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Encyclopedia > Satellite state

Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. The term has been coined by analogy to stellar objects orbiting a larger object, such as planets revolving around the sun, and was initially used to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War. It implied that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. Other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War - such as North Korea (especially in the decades surrounding the Korean War) and Fidel Castro's Cuba (particularly after joining the Comecon) and Israel under US influence - were often labelled satellite states. An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  India  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ...


The term is sometimes used more loosely (and with a less pejorative overtone) to refer to small countries whose foreign policy is aligned with a larger power: the Anglosphere is a good example. A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: one definition (depicted, all in blue) includes two node countries – the United Kingdom and the United States – and five outliers: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa. ...


History

This can occur in many varying ways, most commonly by treaty, military occupation, and/or economic dependence. Client states have existed for millennia as stronger powers made subservient those around them as they grew. In ancient times states such as Persia and Greek Polis' would create client states by making the personal leaders of that state subservient. One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome which, instead of conquering and then absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated, a policy which was continued up until the 1st century BC when imperial power took over. The use of client states continued through the Middle Ages as the feudal system began to take hold, and in a way the entire society was based upon various divisions of a realm being clients to middle level nobility, who in turn were client to the powerful nobility, who were in turn client to the monarch, who, in the case of Catholic states, was often a client of the Pope. Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years and was extinguished by the newly-powerful Christianity. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the domain obtained by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... // Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ...


In modern times, client states have developed based upon imperial possessions of the great European powers of 19th century. These client states were especially obvious during the Cold War as almost the entire world divided based upon being a client state of either the Soviet Union or the United States. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Relationship to "puppet state"

The term "satellite state" is often seen as close in meaning, or even synonymous, with other terms such as "puppet state", which typically have a much more pejorative connotation. However, the precise relationship between the two terms is not always clear; in many instances the practical meaning of the two cannot be distinguished. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... A word or phrase is pejorative if it implies contempt or disapproval. ...


The phrase "puppet state" is used frequently to connote the dependence of small nations on a larger power, especially implying that without necessary support of the larger power the "puppet state" would simply collapse. It was thus a reciprocal effect of the Cold War that the United States and Soviet Union were said to hold many "puppets" - countries with US-supported anti-communist and authoritarian governments such as South Korea and Taiwan. Similarly, Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and support of Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam during the Cold War also exemplified this type of relationship, as well as other contemporary great powers such as Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and many long-gone empires are sometimes said to have acquired or ruled satellites, but terms such as "puppet states" are also commonly found. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem: Kimi Ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military Imperial Japan at its fullest extent during World War II Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912-1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926-1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers...


See also


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