in Turkey Star TV (Tanzania): A television station in Tanzania STAR TV (Asia): An Asian satellite service owned by News Corporation Startv (Canada): A Canadian weekly... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Sony Entertainment Television is the name of two cable television channels available in Latin America and India, both owned by Sony. ... Zee TV is an India-based satellite television channel in the Zee Network umbrella, which carries broadcasts in Hindi, Urdu, and other regional languages of India. ...


DD Direct Plus, DishTV and Tata Sky are the three major commercial service providers of Satellite Television in India. Sun Tv has also entered into the Commercial service provider of Satellite TV in India, DD Direct Plus is a Free direct to home (DTH) service that provides satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the Indian subcontinent, owned by parent company Doordarshan. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Tata Sky is a DTH satellite television provider in India. ...


Malaysia

Astro's "mini-dish".
Astro's "mini-dish".

Malaysia's sole satellite television operator, Measat Broadcast Network Systems (a subsidiary of Astro All Asia Networks plc) launched Astro in 1996. It currently holds exclusive rights from the Malaysian government to offer satellite television broadcasting services in the country through the year 2017. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1087 KB)Image of an Astro satellite dish which was taken myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1087 KB)Image of an Astro satellite dish which was taken myself. ... Astro All Asia Networks plc is a Malaysia-based investment holding company and provides management services to its subsidiaries. ... Astro is a subscription-based direct broadcast satellite (DBS) or direct-to-home satellite television and radio service initially in Malaysia, but has expanded to Brunei and Indonesia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Japan

The medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purposes (BSE) was planned by Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MOPT) and developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) since 1974. After that, the first Japanese experimental broadcasting satellite, called BSE or Yuri, was launched in 1978. NHK started experimental broadcasting of TV program using BS-2a satellite on May, 1984. NASDA was the National Space Development Agency of Japan. ... // Yuri is a given name in several languages: Yuri (Russian: Юрий, alternatively spelled Yury, Yuriy, Yurii or Iouri) is a Russian masculine given name. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ...


The satellite BS-2a was launched in preparation for the start of full scale 2-channel broadcasts. Broadcasting Satellite BS-2a was the first national DBS (direct broadcasting satellite), transmitting signals directly into the home of TV viewers. Attitude control of the satellite was conducted using the 3 axial method (zero momentum), and design life was 5 years. The TV transponder units are designed to sufficiently amplify transmitted signals to enable reception by small, 40 or 60 cm home-use parabolic antennas. The satellite was equipped with 3 TV transponders (including reserve units). However, one transponder malfunctioned 2 months after launch (March 23, 1984) and a second transponder malfunctioned 3 months after launch (May 3, 1984). So, the scheduled satellite broadcasting had to be hastily adjusted to test broadcasting on a single channel. Broadcasting Satellite or BS is a common name of Japanese communication satellites. ... The acronym DBS may stand for the following, depending on context: Aston Martin DBS – an automobile model of the Aston Martin brand Aston Martin DBS V12 – an automobile model of the Aston Martin brand DBS Bank – the largest bank in South East Asia, based in Singapore Death by Stereo – an... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ...


Later, NHK started regular service (NTSC) and experimental HDTV broadcasting using BS-2b on June, 1989. Some Japanese producers of home electronic consumer devices began to deliver TVsets, VCRs and even home acoustic systems equipped by built-in satellite tuners or receivers. Such electronic goods had a specific BS logo. NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... A tuner is a device to adjust the resonant frequency of an antenna or transmission line to work most efficiently at one frequency or band of frequencies. ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ... BS, Bs or bs is an abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Bachelor of Science degree Backspace and the backspace control character in the C0 control code set Backstab, often used in video games with the phrase no bs (no backstabbing) to deter people who would attack their own allies Bahamas...


On April, 1991, Japanese company JSB started pay TV service while BS-3 communication satellite was in use. In 1996 total number of households that receive satellite broadcasting exceeded 10 million. JSB is a TLA that can stand for: John Seely Brown, an US researcher in organizations and computing JumpShot Basketball, an online text-based game A Japanese pay-TV operator Category: ...


The modern two satellite systems in use in Japan are BSAT and JCSAT; the modern WOWOW Broadcasting Satellite digital service uses BSAT satellites, while other system of digital TV broadcasting SKY PerfecTV! uses JCSAT satellites. WOWOW was the first private satellite broadcasting and pay TV station in Japan. ... Broadcasting Satellite or BS is a common name of Japanese communication satellites. ... SKY Perfect Communications Inc. ...


Pakistan

Most Pakistani Channels use uplink services in Dubai Media City. Satellite TV in Pakistan is mainly provided through cable operators using decoders and set top boxes. Satellite channels include PTV world, HUM TV a channel of Eye TV, Geo TV, Indus Network and ARY network among others are AAJ , ANAS TV and etc. Geo TV or GEO Television is an Urdu Pakistani television network that was established in May 2002 and officially began transmission in October 2002. ... AAJ is a three letter abbreviation (TLA) for All About Jazz Categories: TLAs ...


Europe

Continental Western Europe

In Europe, DBS satellite services are found mainly on Astra satellites and Hotbird (operated by Eutelsat.) BSkyB (known as Sky) serves the UK. Sky Italia, Canal Digitaal and UPC being the main providers in Italy, the Netherlands and Central Europe. SES Astra SA, is a corporate subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that owns and operates the Astra series of geostationary satellites, which transmit approximately 1100 analogue and digital television and radio channels via 176 transponders to 91 million households across Europe. ... Hot Bird is the common name of a family of 5 satellites operated by Eutelsat, located at 13 degrees East over the Equator (orbital position) and transmitting in free-to-air towards 98 million households in Europe, North Africa &, the Middle East. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB — formerly two companies, Sky Television and BSB) is a company that operates Sky Digital, a subscription television service in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. ... SKY Italia is an Italian digital satellite television platform owned by News Corporation. ... A Dutch satellite broadcaster. ... United Pan-Europe Communications N.V. (UPC) also provides satellite television services across Europe and cable television in the Netherlands and Slovakia. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


The overall market share of DBS satellite services in 2004 was 21.4% of all TV homes, however this highly varies from country to country. For example, in Germany, with many free-to-air TV-stations, DBS market share is almost 40%, and in Belgium and the Netherlands, it’s only about 7%, due to the widespread cable networks with exclusive content. Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ...


Russian Federation

The first Soviet communication satellite, called Molniya, was launched in 1965. By November, 1967 the national system of satellite television, called Orbita was deployed. The system consisted of 3 highly elliptical Molniya satellites, Moscow-based ground uplink facilities and about 20 downlink stations, located in cities and towns of remote regions of Siberia and Far East. Each station had a 12-meter receiving parabolic antenna and transmitters for re-broadcasting TV signal to local householders. Elliptical may refer to: Ellipse: a shape and mathematical construct Elliptical trainer: an exercise machine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Parabolic antenna is a high-gain, reflector antenna used for radio, television and data communications, and also for radiolocation (RADAR), on the UHF and SHF frequencies. ...


However, a large part of Soviet central regions were still not covered by transponders of Molniya satellites. By 1976 Soviet engineers developed a relatively simple and inexpensive system of satellite television (especially for Central and Northern Siberia). It included geostationary satellites called Ekran equipped with powerful 300 W UHF transponders, a broadcasting uplink station and various simple receiving stations located in various towns and villages of Siberian region. The typical receiving station, also called Ekran, represented itself as a home-use analog satellite receiver equipped with simple Yagi-Uda antenna. Later, Ekran satellites were replaced by more advanced Ekran-M series satellites. In telecommunication, the term transponder (sometimes abbreviated to XPDR or TPDR) has the following meanings: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency. ... A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite whose orbital speed equals the Earths rotational speed. ... Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... Analog transmission is a method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ... A Yagi-Uda antenna. ...


In 1979 Soviet engineers developed Moskva (or Moscow) system of broadcasting and delivering of TV signal via satellites. New type of geostationary communication satellites, called Gorizont, were launched. They were equipped by powerful onboard transponders, so the size of receiving parabolic antennas of downlink stations was reduced to 4 and 2.5 meters (in comparison of early 12- meter dishes of standard orbital downlink stations). Gorizont, (Russian: , Horizon) is a series of 35 Russian geosynchronous communication satellites launched between 1978 and 2000. ...


By 1989 an improved version of Moskva system of satellite television has been called Moskva Global'naya (or Moscow Global). The system included a few geostationary Gorizont and Express type of communication satellites. TV signal from Moscow Global’s satellites could be received in any country of planet except Canada and North-West of the USA. A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ...


Modern Russian satellite broadcasting services based on powerful geostationary buses such as Gals, Express, Yamal and Eutelsat which provide a large quantity of free-to-air television channels to millions of householders. Pay-TV is growing in popularity amongst Russian TV viewers. The NTV Russia news company, owned by Gazprom, broadcasts the NTV Plus package to 560,000 households, reaching over 1.5 million viewers. [4] Gals (French: Chules) is a municipality in the Erlach administrative district of the canton of Bern, Switzerland. ... Yamal (Russian: ) is a communication satellite developed by Gazcom for Russian Direct-To-Home television. ... Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. ... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... NTV, a Russian television channel (HTB in Cyrillic) was a pioneer in the post-Soviet independent television media. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... NTV+ is the brand name for the Russian digital satellite television service from NTV, transmitted from Eutelsats W4 satellite at 36. ...


United Kingdom and Ireland

Sky Digital "mini-dish"
Sky Digital "mini-dish"

The first commercial DBS service in the United Kingdom, Sky Television, was launched in 1989 and used the newly launched ASTRA satellite, providing 4 analogue TV channels. The channels and subsequent VideoCrypt video encryption system used the existing PAL broadcast standard. This gave Sky a distinct advantage over the winner of the UK state DBS licence, BSB. Image File history File links Sky_minidish. ... Image File history File links Sky_minidish. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... Sky Television corporate identity from 1989, maintained by British Sky Broadcasting until 1995 Sky Television plc was a four-channel satellite television service launched by Rupert Murdochs News International on February 5, 1989. ... VideoCrypt is a cryptographic, smartcard-based conditional access television encryption system that scrambles analogue pay-TV signals. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... BSB logo British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) was a company set up in 1986 to provide direct broadcast satellite television services to the United Kingdom. ...


In the following year, after many delays, BSB was launched, broadcasting five channels in D-MAC format and using the EuroCypher video encryption system which was based heavily on the General Instruments VideoCipher system used in the USA. While the BSB system was technologically more advanced than the PAL system and one of the main selling points of the BSB offering was the Squarial, an expensive flat plate antenna and LNB. Sky's system used conventional and cheap dish and LNB technology. BSB logo British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) was a company set up in 1986 to provide direct broadcast satellite television services to the United Kingdom. ... Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC) is a high-definition television transmission standard, originally proposed in 1995 for European HDTV. MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video). ...


The competition between the two companies was fierce and bidding wars over the UK rights to movies. Sky kept costs to a bare minimum, operating from an industrial park in Isleworth just outside of London. BSB had expensive offices in London (Marco Polo House). The two services subsequently merged to form British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) though the new BSkyB was really Sky. The technologically more advanced BSB D-MAC/EuroCypher system was gradually replaced with Sky's VideoCrypt video encryption system. Marco Polo House is a large building at 346 Queenstown Road facing Battersea Park in the London Borough of Wandsworth. ... VideoCrypt is a cryptographic, smartcard-based conditional access television encryption system that scrambles analogue pay-TV signals. ...


In 1994 17% of the group was floated on the London Stock Exchange (with ADRs listed on the New York Stock Exchange), and Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation owns a 35% stake. The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... An American Depositary Receipt (ADR) is how the stock of most foreign companies trades in United States stock markets. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ...


By 1999, following the launch of several more satellites (at 19.2°E by SES Astra, the number of channels had increased to around 60 and BSkyB launched the first subscription-based digital television platform in the UK, offering a range of 300 channels broadcast from the Astra satellites at 28.2°E under the brand name Sky Digital. BSkyB’s analogue service has now been discontinued, with all customers having been migrated to Sky Digital.


Nordic countries

The first satellite service specifically set to the Nordic region was TV3 which launched in 1987. With the launch of Astra 1A, getting the TV3 channel got easier. The first Nordic-specific satellite, Tele-X, was launched in 1989. The services directed at Scandinavia were then scattered among several satellites. In 1993, the former BSB satellites were bought by a Swedish and a Norwegian company, respectively. These two satellites were renamed Thor 1 and Sirius 1, moved to new positions and started broadcasting services intended for people in the Nordic region. With the launch of additional Thor and Sirius satellites later in the 1990s, Astra and other satellites were abandoned by the Nordic services with almost all Nordic satellite television migrating to the Sirius and Thor satellites. TV3 is the largest commercial television channel of Viasat, which is part of the Swedish media company Modern Times Group. ... Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), now SES Astra. ... Tele-X (International Designator: 1989-27A, Catalog Number: 19919) was the first communications satellite serving the Nordic countries. ...


Initially the basic channels were free-to-air. This caused several rights problems since viewers throughout Europe were able to see very much acquired English language programming as well as sports for free on the Nordic channels, although the channels only held broadcasting rights for specific countries. One way of avoiding that was to switch from PAL to the D2MAC standard, hardly used anywhere outside the Nordic region. An unencrypted channel could still be seen in all the Nordic satellite homes, so eventually all channels went encrypted (several of them only being available in one country).


There are two competing satellite services: Canal Digital (Norwegian Telenor) and Viasat (Kinnevik). Canal Digital launched in 1997 and was digital from the start, broadcasting from Thor. Kinnevik had been operating an analogue subscription service since the late 1980s, but waited until the year 2000 before launching a digital service. All analogue services from Thor and Sirius will have ceased in 2006, when the three remaining Danish channels go digital-only. The competition between Viasat and Canal Digital has caused some homes in Scandinavia to have to buy two set-top boxes and have two subscriptions to get the full range of channels. Viasat doesn't provide their own channels (TV3, TV3+, ZTV, TV1000 and the Viasat-branded channels) on the Canal Digital platform. Canal Digital does however have exclusive distribution of channels from SBS Broadcasting, Discovery, TV2 Denmark and Eurosport; for several years the Swedish SVT and TV4 channels were also exclusive to Canal Digital. Canal Digital is a Scandinavian television distributor that was founded in March 1997 as a joint venture between the French pay-TV company Canal+ and the Norwegian state-telecommunications operator Telenor. ... Telenor (OSE: TEL, NASDAQ: TELN) is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway, with headquarters located at Fornebu, close to Oslo. ... Viasat is a DBS distributor and TV broadcaster, owned by the Swedish media conglomerate Modern Times Group. ... Investment AB Kinnevik was established in 1936 by Hugo Stenbeck as an investment company. ... Scandinavian Broadcasting System Broadcasting Group (normally referred to as just SBS) is one of Europe’s leading broadcasting groups, operating commercial television, premium pay channels, radio stations and related print businesses in Western and Central and Eastern Europe. ... Discovery Communications LLC (DCI) is an American global media and entertainment company that began as a single channel, the Discovery Channel, launched in 1985. ... TV 2 is a Danish government-owned television station broadcasting from Odense on Funen. ... Eurosport is the largest European sports satellite and cable network available in 54 countries and broadcasting in 18 different languages. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... TV4 AB (previously known as Nordisk Television AB) is a Swedish media company that owns the largest commercial television channel in Sweden, TV4. ...


Middle East & North Africa

The Middle East has a high penetration of homes receiving TV channels via DTH satellite. One of the pioneers of free-to-air digital satellite television is considered to be MBC, which began broadcasting in c band through Arabsat and is the first network in the world to offer a free-to-air Western based English language movie channel to the Middle East audience via its spinoff channel MBC 2. Its direct rival is considered to be Dubai, UAE based One TV, earlier called Channel 33, which was the first channel in the Middle East to provide English language general entertainment programming for the expatriate community. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... C band (compromise band) is a portion of electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4 to 6 GHz. ... MBC 2 is the first free-to-air to show non-stop movies 24/7. ... Coordinates: , Emirate Government  - Emir Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ... One TV (previously called channel 33 or dubai 33) is Dubai Media Incorporateds 24-hour free-to-air English language entertainment channel available in the Middle East and North Africa, that was launched on December 24, 2004. ...


The first digital DTH pay-TV network to provide Western Entertainment was Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network broadcasting via Arabsat (C band), later on Showtime Arabia a joint venture between Viacom (21% stake) and KIPCO (79% stake) started broadcasting, via PanAmSat (C band), but later switched over to Nilesat (KU band). Arab Radio & Television (ART) now known as Arab Digital Distribution although a late comer, gained ground by broadcasting exclusive sports events. Most of the popular channels are transmitting from these satellites and orbital positions: Arabsat at 26°E, AsiaSat at 100.5°E and 105.5°E, Eutelsat Hot Bird at 13°E, Nilesat at 7°W, and PanAmSat at 68.5°E. Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network was the world’s first fully digital, multi-channel, multi-lingual, pay television service, providing perfect sound and picture quality at all times. ... Arabsat is a satellite built by Aerospatiale. ... Showtime or Showtime Arabia (Gulf DTH F.Z. L.L.C., the operating company behind digital pay TV broadcaster Showtime) as its called to distinguish itself from its U.S. counterpart, is the dominant subscription television service in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Levant territories. ... Viacom (NYSE: VIA) (NYSE: VIAb) is an American media conglomerate with various worldwide interests in cable and satellite television networks (MTV Networks and BET), and movie production and distribution (the Paramount Pictures and DreamWorks movie studios). ... Kuwait Projects Company (Holding), popularly known as KIPCO, is one of the premier investment holding companies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. ... Founded in 1984 by Rene Anselmo, PanAmSat Corporation (NYSE: PA) was a satellite service provider headquartered in Wilton, Connecticut. ... Nilesat is an Egyptian company, and the name of a series of Egyptian communications satellites. ... Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. ... Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. ... Hot Bird or Hotbird is the common name of a family of satellites operated by Eutelsat, located at 13°E over the Equator (orbital position) and with a transmitting footprint over Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. ...


In Israel, Satellite TV services were introduced by YES! company, using Israeli based Amos (satellite). Amos is a name for a series of Israeli communication satellites. ...


Australia

Satellite television in Australia has proven to be a far more feasible option than cable television, due to the vast distances between population centres, although this explanation seems to contradict the rationale behind the relatively high cable television penetration rate in Canada, a country with an even larger distance between population centres and lower population density than Australia. The first service to come online in Australia was Galaxy, which was later taken over by Cable Television giant Foxtel, which now operates both cable and satellite services to all state capital cities (except Darwin and Hobart) and the whole of Western Australia. Its main metropolitan rival was Optus Vision, while rural areas are served by Austar, both of which just rebroadcast Foxtel as of 2005. In 2006 SelecTV began operating, aiming at providing comparatively low cost packages and catering to specialised market segments. Galaxy (a trading name of Australis Media) is a former provider of pay television programming in Australia via satellite and wireless cable (microwave) delivery methods. ... Foxtel is a subscription television company in Australia, formed through a joint venture between Telstra and News Corporation. ... Optus Television is the cable television division of Australian telecommunications company Optus. ... An Austar Remote Austar is an Australian telecommunications company. ... SelecTV is an Australian satellite based subscription television broadcasting service headed by CEO Jim Blomfield (previously CEO of FOXTEL). ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, SKY Network Television offers multichannel digital satellite TV, in addition to its non-digital terrestrial UHF service. The newly released Freeview service is also available on the Optus D1 satellite, with further plans to release a digital terrestrial service in March of 2008. The current FTA service broadcasts all of New Zealand's national free-to-air services with the exception of the Prime channel which is owned by SKY TV. SKY Network Television Limited (ASX: ; NZX: SKT), often trading as SKY, is a New Zealand pay television service. ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... Freeview is a non-profit organisation providing free-to-air digital television and digital radio to New Zealand. ...


References

  1. ^ Robertson, Lloyd. "Anik A1 launching: bridging the gap", CBC English TV, 1972-11-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-25. 

Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Sky Digital mini-dish Astros mini-dish. Special dish for up to 16 satellite positions (Ku-band) Satellite dish antenna for C-Band Satellite Dishes installed on an apartment complex A satellite dish is a type of parabolic antenna designed with the specific purpose of transmitting signals to and... This page is about the radiation; for the appliance, see microwave oven. ... Commercialization of space is the use of outer space for the purpose of generating a profit, either by a corporation or state. ... A Viewsat Xtreme FTA receiver A free-to-air or FTA Receiver is a satellite TV receiver designed solely to receive unencrypted broadcasts. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Satellite television - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3601 words)
The first national network of satellite television, called Orbita, was created in Soviet Union in 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly-elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations.
Satellites used for television signals are generally in either highly-elliptical (with inclination of +/-63.4 degrees and orbital period of about 12 hours) or geostationary orbit 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earth’s equator.
Satellite television in Australia has proven to be a far more feasible option than cable television, due to the vast distances between population centres.
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