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Encyclopedia > Satellite
A full size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2
A full size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon. A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... Satellite can refer to several ideas: an object that orbits another object, either a natural satellite or an artificial satellite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1494x1445, 754 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Satellite Earth observation satellite European Remote-Sensing Satellite List of Earth observation satellites Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1494x1445, 754 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Satellite Earth observation satellite European Remote-Sensing Satellite List of Earth observation satellites Metadata This file contains additional... European Remote-Sensing satellite (ERS) was the European Space Agencys first Earth-observing satellite. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...

Contents

History

Early conceptions

The first recorded fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit is a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon. The story was serialized in The Atlantic Monthly, starting in 1869.[1][2] The idea surfaces again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Millions (1879). This article is in need of attention. ... Statue of Edward Everett Hale in Boston Public Garden, by Bela Pratt. ... The Brick Moon is a short story by Edward Everett Hale, published serially in The Atlantic Monthly starting in 1869. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the French author. ... The Begums Millions (in the original French Les Cinq cents millions de la Bégum) is a 1879 novel by Jules Verne, with some elements which could be described as utopian and others which seem clearly dystopian. ...


In 1903 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) published Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices), which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit around the Earth at 8 km/s, and that a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid propellants could be used to achieve this. He proposed the use of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, though other combinations can be used. Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский, Konstanty CioÅ‚kowski) (September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of the Russian town of Kaluga. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... The second stage of a Minuteman III rocket // Description A multistage (or multi-stage) rocket is, like any rocket, propelled by the recoil pressure of the burning gases it emits as it burns fuel. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1928 Herman Potočnik (1892–1929) published his sole book, Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-Motor (The Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor), a plan for a breakthrough into space and a permanent human presence there. He conceived of a space station in detail and calculated its geostationary orbit. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for detailed peaceful and military observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments. The book described geostationary satellites (first put forward by Tsiolkovsky) and discussed communication between them and the ground using radio, but fell short of the idea of using satellites for mass broadcasting and as telecommunications relays. Herman Potočnik (pseudonym Hermann Noordung) (December 22, 1892 - August 27, 1929) was a Slovene rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics (astronautics). ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ...


In a 1945 Wireless World article the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008) described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.[3] Clarke examined the logistics of satellite launch, possible orbits and other aspects of the creation of a network of world-circling satellites, pointing to the benefits of high-speed global communications. He also suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet. Wireless World was the preeminent British magazine for radio and electronics enthusiasts. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, Sri Lankabhimanya (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British (lived in Sri Lanka since 1956) science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... ... A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ...


History of artificial satellites

See also: Space Race

The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and that started the whole Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States. Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes // Key: Year - Origin - Target - Status - Description 1957 - Soviet Union - Earth - Success - Sputnik 1 is launched, the first Earth orbiting satellite 1957 - Soviet Union - Earth - Partial success - Sputnik 2 is launched, the first Earth orbiting satellite with an animal (Laika) 1958 - USA - Earth - Success... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Sputnik redirects here. ... Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (December 30, 1906– January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ...


Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Because the satellite's body was filled with pressurized nitrogen, Sputnik 1 also provided the first opportunity for meteoroid detection, as a loss of internal pressure due to meteoroid penetration of the outer surface would have been evident in the temperature data sent back to Earth. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. Air redirects here. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Meteor redirects here. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika.[4] Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ...


In May, 1946, Project RAND had released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century.[5] The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. The United States Air Force's Project RAND eventually released the above report, but did not believe that the satellite was a potential military weapon; rather, they considered it to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program." Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ... The Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship was a 1946 proposal, by Project RAND, for a United States satellite program. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... The Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) was the U.S. Navys material-support organization for Naval Aviation from 1921 to 1959. ... USN redirects here. ... USAF redirects here. ...


On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On July 31, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Vanguard Rocket Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working on Project Orbiter, which involved using a Jupiter C rocket to launch a satellite. The project succeeded, and Explorer 1 became the United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958.[6] The American Rocket Society began life on April 4, 1930, under the name American Interplanetary Society. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. ... Project Orbiter was a proposed spacecraft, an early competitor to Project Vanguard. ... The Jupiter-C Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) was designed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) The vehicle consists of a modified Redstone ballistic missile with three solid-propellant upper stages. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is the International Space Station. ISS redirects here. ...


Space Surveillance Network

The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) has been tracking space objects since 1957 when the Soviets opened the space age with the launch of Sputnik I. Since then, the SSN has tracked more than 26,000 space objects orbiting Earth. The SSN currently tracks more than 8,000 man-made orbiting objects. The rest have re-entered Earth's turbulent atmosphere and disintegrated, or survived re-entry and impacted the Earth. The space objects now orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing several tons to pieces of spent rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds. About seven percent of the space objects are operational satellites (i.e. ~560 satellites), the rest are space debris.[7] USSTRATCOM is primarily interested in the active satellites, but also tracks space debris which upon reentry might otherwise be mistaken for incoming missiles. The SSN tracks space objects that are 10 centimeters in diameter (baseball size) or larger. // Space surveillance is a critical part of United States Strategic Commands (USSTRATCOM) mission and involves detecting, tracking, cataloging and identifying man-made objects orbiting Earth, i. ... Space debris or orbital debris, also called space junk and space waste, are the objects in orbit around Earth created by man that no longer serve any useful purpose. ... United States Strategic Command is one of the unified commands of the United States Department of Defense which controls the nuclear weapons assets of the United States military. ...


Non-Military Satellite Services

There are three basic categories of non-military satellite services:[8]


Fixed Satellite Service

Fixed satellite services handle hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmission tasks across all countries and continents between certain points on the earth’s surface


Mobile Satellite Systems

Mobile satellite systems help connect remote regions, vehicles, ships and aircraft to other parts of the world and/or other mobile or stationary communications units, in addition to serving as navigation systems


Scientific Research Satellite (commercial and noncommercial)

Scientific research satellites provide us with meteorological information, land survey data (e.g., remote sensing), and other different scientific research applications such as earth science, marine science, and atmospheric research.


Types

MILSTAR: A communication satellite
MILSTAR: A communication satellite

File links The following pages link to this file: Communications satellite Military Strategic and Tactical Relay satellite Categories: United States government images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Communications satellite Military Strategic and Tactical Relay satellite Categories: United States government images ... MILSTAR satellite. ... A space observatory is any object in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. ... A biosatellite is an artificial satellite designed to carry life in space. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... Molniya orbit is a class of a highly elliptic orbit with inclination of +/-63. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Miniaturized satellites are recent artificial satellites of unusually low weights and small sizes, new classifications are used to categorieze these satellites. ... For the global navigation satellite system operated by Russia, see GLONASS. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. ... A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. ... MyTravel Airways Airbus A320 landing Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... The Space Tether idea started as just a thought during the late 1800’s then progressed to lofty ideas in the 60’s that forced NASA to step in and put control on the field in the 70’s. ... A tether is a cord that anchors something, such as an animal, to something else, such as a pole. ... GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ...

Orbit types

Main article: List of orbits
Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).
Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).

The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit. By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 2456 artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, inclination and eccentricity. The following is a list of types of orbits: // Box orbit Circular orbit Ecliptic orbit Elliptic orbit Highly Elliptical Orbit Graveyard orbit Hohmann transfer orbit Hyperbolic trajectory Inclined orbit Osculating orbit Parabolic trajectory Capture orbit Escape orbit Semi-synchronous orbit Subsynchronous orbit Synchronous orbit Geocentric orbit Geosynchronous orbit Geostationary orbit... GPS redirects here. ... ISS redirects here. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ...


The commonly used altitude classifications are Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and High Earth Orbit (HEO). Low Earth orbit is any orbit below 2000 km, and Medium Earth Orbit is any orbit higher than that but still below the altitude for geosynchronous orbit at 35786 km. High Earth Orbit is any orbit higher than the altitude for geosynchronous orbit. A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Intermediate circular orbit (ICO), also called medium earth orbit (MEO), is used by satellites between the altitudes of low earth orbit (up to 1400 km) and geostationary orbit (ca. ... A High Earth Orbit is a geocentric orbit whose apogee lies above that of a geosynchronous orbit (35,786 km)[1]. Highly Elliptical Orbits are generally considered to be a subset of High Earth Orbits. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ...


Centric classifications

For the series of books, see Galactic Center Saga. ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Sol redirects here. ... For the series of books, see Galactic Center Saga. ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... A heliocentric orbit is an orbit around the sun. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... Comet Hale-Bopp, showing a white dust tail and blue gas tail (February 1997) A comet is a small astronomical object similar to an asteroid but composed largely of ice. ... Asteroids is a popular vector-based video arcade game released in 1979 by Atari. ... Space debris or orbital debris, also called space junk and space waste, are the objects in orbit around Earth created by man that no longer serve any useful purpose. ... The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... A heliocentric orbit is an orbit around the sun. ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... An orbit is an object that rotates around a normally, larger object BTW, Kerwin Abinoka is a wannabe prefect for Partician Brothers in Blacktown. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Orbits of Phobos and Deimos (to scale), seen from above Mars north pole The size of Phobos and Deimos contrasted with a hemisphere of Mars (1 pixel = ~10km). ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ...

Altitude classifications

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Intermediate circular orbit (ICO), also called medium earth orbit (MEO), is used by satellites between the altitudes of low earth orbit (up to 1400 km) and geostationary orbit (ca. ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Intermediate circular orbit (ICO), also called medium earth orbit (MEO), is used by satellites between the altitudes of low earth orbit (up to 1400 km) and geostationary orbit (ca. ... A High Earth Orbit is a geocentric orbit whose apogee lies above that of a geosynchronous orbit (35,786 km)[1]. Highly Elliptical Orbits are generally considered to be a subset of High Earth Orbits. ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...

Inclination classifications

A geostationary orbit occurs when an object (satellite) is placed 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the Earths equator with the characteristic that, from a fixed observation point on the Earths surface, it appears motionless. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary rotating sphere of gigantic radius, concentric with the Earth. ... A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet orbiting on each revolution. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ... A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet orbiting on each revolution. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shadows on pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ...

Eccentricity classifications

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a circular orbit is an elliptic orbit with the eccentricity equal to 0. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that, under standard assumption, moves a spacecraft from one circular orbit to another using two engine impulses. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a circular orbit is an elliptic orbit with the eccentricity equal to 0. ... For other uses, see Impulse (disambiguation). ... Walter Hohmann (March 18, 1880 - March 11, 1945) was a German engineer who made an important contribution to the understanding of orbital dynamics. ... Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ... Molniya orbit is a class of a highly elliptic orbit with inclination of +/-63. ... Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Tundra orbit is a class of a highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63. ... Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a hyperbolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity greater than 1. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Infinity is a word carrying a number of different meanings in mathematics, philosophy, theology and everyday life. ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... Look up kinematics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a hyperbolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity greater than 1. ... An escape orbit (also known as C3 = 0 orbit) is the high-energy parabolic orbit around the central body. ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... A capture orbit is the high-energy parabolic orbit that allows the capture other than crashing directly to the central bodys surface (or atmospheric re_entry). ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is an orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ...

Synchronous classifications

A synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an orbiting body (usually a satellite) has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited (usually a planet), and in the same direction of rotation as that body. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... In astronomy, a rotation period is the time an astronomical object takes to complete one revolution around its rotation axis. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... This article is about the unit of time, angle and right ascension. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... Theoretical rendering of the analemma, looking east in the northern hemisphere. ... Semi-Synchronous Orbit (SSO): An orbit with approximately a 12-hour period. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... Theoretical rendering of the analemma, looking east in the northern hemisphere. ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... A geostationary orbit (abbreviated GEO) is a circular orbit in the Earths equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earths rotation. ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, Sri Lankabhimanya (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British (lived in Sri Lanka since 1956) science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to... Super synchronous orbit is very similar to synchronous orbit, except that the satellite moves slowly west due to its distance from the Earth. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Unsurprisingly similar to synchronous orbit, this orbit is at a slightly different distance from the Earth, resulting in the satellite drifting slowly eastward. ... A graveyard orbit is an orbit where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. ... A geosynchronous orbit is a geocentric orbit that has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. ... A graveyard orbit is an orbit where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... A graveyard orbit is an orbit where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. ... A graveyard orbit is an orbit where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... A graveyard orbit is an orbit where spacecraft are intentionally placed at the end of their operational life. ... Areosynchronous orbits are class of synchronous orbits for artificial satellites around the planet Mars. ... A synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an orbiting body (usually a satellite) has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited (usually a planet), and in the same direction of rotation as that body. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... Hours is the name of the critically acclaimed second album by Welsh rock group Funeral for a Friend. ... An areostationary orbit (abbreviated ASO) is a circular areo­synchronous orbit in the Martian equatorial plane 11,000 km above the surface, any point on which revolves about Mars in the same direction and with the same period as the Martian surface. ... A circular may be: the adjective form of circle an advertisement which is circulated a Pastoral letter, Encyclic, or Papal bull that is circulated between churches a circular argument is a term for a type of logical fallacy where the very thing that is trying to be proved is assumed... Areosynchronous orbits are class of synchronous orbits for artificial satellites around the planet Mars. ... In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary rotating sphere of gigantic radius, concentric with the Earth. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ... A heliocentric orbit is an orbit around the sun. ... Sol redirects here. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... A gigametre (American spelling: gigameter) (symbol: Gm) is a unit of length equal to 109 metres. ... Look up Au, au in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the planet. ...

Special classifications

By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ... Solar time is based on the idea that when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, it is noon. ... Imaging refers to the science of obtaining pictures or more complicated spatial representations, such as animations or 3-D computer graphics models, from physical things. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a elliptic orbit is an orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1. ... A geostationary orbit occurs when an object (satellite) is placed 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the Earths equator with the characteristic that, from a fixed observation point on the Earths surface, it appears motionless. ...

Pseudo-orbit classifications

A horseshoe orbit is the type of orbit you get when you observe an object from another nearly co-orbital object, such as a planet. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Co-orbital satellites are satellites that share the same mean orbit. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... 3753 Cruithne (pronounced , Modern Irish ) is an asteroid in orbit around the Sun. ... Asteroid 2002 AA29 (also written 2002 AA29) is a near-Earth asteroid discovered in January 2001 by the LINEAR asteroid survey. ... An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) in the general sense is a spaceflight where the trajectory of a spacecraft reaches the height of, and through having an appropriate velocity enters into, orbit around an astronomical body. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight where the spacecraft trajectory intersects the atmosphere and thus does not enter a stable orbit. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) in the general sense is a spaceflight where the trajectory of a spacecraft reaches the height of, and through having an appropriate velocity enters into, orbit around an astronomical body. ... In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that, under standard assumption, moves a spacecraft from one circular orbit to another using two engine impulses. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... By analogy with the geosynchronous orbit, a heliosynchronous orbit is a heliocentric orbit of radius 24. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... This article is about retrograde motion. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... A halo orbit is an orbit around a Lagrange point between two larger bodies. ... In orbital mechanics, a Lissajous orbit is a quasi-periodic orbital trajectory an object can follow around a colinear libration point of a two-body system without requiring any propulsion. ... A contour plot of the effective potential (the Hills Surfaces) of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ...

Satellite Modules

The satellite’s functional versatility is imbedded within its technical components and its operations characteristics. Looking at the “anatomy” of a satellite, one discovers two modules.[8]


Spacecraft bus or service module

This first module consist of five subsystems:

  • The Structural Subsystems

The structural subsystem provides the mechanical base structure, shields the satellite from extreme temperature changes and micro-meteorite damage, and controls the satellite’s spin functions.

  • The Telemetry Subsystems

The telemetry subsystem monitors the on-board equipment operations, transmits equipment operation data to the earth control station, and receives the earth control station’s commands to perform equipment operation adjustments.

  • The Power Subsystems

The power subsystem consists of solar panels and backup batteries that generate power when the satellite passes into the earth’s shadow.

  • The Thermal Control Subsystems

The thermal control subsystem helps protect electronic equipment from extreme temperatures due to intense sunlight or the lack of sun exposure on different sides of the satellite’s body

  • The Attitude and Orbit Controlled Control Subsystems

The attitude and orbit controlled subsystem consists of small rocket thrusters that keep the satellite in the correct orbital position and keep antennas positioning in the right directions.


Communication Payload

The second major module is the communication payload, which is made up of transponders. A transponders is capable of :

  • Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth satellite transmission stations (antennas).
  • Amplifying received radio signals
  • Sorting the input signals and directing the output signals through input/output signal multiplexers to the proper downlink antennas for retransmission to earth satellite receiving stations (antennas).

Launch-capable countries - space powers

This list includes countries with an independent capability to place satellites in orbit, including production of the necessary launch vehicle. Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites — which relatively speaking, does not require much economic, scientific and industrial capacity — but are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services. This list does not consider those numerous countries, but only lists those capable of launching satellites indigenously, and the date this capability was first demonstrated. Does not include consortium satellites or multi-national satellites. This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ...

First launch by country
Country Year of first launch First satellite
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union 1957 Sputnik 1
Flag of the United States United States 1958 Explorer 1
Flag of Canada Canada 1962 Alouette 1
Flag of France France 1965 Astérix
Flag of Japan Japan 1970 Osumi
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 1970 Dong Fang Hong I
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 1971 Prospero X-3
Flag of India India 1981 Rohini
Flag of Israel Israel 1988 Ofeq 1

Both North Korea (1998) and Iraq (1989) have claimed orbital launches (satellite and warhead accordingly), but these claims are unconfirmed. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alouette 1 was Canadas first satellite, and the first satellite operated by a country other than the USSR or the United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Astérix, the first French satellite, was launched on November 26, 1965 by a rocket of type Diamant A from Hammaguir in Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Osumi (or Ohsumi) satellite. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Dong Fang Hong I (东方红一号), also known as China 1, was the Peoples Republic of Chinas first successful space satellite, launched on April 24, 1970 as part of the PRCs Dong Fang Hong space satellite program. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Prospero X-3 satellite (official designation 05580 / 71093A) was the only satellite to be launched by a British rocket. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Rohini is the name given to a series of satellites launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ofeq 5 Ofeq, also spelled Offek or Ofek (Hebrew: אופק, Horizon) is the designation of a series of Israeli reconnaissance satellites. ...


In addition to the above, countries such as South Africa, Spain, Italy, West Germany, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Egypt and private companies such as OTRAG, have developed their own launchers, but have not had a successful launch. OTRAG (German: Orbital Transport und Raketen AG, or Orbital Transport and Rockets, Inc. ...


As of 2008, only seven countries from list above ( Russia and Ukraine instead of USSR, also USA, Japan, China, India, and Israel) and one regional organization (the European Space Agency, ESA) have independently launched satellites on their own indigenously developed launch vehicles. (The launch capabilities of the United Kingdom and France now fall under the ESA.) State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... ESA redirects here. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ...


Also, one international private company (Sea Launch) demonstrates launch capability through their purchase of Ukrainian–Russian launchers. Some of other companies plans to begin operate the launchers and launch systems in near future. Sea Launch command ship Sea Launch Commander Sea Launch is a spacecraft launch service that uses a mobile sea platform for equatorial launches of commercial payloads on specialized Zenit 3SL rockets. ...


Several other countries, including South Korea, Iran, Brazil, Pakistan, Romania, Kazakhstan, Australia, Malaysia and Turkey, are at various stages of development of their own small-scale launcher capabilities, and seek membership in the club of space powers.


It is scheduled that in early 2008 South Korea will launch a KSLV rocket (created with assistance of Russia) and become the next space power. Iran already has successfully tested its own space launch vehicle (Kavoshgar 1) and is scheduled to put its first domestic satellite (Omid 1) into orbit within a year from February 4, 2008. It is expected that Brazil and Pakistan will follow in the near future..[citation needed] The Korea Space Launch Vehicle will be the first space launcher of South Korea. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

First launch by country including help of other parties[12]
Country Year of first launch First satellite Payloads in orbit in 2008[13]
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union 1957 Sputnik 1 1398
Flag of the United States United States 1958 Explorer 1 1042
Flag of Canada Canada 1962 Alouette 1 25
Flag of Italy Italy 1964 San Marco 1 14
Flag of France France 1965 Astérix 44
Flag of Australia Australia 1967 WRESAT 11
Flag of Germany Germany 1969 Azur 27
Flag of Japan Japan 1970 Osumi 111
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 1970 Dong Fang Hong I 64
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 1971 Prospero X-3 25
Flag of Poland Poland 1973 Intercosmos Kopernikus 500  ?
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 1974 ANS 5
Flag of Spain Spain 1974 Intasat 9
Flag of India India 1975 Aryabhata 34
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 1976 Palapa A1 10
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 1978 Magion 1 5
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1981 Intercosmos 22
Flag of Brazil Brazil 1985 Brasilsat A1 11
Flag of Mexico Mexico 1985 Morelos 1 7
Flag of Sweden Sweden 1986 Viking 11
Flag of Israel Israel 1988 Ofeq 1 7
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 1988 Astra 1A 15
Flag of Argentina Argentina 1990 Lusat 10
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 1990 Badr-1 5
Flag of South Korea South Korea 1992 Kitsat A 10
Flag of Portugal Portugal 1993 PoSAT-1 1
Flag of Thailand Thailand 1993 Thaicom 1 6
Flag of Turkey Turkey 1994 Turksat 1B 5
Flag of Chile Chile 1995 FASat-Alfa 1
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 1996 MEASAT 4
Flag of Norway Norway 1997 Thor 2 3
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 1997 Mabuhay 1 2
Flag of Egypt Egypt 1998 Nilesat 101 3
Flag of Denmark Denmark 1999 Ørsted 3
Flag of South Africa South Africa 1999 SUNSAT 1
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 2000 Saudisat 1A 12
Flag of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 2000 Thuraya 1 3
Flag of Algeria Algeria 2002 Alsat 1 1
Flag of Greece Greece 2003 Hellas Sat 2 2
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria 2003 Nigeriasat 1 2
Flag of Iran Iran 2005 Sina-1 1
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 2006 KazSat 1 1
Flag of Colombia Colombia 2007 Libertad 1 1
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 2008 VINASAT-1 1

While Canada was the third country to build a satellite which was launched into space,[14] it was launched aboard a U.S. rocket from a U.S. spaceport. The same goes for Australia, who launched on-board a donated Redstone rocket. The first Italian-launched was San Marco 1, launched on 15 December 1964 on a U.S. Scout rocket from Wallops Island (VA,USA) with an Italian Launch Team trained by NASA.[15] Australia's launch project, in November 1967, involved a donated U.S. missile and U. S. support staff as well as a joint launch facility with the United Kingdom.[16] Kazakhstan claimed to have made their satellite independently, but the satellite was built with Russian help, like Polish and Bulgarian ones earlier..[citation needed] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Alouette 1 was Canadas first satellite, and the first satellite operated by a country other than the USSR or the United States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Astérix, the first French satellite, was launched on November 26, 1965 by a rocket of type Diamant A from Hammaguir in Algeria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wresat (abbreviation for: Weapons Research Establishment Satellite) was the name of the first Australian satellite. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Osumi (or Ohsumi) satellite. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Dong Fang Hong I (东方红一号), also known as China 1, was the Peoples Republic of Chinas first successful space satellite, launched on April 24, 1970 as part of the PRCs Dong Fang Hong space satellite program. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Prospero X-3 satellite (official designation 05580 / 71093A) was the only satellite to be launched by a British rocket. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... East German postage stamp The Intercosmos program was a program by the Soviet Union to allow fellow Socialist nations to participate in space exploration. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Aryabhata was Indias first satellite, named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Palapa was a series of communication satellites owned by Telkom, an Indonesian telecommunication company. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... East German postage stamp The Intercosmos program was a program by the Soviet Union to allow fellow Socialist nations to participate in space exploration. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Vhttp://en. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ofeq 5 Ofeq, also spelled Offek or Ofek (Hebrew: אופק, Horizon) is the designation of a series of Israeli reconnaissance satellites. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), now SES Astra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... PoSAT-1, the first Portuguese satellite, was launched into orbit on September 26, 1993, aboard the Ariane IV rocket. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... In Thailand based Shinawatra Computer and Communications Co. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... FASat-Alfa was to become the first Chilean satellite, and was constructed under a Technology Transfer Program between the Chilean Air Force (FACH) and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) of the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... MEASAT is a satellite launched in 1996. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Nilesat 101 is an Egyptian owned geosynchronous communications satellite. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... The Stellenbosch UNiversity SATellite is the first miniaturized satellite designed and manufactured in Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... A Thuraya satellite phone Thuraya is a regional satellite phone provider, mainly focused on the Europe, Middle East, and Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Sina 1 is Irans first ever satellite. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... KazSat 1, the first Kazakh space satellite, was launched on June 18, 2006. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Libertad 1 (English: Freedom 1) is a single CubeSat built by the Space Program of the Sergio Arboleda University. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Scout launch (NASA) The Scout-rocket was an American rocket for launching small satellites. ...


Attacks on satellites

For more details on this topic, see Anti-satellite weapon .

In recent times satellites have been hacked by militant organisations to broadcast propaganda and to pilfer classified information from military communication networks.[17][18] --69. ...


Satellites in low earth orbit have been destroyed by ballistic missiles launched from earth. Both Russia and the United States have demonstrated ability to eliminate satellites.[19] In 2007 the Chinese military shot down an aging weather satellite,[19] followed by the US Navy shooting down a defunct spy satellite in February 2008.[20] Russia and the United States have also shot down satellites during the Cold war. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... February 2008 is the second month of the leap year and has yet to occur. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Jamming

Due to the low received signal strength of satellite transmissions they are prone to Radio jamming by land-based transmitters. Such jamming is limited to the geographical area within the transmitter's range. GPS satellites are potential targets for jamming,[21][22] but satellite phone and television signals have also been subjected to jamming.[23][24] Radio jamming is the (usually deliberate) transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal to noise ratio. ...


Satellite Services

Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently. ... A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a mobile phone that communicates directly with orbiting communications satellites. ... // A satellite radio or subscription radio (SR) is a digital radio signal that is broadcast by a communications satellite, which covers a much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Satellite navigation systems use radio time signals transmitted by satellites to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. ...

See also

Spaceflight Portal

Wikinews has related news: China shoots down weather satellite with ballistic missile The 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test was conducted by China on January 11, 2007. ... An example of an elliptical footprint with a receipt area of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ... GoldenEye is a fictional electromagnetic pulse weapon in the James Bond universe. ... The International Designator (or NSSDC ID) is an international naming convention for satellites. ... IMINT, short for IMagery INTelligence, is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography. ... Partial list of Earth observation satellites by series/program. ... The Satellite Catalog Number (also known as NORAD Catalog Number, NASA catalog number, USSPACECOM object number or simply Catalog number and similar variants) is a sequential 5-digit number assigned by USSPACECOM to all Earth orbiting satellites in order of identification. ... Satellite formation flying is the concept that multiple satellites can work together in a group to accomplish the objective of one larger, usually more expensive, satellite. ... Space debris or orbital debris, also called space junk and space waste, are the objects in orbit around Earth created by man that no longer serve any useful purpose. ...

References

  1. ^ The Brick Moon and Other Stories by Edward Everett Hale. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  2. ^ Contents - The Atlantic monthly. Volume 24, Issue 141. cornell.edu. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  3. ^ The_1945_Proposal_by_Arthur_C._Clarke_for_Geostationary_Satellite_Communications. lakdiva.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  4. ^ A Brief History of Animals in Space. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  5. ^ Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship. RAND. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  6. ^ News Reel - First US Satellite Launched. webcastr.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  7. ^ ORBITAL_DEBRIS_EDUCATION_PACKAGE. nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  8. ^ a b Grant, A.,& Meadows, J. (2004). Satellites Communication. Communication Technology Update (ninth edition). Burlington: Focal Press.
  9. ^ Workshop on the Use of Microsatellite Technologies. United Nations. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  10. ^ Earth_Observations_from_Space_The_First_50_Years_of_Scientific_Achievements. nas.edu. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  11. ^ PEARL HARBOR IN SPACE. jamesoberg.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  12. ^ First time in History. tbs-satellite.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  13. ^ SATCAT Boxscore. celestrak.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  14. ^ Canada's Churchill Spaceport. spacetoday.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  15. ^ San Marco 1. nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  16. ^ WRESAT_Australia's_First_Satellite. powerup.com.au. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  17. ^ Hack a Satellite while it is in orbit. ittoolbox.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  18. ^ AsiaSat accuses Falungong of hacking satellite signals. Press Trust of India. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  19. ^ a b China Tests Anti-Satellite Weapon, Unnerving U.S.. nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  20. ^ Navy Missile Successful as Spy Satellite Is Shot Down. popularmechanics.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  21. ^ U.S.-Led Forces Destroy GPS Jamming Systems in Iraq. space.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  22. ^ Homemade GPS jammers raise concerns. computerworld.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  23. ^ Iran government jamming exile satellite TV. iranfocus.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  24. ^ Libya Pinpointed as Source of Months-Long Satellite Jamming in 2006. space.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Press Trust of India is a nonprofit cooperative among the Indian newspapers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Earth Observations from Space A collection of satellite-based images and animations from the National Research Council.
  • J-Track 3D A 3-dimensional display of all active satellites orbiting planet Earth.
  • Satellite Ground Tracks Real time satellite's tracks (Full catalog of satellite orbit). (English) (German) (Spanish) (French) (Italian) (Portuguese) (Chinese)
  • 'Eyes in the Sky' Free video by the Vega Science Trust and the BBC/OU Satellites and their implications over the last 50 years.
  • How Stuff Works.com How satellites work
  • UCS Satellite Database Lists operational satellites currently in orbit around the Earth. Updated quarterly.
  • Satellite launch schedule

For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... Earth orbit is an orbit around the planet Earth. ... Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... GIS redirects here. ... GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth. ... SeaWiFS stands for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor. ... Artist conception of the TRMM satellite. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... The QuikSCAT (Quick Scatterometer) is an earth-observing satellite that provides wind speed and direction information over oceans to NOAA.It is a quick recovery mission to fill the gap created by the loss of data from the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) that was lost in June 1997. ... Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth. ... ACRIMSAT ACRIMSAT, for Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite was a satellite that was part of NASAs Earth Observing System program. ... NASAs New Millennium program is focused on engineering validation of new technologies for space applications. ... This article contains material and/or images that originally came from a NASA website. ... The Meteor craft are weather observation satellites launched by the USSR. The Meteor satellites were designed to monitor atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures, humidity, radiation, sea ice conditions, snow-cover, and clouds. ... The goal of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) space mission is to obtain accurate global and high-resolution determination of both the static and the time-variable components of the Earths gravity field. ... Aqua (EOS PM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the precipitation, evaporation, and cycling of water. ... ICESat (Courtesy NASA) ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite), part of NASAs Earth Observing System, is a satellite mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. ... The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) is a NASA-sponsored satellite mission that provides state-of-the-art measurements of incoming x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation. ... Aura spacecraft Aura is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the Earths ozone, air quality and climate. ... CloudSat - artist concept CloudSat is a NASA environmental satellite, which is scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket on April 25 2006. ... CALIPSO CALIPSO is a NASA environmental satellite which is scheduled for launch atop a Delta II rocket on April 25, 2006. ... Hydros was to provide the first global view of the Earths changing soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw conditions, enabling new scientific studies of global change and atmospheric predictability, and making new hydrologic applications possible. ... The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is the United States next-generation satellite system that will monitor the Earths weather, atmosphere, oceans, land and near-space environment. ... The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder Project (ESSP) mission designed to make precise, time-dependent global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from an Earth orbiting satellite. ... The Aquarius satellite is a planned NASA satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity scheduled for launch on September 5, 2009. ... NASAs New Millennium program is focused on engineering validation of new technologies for space applications. ... Aqua (EOS PM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the precipitation, evaporation, and cycling of water. ... Aura spacecraft Aura is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the Earths ozone, air quality and climate. ... PARASOL is a French built Earth observing research satellite. ... CALIPSO CALIPSO is a NASA environmental satellite which is scheduled for launch atop a Delta II rocket on April 25, 2006. ... CloudSat - artist concept CloudSat is a NASA environmental satellite, which is scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket on April 25 2006. ... The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder Project (ESSP) mission designed to make precise, time-dependent global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from an Earth orbiting satellite. ... The China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite program is a technological cooperation program between Brazil and China which develops and operates Earth observation satellites. ... COSMIC is also a code name used to label NATO classified information. ... An artist’s impression showing one of the Block 5D-2 spacecraft in orbit. ... The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) consists of five remote-sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments by DMC International Imaging. ... Model of Envisat The Envisat (Environmental Satellite) satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. ... EROS satellites are high performance, low cost, light, highly maneuverable high-resolution observation satellites. ... European Remote-Sensing satellite (ERS) was the European Space Agencys first Earth-observing satellite. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program is a key element in United States National Weather Service (NWS) operations. ... Hydros was to provide the first global view of the Earths changing soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw conditions, enabling new scientific studies of global change and atmospheric predictability, and making new hydrologic applications possible. ... IKONOS is a commercial earth observation satellite, and was the first to collect publicly available high-resolution imagery at 1- and 4-meter resolution. ... Landsat 7, launched in 1999, is the most recent addition to the Landsat program. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Meteor craft are weather observation satellites launched by the USSR. The Meteor satellites were designed to monitor atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures, humidity, radiation, sea ice conditions, snow-cover, and clouds. ... This article needs cleanup. ... MTSAT are a series of weather and aviation control satellites. ... NOAA-N is a weather satellite belonging to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States. ... QuickBird is a high-resolution commercial earth observation satellite, owned by DigitalGlobe, that was launched in 2001. ... RADARSAT-1 is Canadas first commercial Earth observation satellite. ... SPOT (Satellite Pour lObservation de la Terre) refers to a series of commercial earth observation satellites launched by the French Space Agency CNES (Centre National dEtudes Spatiales). ... TerraSAR-X is an Earth observation satellite, built and operated by the German Aerospace Center and EADS Astrium. ... The Nimbus satellites were second-generation U.S. unmanned spacecraft for meteorological research and development. ... Vanguard Rocket Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle. ... Seasat (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Seasat was the first Earth-orbiting satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earths oceans and had onboard the first spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). ... The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter is a science project to measure the ocean surface topography. ...


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