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Encyclopedia > Satan
Gustave Doré's depiction of Satan from John Milton's Paradise Lost.
Gustave Doré's depiction of Satan from John Milton's Paradise Lost.

Satan (from the Hebrew word for "adversary") is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally applied to an angel in Judeo-Christian belief, and to a jinn in Islamic belief. This is an overview of the Devil. ... Satan is the name of a preternatural being in some religions. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (626x710, 147 KB)Satan, as drawn by Gustave Dore, in John Miltons Paradise Lost The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (626x710, 147 KB)Satan, as drawn by Gustave Dore, in John Miltons Paradise Lost The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ...


While satan Hebrew Ha-Satan is "the accuser" — the one who challenged the religious faith of humans in the books of Job and Zechariah — Abrahamic religious belief systems other than Judaism relate this term to a demon, a rebellious fallen angel, devil, minor god and idolatry, or as an allegory for evil. The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fallen angel (disambiguation). ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ...


'Satan' is שָׂטָן Satan in Standard Hebrew, Śāṭān in Tiberian Hebrew, סטנא Saṭänä in Aramaic, Σατανάς Satanás in Koine Greek, اهریمن Satanás in Persian, شيطان Šayṭān in Arabic, ሳይጣን Sāyṭān in Ge'ez, Şeytan in Turkish, and Shaitan शैतान in Hindi. The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Koine redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Devil as seen in Codex Gigas.
The Devil as seen in Codex Gigas.

The word 'Satan', and the Arabic شيطان "shaitan", may derive from a Northwest Semitic root śṭn, meaning "to be hostile", "to accuse."[1] An alternative explanation is provided by the Hebrew in Job 1:7. When God asks him whence he has come, Satan answers: "From wandering (mi'ŝuṭ) the earth and walking on it" (מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ, וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּה). The root ŝuṭ signifies wandering on foot or sailing. 'Satan' would thus be "the Wanderer". Image File history File links Codex_Gigas_devil. ... Image File history File links Codex_Gigas_devil. ... The Codex Gigas is one of the largest manuscripts in the world, said to require two men to lift (hence Gigas, Greek for giant). It includes the entire Latin Bible, Isidore of Sevilles Etymologiae, a Latin translation of Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, Cosmas of Pragues Chronicle of... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Appearance

Satan has as many appearances as there are religions. For example, some people believe that Satan is invisible, some believe he is like the Minotaur, (half-man, half-bull). Others believe he is a small devilish spirit and others think that he is like a man. In many descriptions he looks like an angel. He is typically depicted with horns, a pointed tail, batlike wings, and a staff or trident. In the Bible book of Revelation, he is described as the dragon.


In Judaism

In the Hebrew Apocrypha

The Apocrypha are religious writings which are not generally accepted as scripture by many mainstream sects of Christianity and Judaism. These works usually bore the names of ancient Hebrew worthies in order to establish their validity among the true writers' contemporaries. To reconcile the late appearance of the texts with their claims to primitive antiquity, alleged authors are represented as "shutting up and sealing" (Dan. XII. 4:9) the works until the time of their fulfillment had arrived; as the texts were not meant for their own generations but for far-distant ages (also cited in Assumption of Moses I. 16:17). The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either: were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or whose canonicity or lack thereof is not yet certain,[1] or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Assumption of Moses (otherwise called the Testament of Moses) is a Jewish apocryphal pseudepigraphical work of uncertain date and authorship. ...


In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world.[2] Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ...


The 2nd Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to a Watcher Grigori called Satanael.[3] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of heaven[4] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful"[5]. A similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is called Semjâzâ. The Second Book of Enoch (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a Jewish pseudepigraphic apocalyptic text of uncertain date and unknown authorship. ... The Grigori are a group of fallen angels told of in Biblical apocrypha who mated with mortal women, giving rise to a race of hybrids known as the Nephilim, who are described as giants in Genesis 6:4. ... Pseudepigrapha (from Ancient Greek pseudes = false, epigraphe = inscription; see the related epigraphy) are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded; a work, simply, whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Samyaza (Aramaic: שמיחזה, Greek: Σεμιαζά) also Shemyazaz, Sêmîazâz, Semjâzâ, Shemyaza, Samyaza, Shemhazai, and Amezarak (Ethiopic corruption) is a fallen angel of Christian tradition that ranked in the heavenly hierarchy as one of the Grigori (meaning Watchers in Greek). ...


In the apocryphal literature, Satan rules over a host of angels.[6] Mastema, who induced God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac, is identical with Satan in both name and nature.[7] Mastema, Hebrew משטמה (maśṭēmâ), translated as hatred/hostility/enmity/persecution. From Hosea 9. ...


For the Chasidic Jews of the eighteenth century, Ha-satan was Baal Davar.[8] Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ...


As the "accuser"

Where Satan does appear in the Bible as a member of God's court, he plays the role of the Accuser, much like a prosecuting attorney for God.


According to the article on 'Satan' in the Jewish Encyclopedia, Satan's role as the accuser is found The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...

in the prologue to the Book of Job, where Satan appears, together with other celestial beings or 'sons of God,' before the Deity, replying to the inquiry of God as to whence he had come, with the words: 'From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.' (Job 1:7) Both question and answer, as well as the dialogue which follows, characterize Satan as that member of the divine council who watches over human activity, but with the evil purpose of searching out men's sins and appearing as their accuser. He is, therefore, the celestial prosecutor, lawyer who sees only iniquity; for he persists in his evil opinion of Job even after the man of Uz has passed successfully through his first trial by surrendering to the will of God, whereupon Satan demands another test through physical suffering. (ib. ii. 3-5.)
Yet it is also evident from the prologue that Satan has no power of independent action, but requires the permission of God, which he may not transgress. He cannot be regarded, therefore, as an opponent of the Deity; and the doctrine of monotheism is disturbed by his existence no more than by the presence of other beings before the face of God. This view is also retained in Zech. 3:1-2, where Satan is described as the adversary of the high priest Joshua, and of the people of God whose representative the hierarch is; and he there opposes the 'angel of the Lord' who bids him be silent in the name of God.
In both of these passages Satan is a mere accuser who acts only according to the permission of the Deity; but in I Chron. 21:1 he appears as one who is able to provoke David to destroy Israel. The Chronicler (third century B.C.) regards Satan as an independent agent, a view which is the more striking since the source whence he drew his account (II Sam. 24:1) speaks of God Himself as the one who moved David against the children of Israel. Since the older conception refers all events, whether good or bad, to God alone, (I Sam. 16:14; I Kings 22:22; Isa. 45:7; etc) it is possible that the Chronicler, and perhaps even Zechariah, were influenced by Zoroastrianism, even though in the case of the prophet Jewish monism strongly opposed Iranian dualism. (Stave, Einfluss des Parsismus auf das Judenthum, pp. 253 et seq.) An immediate influence of the Babylonian concept of the 'accuser, persecutor, and oppressor' (Schrader, K. A. T. 3d ed., p. 463) is impossible, since traces of such an influence, if it had existed, would have appeared in the earlier portions of the Bible."[9]

Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

In Christianity

Main article: Devil in Christianity

In Christianity, terms that are synonymous with 'Satan' include: For the Islamic devil, see Iblis. ...

  • The most common English synonym for 'Satan' is 'Devil', which descends from Middle English devel, from Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of 'diabolical'). This in turn was borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer," from diaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through" + ballein "to hurl."[10] In the New Testament, 'Satan' occurs more than thirty times in passages alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan.[citation needed]
  • Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the Old Testament.
  • Beelzebub (Be'elzebub "Lord of Flies") is originally the name of a Philistine god, but is also used in the New Testament as a synonym for Satan. A corrupted version, "Belzeboub," appears in The Divine Comedy.
  • "The dragon" and "the old serpent" in the Book of Revelation 12:9, 20:2 have also been identified with Satan, as have "the prince of this world" in the Book of John 12:31, 14:30; "the prince of the power of the air" also called Meririm, and "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" in the Book of Ephesians 2:2; and "the god of this world" in 2 Corinthians 4:4.[citation needed]
  • The angel Leviathan is described as "that crooked serpent," which is also used to describe Satan in Revelation 12:9. 'Sar ha Olam,' a possible name for Metatron, is described as Satan by Michael, Jehoel and St. Paul.

In mainstream Christianity's understanding of the holy Hebrew scriptures, the Torah, Satan is a synonym for the Devil. For most Christians, he is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God— and also the one who spoke through the serpent and seduced Eve into disobeying God's command. His ultimate goal is to lead people away from the love of God — to lead them to fallacies which God opposes. Satan is also identified as the accuser of Job, the tempter in the Gospels, the secret power of lawlessness in 2 Thessalonians 2:7, and the dragon in the Book of Revelation. Before his alleged insurrection, Satan was among the highest of all angels and the "brightest in the sky." His pride is considered a reason why he would not bow to God as all other angels did, but sought to rule heaven himself. The popularly held beliefs that Satan was once a prideful angel who eventually rebels against God, however, are barely portrayed explicitly in the Bible and are mostly based on inference. Moreover, in mainstream Christianity he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matt. 12:24), "the ruler of the world" and even "the god of this world." (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan will be cast out of Heaven, down to the earth, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus". Ultimately, Satan is thrown into the "lake of fire" (Revelation 20:10), not as ruler, but as one among many, being tormented day and night for all eternity. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... “Belzebub” redirects here. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ... The Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... (Redirected from 2 Corinthians) See also: First Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... This article is about the biblical creature. ... For the Darkwell album, see Metatron (album). ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ... Jehoel is the angel of presence. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


In other, non-mainstream, Christian beliefs (e.g. the beliefs of the Christadelphians) the word "satan" in the Bible is not regarded as referring to a supernatural, personal being but to any 'adversary' and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.[11] For the Islamic devil, see Iblis. ...


In Islam

Main articles: Shaitan and Iblis

Shaitan (شيطان) is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. At its simplest, Shayṭān is the Arabic word for “Satan”. In Islam, Shayṭān (Arabic: شيطان) is an entity analogous to Satan in Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


While Shaitan (شيطان, from the root šṭn شطن) is an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to both man ("al-ins", الإنس) and Jinn. Iblis (pronounced [ˈibliːs]) is the personal name of the Devil who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[citation needed] In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


Whenever the Qur'an refers to the creature who refused to prostrate before Adam at the time of the latter's creation, it refers to him as Iblis. The Islamic view of Iblis has both similarities and differences with Christian and Jewish views. The character of Satan is generally similar to the one presented in Judeo-Christian thought. However, according to Islamic belief, Satan is not considered to be a 'fallen' angel, but a jinn who was among the ranks of angels due to his wisdom and piety; in Islamic belief, angels always follow God's commands, but jinns (like humans) have free will, which explains why Satan was able to rebel against God's command of bowing to Adam[citation needed]. Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ...


Other instances of Satan

Although some other faiths may have an evil figure or entity likened to Satan (see Devil), few have a figure actually named 'Satan'. This is an overview of the Devil. ...


In the Bahá'í Faith

In the Bahá'í Faith, 'Satan' is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but signifies the "base nature" of humans. `Abdu'l-Bahá explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized as Satan -- the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside."[12] This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...

In Satanism

Main articles: Satanism and LaVeyan Satanism

Much "Satanic" lore does not originate from actual Satanists, but from Christians. Best-known would be the medieval folklore and theology surrounding demons and witches. A more recent example is the so-called Satanic ritual abuse scare of the 1980s; beginning with the memoir Michelle Remembers – which depicts Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice. This genre regularly describes Satan as actually appearing in person in order to receive worship. Claims of Satanic child-molesting or murder rings are largely unsubstantiated. Satanism can refer to a number of belief systems depending on the user and contexts. ... LaVeyan Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right | Lex talionis Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The Devils Notebook... Michelle Remembers was written by Dr. Lawrence Pazder, a late (April 30, 1936 - March 5, 2004) Canadian psychiatrist, and co-author and psychiatric patient Michelle Smith. ... Child abuse is the physical, emotional or sexual abuse or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ...


People claiming to be Satanists – or outsiders claiming to describe Satanism – ascribe a wide variety of beliefs to this movement. These range from the literal worship of a spiritual being (Theistic Satanism); to a kind of subversive ritual performance stressing the mockery of Christian symbols (most notably the Black Mass); to the claimed rediscovery of an ancient but misunderstood religion (e.g. Setianism, which conflates Satan with the Egyptian god Set). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // the people of hte black mass religion should ill go worship god insted. ... Setianism comprises magical, philosophical and religious concepts related to the ancient Egyptian god Set. ... Set In Ancient Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Seth, Sutekh or Seteh) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, storms, and chaos. ...


The most prominent and widely known Satanist in recent years was Anton Szandor LaVey, who founded the Church of Satan in 1966. LaVey wrote The Satanic Bible (1969) and other works which remain highly influential (though controversial) among avowed Satanists. LaVey rejects the Black Mass, cruelty to animals, or a literal belief in (or worship of) Satan, instead considering Satan as the human instinct within ourselves, which is what LaVeyan Satanism celebrates. Instead he supports a view of human beings as animals and rejects many social structures that he believes inhibit human instincts. Anton Szandor LaVey (11 April 1930 - 29 October 1997), born Howard Stanton Levey, was the founder and High Priest of the Church of Satan, author of The Satanic Bible, and creator of the religion known as as LaVeyan Satanism. ... Church of Satan logo The Church of Satan is an organization for those who practice self-preservation as articulated in The Satanic Bible, written in 1969 by Anton Szandor LaVey. ... Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right | Lex talionis Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The Devil... LaVeyan Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right | Lex talionis Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The...


In popular culture

For a discussion of Satan in fiction and pop culture, see

Many writers have incorporated the character of Satan into their works. ... Look up Devil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In international relations

America is frequently referred to by its opponents as "The Great Satan", dating back to the time of the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who referred to the United States as the Great Satan in the aftermath of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran. [13] Some Islamic fundamentalists claim that the U.S.A. is Satan himself.[14] They perceive they are on the side of God in a struggle against Satan who is personified by the U.S.A.. The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ...


Pope Benedict XVI stated that "the red dragon" [15] was responsible for the Nazi dictatorship and the dictatorship of Stalin. [16] With respect to the international relations in 2007, the Pope charged that "the red dragon" is active currently in "new and different ways". Satan is held responsible for much of the world's troubles primarily by those who take a religious view of history.


Notes

  1. ^ American Heritage® Dictionary: Semitic roots: sn. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  2. ^ "But by the envy of the devil, death came into the world" - Book of Wisdom II. 24
  3. ^ 2 Enoch 18:3
  4. ^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air continuously above the bottomless" - 2 Enoch 29:4
  5. ^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" - 2 Enoch 31:4
  6. ^ Martyrdom of Isaiah, 2:2; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 16)
  7. ^ Book of Jubilees, xvii. 18
  8. ^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, © 1967
  9. ^ Jewish Encyclopaedia
  10. ^ American Heritage® Dictionary: Devil. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  11. ^ Do you Believe in a Devil?. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  12. ^ From The Promulgation of Universal Peace p. 470 [1]
  13. ^ Nasser Karimi, AP, "Iran pres. rejects Stone documentary as part of 'Great Satan'", 07/03/2007.
  14. ^ "We also call on Muslim ulema, leaders, youths, and soldiers to launch the raid on Satan's U.S. troops and the devil's supporters allying with them, and to displace those who are behind them so that they may learn a lesson." Osama Bin Laden, Saudi Arabia Text of Fatwa Urging Jihad Against Americans London Al-Quds al-'Arabi in Arabic -- 23 Feb 98
  15. ^ Apocalypse 12: 7-9 Satan is referred to as "the red dragon"
  16. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (CHS) Castel Gondolfo, Italy, August 15, 2007

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Book of Enoch (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a Jewish pseudepigraphic apocalyptic text of uncertain date and unknown authorship. ... The Second Book of Enoch (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a Jewish pseudepigraphic apocalyptic text of uncertain date and unknown authorship. ... The Second Book of Enoch (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a Jewish pseudepigraphic apocalyptic text of uncertain date and unknown authorship. ... The Ascension of Isaiah is an apocryphal book dating from the 2nd century AD and compiled by an unknown Christian scholar. ... The Life of Adam and Eve is a Jewish pseudepigraphical writing, the original of which was perhaps written around 100 BC. // The story begins immediately after Adam and Eves exile from the Garden of Eden and continues to their deaths. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0. 
  • Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4. 
  • Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-11339-4. 
  • Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9. 
  • Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1-885395-11-6. 
  • Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7. 
  • Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1. 
  • Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1977). The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Cornell University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-8014-9413-3. 
  • Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1992). The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in History. Cornell University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-8014-8056-6. 
  • Russell, Jeffrey Burton (2005). The Birth of Satan : Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6933-7. 

This biographical article needs to be wikified. ... Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey, (born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ... http://id-www. ... http://id-www. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Satan (2083 words)
Satan was allowed to set up his own kingdom in Hell and to send out devils to prowl the earth for converts.
Satan is believed to have many powers, among them the power to manifest himself in human or animal form.
What drives the terrorist or ethnic cleanser today to their abominations, or the witch hunters to their destruction of families, seems to be the same forces that drove the pious enforcers of the Inquisitions.
Satan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3325 words)
Satan is also commonly known as the Devil, the "Prince of Darkness," Beelzebub, Belial, Lucifer, and Mephistopheles.
Satan is to be better understood as an "accuser" or "adversary".
The story depicts Satan as trapped waist-deep in the frozen lakes of hell, relentlessly beating his six enormous wings as he tries to break free from the ice but the icy-cold winds thus generated strengthen even more the ice's hold on him and everyone else in the ninth circle of hell.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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