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Encyclopedia > Sassanid dynasty
Drafsh-e-Kāveyān
The Sassanid flag , Drafsh-e-Kāveyān

The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary
Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian)
Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism
Capital Ctesiphon
Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr)
First Ruler Ardashir I
Last Ruler Yazdegerd III
Establishment 224 AD
Dissolution 651 AD
Faravahar, the symbol of the Zoroastrian faith
Part of the History of Iran

The Sassanid dynasty (Sassanian in Persian: ساسانیان) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran), during the era of the third Persian Empire, from 224 until 651. The dynasty ended when the last Sassanid Shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate, the first of the Islamic empires. Terrority roughly encompassed parts of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, (during Khosrau II's rule Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon), eastern parts of Syria, north west India, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia. The Sassanids, called their Empire Iran or Iranshahr. The Sassanid era is considered to be one of the most important and influential historical periods in Iran. This image is copyrighted. ... Derafsh Kaviani The legendary Flag of Iran is said to be the Derafshe Kaviani. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Sassanid dynasty ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in a country, state, or other territory. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Fishers of men; Oil on panel by Adriaen van de Venne (1614) Religion (see etymology below) sometimes used interchangeably with faith or belief system is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine; and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A monarch (see sovereign) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. ... Motto: Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic (Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ«) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Supreme Leader President Islamic republic Ali Khamenei Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Declared Against Reza Pahlavi February 11... Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. ... Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. ... Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... The Establishment is a slang term (chiefly in British and Commonwealth English) for a traditional conservative ruling class and its institutions. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Dissolution can have the following meanings: In music dissolution is the separation of an inter-parametric unit into its component parts, where usually each part is developed independently. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The history of Iran covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azerbaijan, Shahr-e Sookhteh (Burned City) in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian and following Empires to the... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ... The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... Shah is an Iranian term (Persian and Kurdish) for king, and has also been adopted in many other languages. ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Motto: Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic (Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ«) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Supreme Leader President Islamic republic Ali Khamenei Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Declared Against Reza Pahlavi February 11...


In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization, and constituted the last great Persian Empire before the Muslim conquest and adoption of Islam. The Sassanid circle of influence affected cultures far beyond of its physicals borders, reaching as far as Africa[1] and China[2]. This influence carried forward to the early Islamic world. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture, architecture, writing and other skills, were taken mainly from the Sassanid Persians into the broad Muslim world. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...

Contents


The term Sassanids or Sassanian

Ardashir I, the establisher of the Sassanids was the grandson of Sassan, the great priest of Temple of Anahita. Because of Ardashir's kinship to Sassan, his dynasty which ruled Persia between 226 to 651 was called the Sassanian or Sassanids by later historians. However, during the time of the Sassanids, Persians called their kingdom Eranshahr. The Romans didn't recognize the Sassanids for some time, using the word Parthian to describe events related to the Persian empire on its eastern borders. Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. ... Temple of Anahita: Goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... // A dynasty is a succession of rulers who are members of the same family for generations. ... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Origin

Relief of Ardashir I, Naghsh-e-Rostam, near Persepolis, Iran
Relief of Ardashir I, Naghsh-e-Rostam, near Persepolis, Iran

Ardashir's ancestors were Zoroastrian priests who were also local governors of Persis. His father Papag, or Papak or Babak, ruled a small town called Kheir. His mother was Rodhagh. Her father was provincial governor of Pars. Relief of Ardeshir I, Naghsh-e-Rostam, near Persepolis, Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Relief of Ardeshir I, Naghsh-e-Rostam, near Persepolis, Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Næqš-e Rostæm, near Shiraz Tomb of Naksh-i Rustam (modern Persian Næqš-e Rostæm) is an archaeological site in Iran. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... External links Official website of Fars Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Babak (in Persian بابک ) is a common Persian name. ... This article is about political regions. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


Upon Sassan's death, Papak (Babak) deposed the previous king of Persis (Pars), Gochihr and took his throne. During his father's reign, Ardashir ruled the town of Darabjird and received the title of "argobadh". Upon Papag's death, Ardashir's elder brother Shapur ascended to the throne. However, Ardashir rebelled against his brother and took the kingship for himself in 208 AD. Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician. ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... Events Liu Bei escapes from Cao Cao Zhao Yun rescues Liu Shan, the infant son of Liu Bei Sun Quan, Zhou Yu, and Liu Bei defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs. ...


Ardashir and his successors created a vast empire, based in Firouzabad, Pars. This included most of those lands of the old Achaemenid Persian empire east of the Euphrates River. The Sassanids wanted to recreate the glories of ancient Persia and claimed to Persianise the country. However, they didn't recognize anything about the former Persian empire of Achaemenids in their records or carvings. Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Carving can mean Rock carving Wood carving Meat carving See also: Sculpture, Lapidary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


They made Zoroastrianism the state religion and claimed in inscriptions to have persecuted other faiths. These claims are not reflected in native Jewish and Christian sources of the time. Their religious policy was quite contradictory from king to king. The Sassanid kings long sought to reunify all of the old Achaemenid territory. This ambition brought them into frequent wars against the Roman Empire and later against the Byzantine Empire. Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


History

Early history (224-310)

A coin of Shapur I
A coin of Shapur I

Ardashir rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene. This expansion brought the attention of the Parthian Great King Artabanus IV, Ardashir's overlord and ruler of the Parthian Empire. Artabanus marched against Ardashir in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus was killed. Ardashir went on to invade the western provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire. Crowned in 226 as the sole ruler of Persia, and taking the title Shahanshah "King of Kings" (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir finally brought the 400 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule. Image File history File links Shapur_i. ... Image File history File links Shapur_i. ... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (c. ... Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. ...


Over the next few years, Ardashir further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. He also added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanid possesions. Furthermore, the kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia, and Adiabene met with less success. Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan, formerly called Astrabad or Asterabad): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Today Balkh is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Mosul (36°22′N 43°07′E; Arabic: , Kurdish: Mûsil, Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ NînÄ›wâ) is a city in northern Iraq. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ...


Ardashir's son, Shapur I (241272), continued this expansion, conquering Bactria and Kushan, while leading several campaigns against Rome. Penetrating deep into Roman territory, Shapur conquered and plundered Antiochia in Syria (253 or 256) and finally defeated the Roman emperors Gordian III, Philip the Arab, and Valerian. The latter was taken (259) into Persian imprisonment after the Battle of Edessa, a tremendous and hitherto unknown disgrace for the Romans. Shapur celebrated his victory by carving the impressive rock reliefs in Naqsh-e Rostam, for example with Bishapur, as well as a monumental inscription in Persian and Greek with Naqs i Rustam in the proximity of Persepolis. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the book see 253 (book). ... Events Births Arius, founder of Arianism Deaths Invasions Goths invade Asia Minor. ... Gordian III Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225-244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman emperor from 238 to 244. ... Emperor Philip the Arab 100 Syrian pound note with Philip the Arab Marcus Julius Philippus (about 204 - 249), known in English as Philip the Arab after the origin of his family, was a Roman emperor from 244 to 249. ... Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ... Events Postumus revolts against Gallienus, in Gaul. ... Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Persians under King Shapur I on AD 259. ... Naqshe Rostam, near Shiraz Tomb of Naksh-i Rustam (also Naqsh-i Rustam or Nakshi Rustam) is an archaeological site in Iran. ... City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ...

A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over the Roman Emperor Valerian.
A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over the Roman Emperor Valerian.

Between 260 and 263 Shapur I had lost his conquest to Odaenathus, an ally of the Romans. Shapur II (ruled 309-379) regained the lost territories in three successive wars with the Romans. Image File history File links Schapur_I.jpg Summary (c) http://www. ... Image File history File links Schapur_I.jpg Summary (c) http://www. ... Naqshe Rostam, near Shiraz Tomb of Naksh-i Rustam (also Naqsh-i Rustam or Nakshi Rustam) is an archaeological site in Iran. ... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ... Septimius Odaenathus, or Odenatus (Greek: (Hodainathos), Palmyrene אחינל = little ear), the Latinized form of Odainath, was a famous prince of Palmyra, in the second half of the 3rd century AD, who succeeded in recovering the Roman East from the Persians and restoring it to the Empire. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...


Shapur had intensive development plans. In many cities created by Shapur there were settlers from the Roman territories. These included Christians who could exercise their faith there. Bishapur and Nishapur are the two cities named after him. City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Location of Neyshapur Tomb of Omar Khayyám, Neishabur Tomb of Kamal-ol-Molk, Neishabur. ...


Manichaeism was favoured by Shapur. He protected Mani and sent many Manichaeist missionaries abroad. He was also a friend of a Babylonian rabbi called Shmuel (Talmud). This friendship was advantageous for the Jewish community and gave them a respite from the oppressive laws enacted against them. Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Mani may refer to: Mani Peninsula in Greece Maní, Yucatán, a small city in Yucatán, Mexico Mani, Evros, a town in the northeastern part of the Evros Prefecture in Greece Mani (prophet), a third-century Persian prophet, the founder of the dualistic Manichaean religion, which borrowed eclectically from... Samuel of Nehardea or Samuel bar Abba was a Babylonian amora of the first generation; son of Abba bar Abba and head of the Yeshiva at Nehardea. ...


Shapur's successors, Bahram I (273-276) and Bahram II (276-293), persecuted Mani and his followers under pressure from Magi. Under Bahram II, Mani was quickly jailed and executed. Bahram I, was king of Persia (AD 274-277). ... Bahram II, king of Persia (277-294), son of Bahram I. During his reign the emperor Carus attacked the Persians and conquered Ctesiphon (283), but died by the plague. ... Bahram II, king of Persia (277-294), son of Bahram I. During his reign the emperor Carus attacked the Persians and conquered Ctesiphon (283), but died by the plague. ...


After Bahram II, King Narseh (293-302) attacked the Romans. After defeating the emperor Galerius near Callinicum on the Euphrates in 296, he was completely defeated in 297. Areas in Mesopotamia were lost to Romans. However the Sassanids, like the Romans, had not only a fight on one front. The new Persian realm had to set itself against intruders from other fronts. The passports of the Caucasus required defence as well as the always endangered northeast border, where the Sassanids had to fight first against the Kushans and later against both the White huns and the Turks. Except for rare occasions they did not show themselves as a serious threat for the Sassanids. Narseh (also known as Narses, Narseus) was king of Persia (292 - 303), and son of Shapur I. He rose as pretender to the throne against his grand-nephew Bahram III in AD 292, and soon became sole king. ... Galerius on a coin Galerius Maximianus (c. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic Al-Furat الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Persia in the Sassanid dynasty witnessed two golden eras. The first was during the reign of Shapur II (310-379). The second, which was longer, lasted from 499 when Kavadh I became king again until 622 when emperor Heraclius started invading Assyria. In these eras the empire was at its greatest and the arts and science flourished. Because of effective central authority, the people were relatively prosperous and comfortable. Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Kavadh I (449 - 531), son of Peroz, was a Sassanid king (488 - 531), crowned by the nobles in place who was deposition and blinding of his uncle Balash. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Ashur. ...


First Golden Era (310-379)

Head of king Shapur II, From The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art .
Head of king Shapur II, From The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art .

After the conquests of Shapur I, the Sassanids started to decline in authority and power. A series of weak monarchs caused the empire to lose many of its lands to its enemies. Arabs from the south started to ravage and plunder the southern cities of the empire. They attacked the province of Fars, the birthplace of the Sassanid kings, causing much destruction. When King Hormizd II died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd afterwards escaped to the Romans). The throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd. It is said that Shapur may have been the only king in history to been crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king. The government was conducted by his mother and the magnates. When Shapur came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty. Head of Shapur II, King of Persia, Sasanian dynasty, A.D. 4th century. ... Head of Shapur II, King of Persia, Sasanian dynasty, A.D. 4th century. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Hormizd II, king of Persia, son of Narseh, reigned for seven years and five months, 302-309. ...


Shapur first attacked and crushed the Arabs in the south. He then started his first campaign against Romans in the west. Following the Siege of Singara, his conquests came to a halt in part due to raids by nomads in the eastern borders of the empire. These raids affected Transoxiana, an area of strategic importance for Sassanids due to the Silk road. In addition, his military forces were not sufficient to hold the captured cities. He arranged a peace treaty at the conclusion of his first campaign with Constantius II in which both sides agreed not to attack each other's territory for a limited period of time. The Battle of Singara was fought in 344 between Roman and Sassanid Persian forces. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Byzantine Emperor (7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ...


Shapur then marched east toward Transoxiana to encounter the eastern nomads. After defeating the White Huns, Shapur along with nomad king Grumbates, started his second campaign against the Romans in year 359, this time with full military force and support from nomads. The Siege of Amida marked the first success of a campaign that was overwhelmingly successful for the Sassanid Persians. A total of 5 Roman provinces were ceded to Persians after its completion. At the time of Shapur's death, the Persian Empire was stronger than ever, the eastern enemies were pacified, and Persia had regained control over Armenia. Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Events Battle of Amida: Shapur II of Persia conquers Amida from the Romans. ... Combatants Roman Empire Sassanid Empire Commanders Ursicinus Shapur II Grumbates Strength Casualties The Siege of Amida took place when Sassanids under King Shapur II besieged the Roman city of Amida in 359. ...


Under Shapur's reign, the collection of the Avesta was completed, heresy and apostasy were punished, and the Christians were persecuted. This latter was a reaction against the Christianization of the Roman Empire by Constantine. Shapur II like Shapur I was amicable towards Jews, they lived in relative freedom and gained many advantages in his period (see also Raba (Talmud)). See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Raba or Raba Ben Joseph Ben Hama(c. ...


Intermediate Era (379-498)

Relief from Taq-i Bostan showing Ardashir II at the center receiving his crown from Ahura Mazda. The two stand on a prostrate enemy. At the left is Mithra as a priest, wearing a crown of sun-rays, holding a priest's barsam, and standing on a sacred lotus.
Relief from Taq-i Bostan showing Ardashir II at the center receiving his crown from Ahura Mazda. The two stand on a prostrate enemy. At the left is Mithra as a priest, wearing a crown of sun-rays, holding a priest's barsam, and standing on a sacred lotus.
A coin of Hormizd II
A coin of Hormizd II

From Shapur II's death untill Kavadh I's first coronation, Persia was more or less stable with few wars against the Byzantine Empire. Throughout this era Sassanid religious policy differed dramatically from king to king. After Shapur II died in 379, he left a powerful empire to his half-brother Ardashir II (379-383) (son of Vahram of Kushan) and his son Shapur III (383-388), neither of whom deserved their great status. Ardeshir II, who was raised as“the half-brother” of the emperor, failed to fill his brother's shoes, and Shapur III was too much of a melancholy character to achieve anything. However, the effects of Shapur II's reign provided a pattern for the administrators of the country and prevented the empire from falling apart. Bahram IV (Vahram IV) (388-399), although not as mellow as his father, still failed to achieve anything important for the empire. By agreement, Armenia was divided between the Roman and the Sassanid empire and the Sassanids. The Sassanid's re-established its rule over Greater Armenia while the Byzantine Empire held a small portion of western Armenia. Image File history File links ArdashirII_. ... Image File history File links ArdashirII_. ... Kermanshah or Taq-i-Bustan , is located in western Iran , four miles north-East of Kermanshah. ... Ardashir II was king of Persia from 379-383. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... Mitra is an important deity of Persian and Indic culture; he appears in the Vedas as one of the Adityas, a solar deity and the god of honesty, friendship, and contracts. ... Image File history File links Hormizd_ii. ... Image File history File links Hormizd_ii. ... Hormizd II, king of Persia, son of Narseh, reigned for seven years and five months, 302-309. ... Kavadh I (449 - 531), son of Peroz, was a Sassanid king (488 - 531), crowned by the nobles in place who was deposition and blinding of his uncle Balash. ... Ardashir II was king of Persia from 379-383. ... Shapur III was king of Persia from 383 to 388. ... Bahram IV, king of Persia (389_399), son and successor of Shapur III, under whom he had been governor of Kirman; therefore he was called Kirmanshah (Armenia was divided between the Roman and the Persian empire. ...


Bahram IV's son, Yazdgerd I (399-420), is often compared to Constantine the Great. Like him, he was powerful both physically and diplomatically. Much like his Roman counterpart, Yazdgerd was opportunistic. Like Constantine, Yazdgerd practiced religious tolerance and provided freedom for the rise of religious minorities. He stopped the persecution Christians and was friendly to the point that he even punished nobles and priests who persecuted them. His wise reign marked a relatively peaceful era. He made lasting peace with the Romans and even took the minor Theodosius II under his guardianship. He also married a Jewish princess and had a son from her called Narsi. Yazdegerd I (made by God Izdigerdes), king of Persia, son of Shapur III, 399-420, called the sinner by the Persians. ... Constantine. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ...


Yazdgerd I left the country to his son, Bahram V, one of the most well-known of Sassanian kings and the hero of many myths. These myths persisted even after the destruction of Sassanian empire by the Arabs. Vahram V, better known as Bahram-e Goor, symbolized a king in the height of a golden age. He won his crown by competing with his brother, spent time fighting with foreign enemies, but mostly kept himself amused by hunting and court parties with his famous band of ladies and courtiers. He embodied royal prosperity. During his time the best pieces of Sassanian literature were written, Sassanid music were composed, and sports such as polo became royal pastimes, a pastime continuing to this day as the royal sport of many kingdoms. Bahram V, king of Persia (420-439), also called Bahram Gur,son of Yazdegerd I, after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of al-Mondhir, the Arabic dynast of Hira. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, as they still do today. ... Playing polo Polo (also known as Cho-gan) is a team game played on a field with one goal for each team. ...


Bahram V's son, Yazdegerd II (438-457), in contrast to Yazdegerd I, was very intolerant and suspicious of other religions specially Christianity. This sense of mistrust made him expel all the Christians from the governing body and army. In order to establish Zoroastrianism in Armenia, he crushed the Armenian rebellion for Christianity in the infamous Battle of Vartanantz. He was also engaged in a brief but successful campaign against Roman empire. Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia was the son of Bahram V Gor and reigned from 438 to 457. ... Yazdegerd I (made by God Izdigerdes), king of Persia, son of Shapur III, 399-420, called the sinner by the Persians. ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Armenian rebels Commanders Yazdegerd II Vartan Mamikonian Strength 180,000 to 220,000(According to Armenian sources) 60,000 Casualties Unknown Heavy Battle of Vartanantz (May 26, 451) is remembered by Armenians as probably the greatest battle in their history. ...


In the beginning of the 5th century, the Hephthalites (White Huns) along with different other nomadic groups, attacked Persia. At first Bahram V and Yazdegerd II inflicted decisive defeats against them and made them retreat eastward. They re-appeared at the end of 5th century and this time they defeated the Firuz (or Peroz) I (457-484) in 483. Following the victory, Huns invaded and plundered eastern parts of Persia for 2 years. They exacted heavy tribute for some years thereafter. // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Bahram V, king of Persia (420-439), also called Bahram Gur,son of Yazdegerd I, after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of al-Mondhir, the Arabic dynast of Hira. ... Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia was the son of Bahram V Gor and reigned from 438 to 457. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... Peroz (Peirozes, Priscus, fr. ... Events March 13 - Pope Felix III succeeds Pope Simplicius The general Illus and Verina, mother-in-law of Byzantine emperor Zeno I, attempt to overthrow Zeno and place a general named Leontius on the throne. ...


These attacks brought instability and chaos to the kingdom. Peroz I tried again to drive out Hephthalites, but on the way to Herat, he and his army got trapped by Huns in the desert. Following his death with the whole Persian army, Hephthalites advanced forward to the city of Herat. This submerged the Empire into deep chaos. Eventually, a noble Persian from the old family of Karen, Zarmihr (or Sokhra), restored some degree of order. He raised Balash, one of Peroz's brothers, to the throne. It was not until the reign of Khosroe (or Khosrau) I that the Huns were crushed forever. Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Balash (in the Greek authors, Balas; the later form of the name Vologaeses), Sassanian king in AD 484-488, was the brother and successor of Peroz, who had died in a battle against the Hephthalites (White Huns) who invaded Persia from the east. ... A coin of Khosrau I Khosrau I, (Anushirvan Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushirvan the just (Anushirvan Adel) (ruled 531-579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid kings. ...


Second Golden Era (498-622)

Silver bowl showing Khusrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. This became a model representation of kingship for Byzantine art and from there, in Carolingian art.
Silver bowl showing Khusrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. This became a model representation of kingship for Byzantine art and from there, in Carolingian art.

The second golden era started after second coronation of Kavadh I (Qobad I) with the help of Ephthalites. Kavadh joined the Ephthalites and began war against the Romans. In 502 he took Theodosiopolis (Erzurum) in Armenia. In 503 he took Amida (Diarbekr) on the Tigris. In 505 an invasion of Armenia by the western Huns from the Caucasus led to an armistice during which the Romans paid subsidies to the Persians for the maintenance of the fortifications on the Caucasus. Although he could not free himself from the yoke of the Ephthalites, Kavadh succeeded in restoring order in the interior and fought with success against the Romans. He built some towns which were named after him and began to regulate the taxation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (691x681, 77 KB) (c) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (691x681, 77 KB) (c) http://www. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sofia) in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) - the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... Kavadh I (449 - 531), son of Peroz, was a Sassanid king (488 - 531), crowned by the nobles in place who was deposition and blinding of his uncle Balash. ... Arpos was an ancient city in the region that is now European Turkey. ...


After Kavadh I (Qobad I), his son Khosrau I, also known as Anushirvan ("with the immortal soul") (531-579), ascended to the throne. He is the most celebrated of the Sassanid rulers. He reformed the tax system and reorganized the army and the bureaucracy, tying the army more closely to the central government than to local lords. His reign witnessed the rise of the dihqans (literally, village lords), the petty landholding nobility who were the backbone of later Sassanid provincial administration and the tax collection system. Khosrau was a great builder, embellishing his capital, founding new towns, and constructing new buildings. He rebuilt the canals and restocked the farms destroyed in the wars. He built strong fortifications at the passes and placed subject tribes in carefully chosen towns on the frontiers to act as guardians against invaders. Kavadh I (449 - 531), son of Peroz, was a Sassanid king (488 - 531), crowned by the nobles in place who was deposition and blinding of his uncle Balash. ... Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. ...


Justinian paid Khosrau 440,000 pieces of gold as a bribe to keep the peace. Khosrau broke the "eternal peace" of 532 in 540 and invaded Syria, where he collected money from the different cities. He was tolerant of all religions, though he decreed that Zoroastrianism should be the official state religion. He was not unduly disturbed when one of his sons became a Christian. Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ...


After Khosrau, Hormizd IV took the throne. Hormizd was also a vigorous ruler. However, during Bahram Chobin's crisis, the empire saw a short lived chaos. The crisis stabilized soon after Khosrau II's ascent. Following the civil wars in Byzantine Khosrau started a full scale invasion Byzantine empire. The Sassanid dream of restoring the Achaemenid boundaries was close to completion when Jerusalem and Damascus fell. Egypt fell soon after. Constantinople also found itself under siege in 626 by Slavic and Avar forces supported by the Persians. Persian art, music and architecture reached to their highest peak. The royal court was in a splendor that wasn't seen before. Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. ... Bahrahm Chobin was a famous Eran spahbod (military commander) during Khosraus II rule in Sassanid Iran. ... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ...


Khosrau I's reforms

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Khosrau I is most famous for his reforms in the aging governing body of Sassanids. In his reforms he introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. (For more about Khosrau I's reforms, see [3]). Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ...


Decline and fall (622-651)

Khusrau II's cave at Taq-e Bostan. Here Khusrau receives the diadem from Ahura Mazda on the right while Anahita, on the left, also offers a diadem.
Khusrau II's cave at Taq-e Bostan. Here Khusrau receives the diadem from Ahura Mazda on the right while Anahita, on the left, also offers a diadem.

Khosrau II overextended his army and overtaxed the people. The Byzantine emperor Heraclius retaliated with a tactical move by abandoning his besieged capital and sailing up the Black Sea to attack Persia from the rear. During Heraclius's campaign in the Persian Empire in the 620s, mutual suspicion arose between Khosrau II and his general Shahrbaraz. Byzantine agents showed Shahbaraz letters indicating that Khosrau was planning the general's execution. This kept one of the main Persian armies and its best general neutral during this crucial period, speeding the end of the war in favour of the Byzantines. Heraclius acquired the assistance of the Khazars and other Turkic troops. In the absence of two of Sassanids' greatest Eran spahbods, Shahin and Shahrbaraz (who was away in Anatolia fearing that Khosrau wanted him dead with the main Persian army), and due to the fact that 15 years of war had exhausted the Persians, Heraclius managed to defeat several Persian armies. These defeats culminated in a battle at Nineveh, where the Byzantines (without the Khazars, who had left Heraclius) defeated the Persian army commanded by Rhahzadh. He then marched through Mesopotamia and Western Persia sacking Takht-e Soleyman and the Palace of Dastugerd, where he received the news of the murder of his rival Khosrau II. The Sassanid era is considered to be one of the most important and influential historical periods in Iran (Persia). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Relief04. ... Image File history File links Relief04. ... Kermanshah or Taq-i-Bustan , is located in western Iran , four miles north-East of Kermanshah. ... Temple of Anahita: Goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... Diadem has a number of different meanings, including the following: A diadem is a type of crown. ... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Shahrbaraz (? - June 9, 630 was a general for the Persian army under Khosrau II of Persia. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Spahbod (Persian:سپهبد is consisted of two words: Spah سپه (army) bod بد (master) ) was a rank used in the Parthian empire and more widely in Sassanid dynasty of Persia (Iran). ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Rhahzadh , alternatively known as Razates was a Persian Spahbod (commander) under Sassanid king Khosrau II. As the war with between Sassanid empire and Byzantium came close to its 15 year the Byzantine general and emporer Heraclius made a bold move. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... The fortress appears in full view in the foreground. ...


Chaos and civil war followed the defeat. Over a period of fourteen years and twelve successive kings, the Sassanid Empire weakened considerably. The power of the central authority passed into the hands of the generals. It took years for a strong king to emerge from a series of coups, but the Sassanids never completely recovered.


In the spring of 632, a grandson of Khosrau, Yazdegerd III, ascended the throne. In that same year, the first Arab squadrons made their raids into Persian territory. Years of warfare had exhausted both the Byzantines and the Persians. The Sāssānids were further weakened by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of the provincial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers. These factors facilitated the Arab invasion. Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ...


The Arab invasion marked the beginning of the end. Yazdegerd was a boy at the mercy of his advisers and incapable of uniting a vast country crumbling into small feudal kingdoms. Rome no longer threatened. The Arab threat initially came from the small, disciplined armies of Khalid ibn Walid, once one of Muhammad's chosen companion-in-arms and leader of the Arab army. Under the Caliph `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, a Muslim army defeated a larger Persian force lead by general Rostam Farrokhzād at the plains of al-Qādisiyyah Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ... Muhammad (c. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Rostam Farrokhzād (رستم فرّخزاد in Persian) was the commander of the Sāsānian Empires armed forced under the reign of Yazdgird III, r. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ...


Says Ferdowsi of their downfall, in commending the Sassanids: Statue of Ferdowsi in Tehran Ferdowsi Mausoleum in Tus Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


کجا آن بزرگان ساسانیان
زبهرامیان تا بسامانیان


kujā ān buzurgān-i Sāsāniyān
zi Bahrāmiyān tā bi-Sāmāniyān?


"To where have the great Sassanids gone?
To the Bahrāmids and Samanids what has come upon?" Silver coin of Bahram V with fire temple on its verso (British Museum , London) Bahram V, king of Persia (420-439), also called Bahram Gur,son of Yazdegerd I, after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of al... The famous Samanid mausoleum of Ismail of Samanid in Bukhara. ...


The Parsees

Following the collapse of Sassanids, Zoroastrians increasingly became a persecuted minority in Persia. A number of them migrated to Gujarat, India, where they were allowed greater freedom to observe their old customs and preserve the Zoroastrian faith. They still use the old Persian calendar, counting the years from the accession of Yazdegerd on June 16, 632 CE. Old dynastic calendars measured time by the reigns of various rulers. According to the Parsees, the reign of Yazdegerd has not ended. a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... Gujarat (Gu: , Hi: ; , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes (incorrectly) Gujarath) contained many of the former Princely states of India, and is the second-most industrialized state in the Republic of India after Maharashtra. ... a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ...


Government

Palace of Ardashir, The palace ruins of Ardashir I, founder of the dynasty, south of Shiraz, Iran.
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Palace of Ardashir, The palace ruins of Ardashir I, founder of the dynasty, south of Shiraz, Iran.
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The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the Achaemenids, with the capital at Ctesiphon in the Khvarvaran province. The Sassanids system of social stratification reinforced by Zoroastrianism consciously sought to resuscitate Persian traditions and to obliterate Greek cultural influence. Their rule was characterized by considerable centralization, ambitious urban planning, agricultural development, and technological improvements. Image File history File links Palace of Ardeshir I. Persia. ... Image File history File links Palace of Ardeshir I. Persia. ... Aerial view of Ardeshirs castle ruins, built by Ardashir I of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. ... Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. ... Shirāz is Irans city of poets, as some of Persian poetrys giants are buried here. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Khvārvarān, (Modern Iraq)From the Fall of Sasanian Dynasty to the Arab Occupations and Umayyads In CE 600 the country which in our modern time known as Iraq was a province of the Iranian Empire, to which it had belonged to Iran since Cyrus the Great. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ...


Sassanid rulers adopted the title of Shāhanshāh (the King of Kings), as sovereigns over numerous petty rulers, known as shahrdars. Sassanid Queens had the title of Banebshenan banebshen (the Queen of Queens). Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. ... Banebshenan banebshen (In Persian بانبشنان بانبشن) was the Pahlavi title of Sassanid Queens of Persia. ...


Sassanid rule and the system of social stratification were reinforced by Zoroastrianism, which became the dominant, but not official, religion. Other religions were permitted (this is a controversially discussed topic, see for example Wiesehöfer, Ancient Persia, or the Cambridge History of Iran, vol 3). The Zoroastrian priesthood became immensely powerful. The head of the priestly class, the Mobadan (Magi) موبدان, along with the military commander, the Iran (Eran) Spahbod ايران سپهد, and the head of the bureaucracy, the Vizier وزير, were the great men of the state. Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... Magi (Μάγοι) were Zoroastrian astrologer-priests from ancient Persia. ... Spahbod (Persian:سپهبد is consisted of two words: Spah سپه (army) bod بد (master) ) was a rank used in the Parthian empire and more widely in Sassanid dynasty of Persia (Iran). ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir, Wezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages) is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. ...


Conflicts

Shapur I and Valerian
Shapur I and Valerian

Initially, Sassanids, like Parthians, were in constant hostility with the Roman Empire. Following the division of the Roman empire in year 395, Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, replaced the Roman Empire as Persia's principal western enemy. Hostilities between the two empires became more frequent. Image File history File links Shapur_valerian. ... Image File history File links Shapur_valerian. ... Parthias greatest extent in 60 BCE The Parthian Empire had grown from the decline of the Seleucid Empire and during the first century BCE it came into contact with Rome when the general Crassus attempted to invade the kingdom. ... Articles in category Battles of the Sassanid Empire There are 15 articles in this section of this category. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


In the east, the Kushan Empire and different nomadic tribes such as White Huns were the empire's main enemies. These nomads constantly ravaged the province's eastern provinces. Tus citadel is one of the remaining Sassanid fortification in those regions. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The remains of Arg-e-Tus. ...


In the south, in central Arabia, Bedouin Arab tribes occasionally raided the Sassanid empire. Kingdom of Al-Hirah, a Sassanid vassal kingdom, was established to form a buffer zone between the empire's mainland and the Bedouin tribes. Dissolution of Kingdom of Al-Hirah by Khosrau II in 602 contributed greatly to decisive defeats Sassanid suffered against Bedouin Arabs in later century. These defeats resulted in a sudden takeover of Sassanids by Bedouin tribes under the Islamic banner. Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic , a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev... The Lakhmids (Arabic: ) or Muntherids (Arabic: ) were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southren Iraq, and made al-Hirah which was a fabulous city with many castles and bath-houses and Palm gardens their capital in 266 AD. Poets described it as a Paradise on earth, an Arab... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ...


In the north, Khazars and other Turkic nomads frequently assaulted northern provinces of the empire. They plundered Medes in year 634. Shortly thereafter, the Persian army defeated and drove them out. Sassanid built many fortifications in Caucasus region to halt these attacks. Sassanid fortress in Derbent, southern Russia, is one of the few remaining fortifications in this region. The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran and roughly the areas of present day Tehran,Hamedan,azarbaijan,north of Esfahan,zanjan,Kurdistan. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Darband is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ...


Iranian society under Sassanids

Sassanid silk twill textile of a Senmerv in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. A.D
Sassanid silk twill textile of a Senmerv in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. A.D
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Persian historians believe that society was divided into four classes: Priests (Atorbanan in Persian:آتروبانان), Warriors (Arteshtaran in Persian:ارتشتاران), Secretaries (Dabiran in Persian:دبيران), and Commoners (Vasteryoshan-Hootkheshan in Persian: هوتخشان-واستريوشان). At the center of Sassanid caste system was Shahanshah (king of kings) ruling over all the nobilities. Image File history File links Textile0001. ... Image File history File links Textile0001. ... Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simurgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia...


Sassanid society was very complex with many different people (including nomadic people) living inside the empire each having a separate organization. The royal princes, petty rulers, great landlords, and priests together constituted a privileged stratum, and the social system appears to have been fairly rigid. This caste system continued in the early Islamic period. During this time the higher classes were called Bozorgan.


Many new families had risen after dissolution of Parthian dynasty, even so some of the dominant Parthian clans from Seven Parthian clans remained important. At the court of the King of Kings Ardeshir I the founder of Sasanian dynasty, the Arsacid families of Suren-Pahlav and Karen-Pahlav, along with the Persian families of Varazes and Andigans, held positions of great honor. Ardeshir’s successor King of Kings Shapour I, used the Gondophar’s crest (a circle surrounded by crescent). This may indicate his relationship through his mother to the House of Suren-Pahlav. However, there is a complete analogy with the appearance, at the court of the King of Kings of Iran and Aniran (non-Iranian) of the new dynasty, of the kings of Merv, Abarshahr, Carmania, Sakastan, Iberia, and Adiabene, who are mentioned in the ranks of the nobles holding the positions of highest honor. The extensive domains of the Surens, Karens, and Varazes had become part of the original Sasanian state as semi-independent states. The Suren-Pahlavs maintained their rule over the Sakastan, and one of their branches ruled the area around Nishapur. Seven Clans or more accurately Seven Parthian clans (Persian, Haft Khandan) were seven different Parthian clans who constituted the Dahae Confederation. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London) Ardashir I (early Middle Persian ArÄ‘axÅ¡Ä“r Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom), also known as ArdashÄ«r-i Pāpagān Ardashir, son of PāpaÄŸ and as Artaxerxes, was ruler... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... The House of Suren-Pahlav, was one of the oldest surviving Iranian clans and was once member one of the Seven Parthian clans. ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis... Shapur refers to one of three Sassanian kings: Shapur I of Persia - 241 to 272 CE Shapur II of Persia - 309 to 379 CE Shapur III of Persia - 383 to 388 CE This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Aniran (in Persian انيران pronounced An-Iran meaning region outside Iran) was a general term used in ancient Iranian kingdoms before Islamic conquest of Iran to regions who were mostly inhabited by nomadic Iranian peoples such as Saka. ... Merv (Persian name: مرو), in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Kerman is a province rich in historical sites and monuments. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Aran or Arran is a historical geographical name used in early medieval times to define some parts of what is now republic Azerbaijan. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Location of Neyshapur Tomb of Omar Khayyám, Neishabur Tomb of Kamal-ol-Molk, Neishabur. ...


In general Bozorgan from Persian nobility had all the high-ranking positions. These included governors of border provinces (Marzban مرزبان). The majority of these positions were patrimonial, and for generations they belonged to a specific family. Those Marzbans of greatest seniority were permitted a silver throne, while Marzbans of the most strategic border provinces like Caucasus provine were allowed a golden throne. The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Religion

The Zoroastrian fire temple, Yazd, Iran.
The Zoroastrian fire temple, Yazd, Iran.

The religion of the Sassanian state was Zoroastrianism. The Zoroastrianism of the Sasanian state was not exactly what was suggested in the Avesta, the holy book of the religion. Sassanid Zoroastrian clergy modified the religion in a way to serve themselves. This caused great uneasiness. The Zoroastrian dominance set the ground for many religious reform movements, the most important one of them being religions of Mani and Mazdak. Download high resolution version (2011x1501, 603 KB)Main Fire Temple in Yazd, Iran July 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Zoroastrianism Dari (Zoroastrian) Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (2011x1501, 603 KB)Main Fire Temple in Yazd, Iran July 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Zoroastrianism Dari (Zoroastrian) Categories: GFDL images ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Mani may refer to: Mani Peninsula in Greece Maní, Yucatán, a small city in Yucatán, Mexico Mani, Evros, a town in the northeastern part of the Evros Prefecture in Greece Mani (prophet), a third-century Persian prophet, the founder of the dualistic Manichaean religion, which borrowed eclectically from... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Dualism constituted the most noticeable feature of Zoroastrianism. Dualism professed was of the most extreme and pronounced kind. Ormazd and Ahriman, the principles of Good and Evil, were expressly declared to be "twins." They had "in the beginning come together to create Life and Death, and to settle how the world was to be." There was no priority of existence of the one over the other, and no decided superiority. The two, being coeval, had contended from all eternity, and would, it was almost certain, continue to contend to all eternity, neither being able to vanquish the other. Thus an eternal struggle was postulated between good and evil; and the issue was doubtful, neither side possessing any clear and manifest advantage. It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... Angra Mainyu or Ahriman was the evil spirit in the dualistic strain of Zoroastrianism. ...


The two principles were Persons. Ormazd was "the creator of life, the earthly and the spiritual," he who "made the celestial bodies, earth, water, and trees." He was "good," "holy," "pure," "true," "the Holy God," "the Holiest," "the Essence of Truth," "the father of all truth," "the being best of all," "the master of purity." He was supremely "happy," being possessed of every blessing, "health, wealth, virtue, wisdom, immortality." From him came every good gift enjoyed by man; on the pious and the righteous he bestowed, not only earthly advantages, but precious spiritual gifts, truth, devotion, "the good mind," and everlasting happiness; and, as he rewarded the good, so he also punished the bad, though this was an aspect in which he was but seldom represented.[1]


In the purer times of the Zoroastrian religion it would seem that neither Ormazd nor Ahriman was represented by sculptured forms. A symbolism alone was permitted, which none could mistake for a real attempt to portray these august beings. But by the date of the Sassanian revival, the original spirit of the religion had suffered considerable modification; and it was no longer thought impious, or perilous, to exhibit the heads of the Pantheon, in the forms regarded as appropriate to them, upon public monuments. The great Artaxerxes, probably soon after his accession, set up a memorial of his exploits, in which he represented himself as receiving the insignia of royalty from Ormazd himself, while Ahriman, prostrate and seemingly, though of course not really, dead, lay at the feet of the steed on which Ormazd was mounted. In the form of Ormazd there is nothing very remarkable; he is attired like the king, has a long beard and flowing locks, and carries in his left hand a huge staff or baton, which he holds erect in a slanting position. The figure of Ahriman possesses more interest. The face wears an expression of pain and suffering; but the features are calm, and in no way disturbed. They are regular, and at least as handsome as those of Artaxerxes and his divine patron. He wears a band or diadem across the brow, above which we see a low cap or crown. From this escape the heads and necks of a number of vipers or snakes, fit emblems of the poisonous and "death−dealing" Evil One.[2]


The Zoroastrian worship was intimately connected with fire−temples and fire−altars. A fire−temple was maintained in every important city throughout the empire; and in these a sacred flame, believed to have been lighted from heaven, was kept up perpetually, by the care of the priests, and was spoken of as "unextinguishable." Fire−altars probably also existed, independently of temples; and an erection of this kind maintained from first to last an honorable position on the Sassanian coins, being the main impress upon the reverse. It was represented with the flame rising from it, and sometimes with a head in the flame; its stem was ornamented with garlands or fillets; and on either side, as protectors or as worshippers, were represented two figures, sometimes watching the flame, sometimes turned from it, guarding it apparently from external enemies.

Sassanid influence didn't remain confined to its borders. In this depiction from Qizil, Tarim Basin China, The "Tocharian donors", are dressed in Sassanid style.
Sassanid influence didn't remain confined to its borders. In this depiction from Qizil, Tarim Basin China, The "Tocharian donors", are dressed in Sassanid style.

In addition to Zoroastrianism, other religions, particularly Christianity existed in the Sassanid society, and they were mostly free to practice and preach their belief. Christians of Iran belonging mainly to the Nestorian and Jacobite branches kept close relations with the Byzantine church. They occasionally helped the Byzantine armies in manoeuvres against Iran. Most of the Christians in the Sassanid empire lived on the western edge of the empire. Armenians, previously Zoroastrians, were the first people in the empire to convert to Christianity. Download high resolution version (776x603, 549 KB)Fresco from Qizil. ... Download high resolution version (776x603, 549 KB)Fresco from Qizil. ... Tocharian donors, with light hair and light eye color, dressed in Sassanian style, 6th century CE fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


Relations with China

See Iran-China relations for main discussion Iran-China relations date back over many centuries. ...


Sassanids like Parthians had an active relationship with Chinese Emperors and sent many ambassadors to China. On different occasions, Sassanid kings sent their most talented Persian musicians and dancers to the Chinese imperial court. Wealth brought from the Silk Road made both empires very protective of the road and tied them more closely to each other. They co-operated in guarding the road in the Central Asia region and built many outposts in the border areas to keep caravans safe from nomadic tribes and bandits. Following the invasion of Iran by Muslim Arabs, Pirooz, son of Yazdegerd III, along with a few Persian nobles escaped and took refuge in the Chinese imperial court. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ...


Expansion to India

Figure in Sassanian dress North-western India, probably Punjab Hills Late 6th/early 7th century Sandstone
Figure in Sassanian dress North-western India, probably Punjab Hills Late 6th/early 7th century Sandstone
  • Main article: Indo-Sassanian

After The Sassanids came to power in Persia in 226, the second emperor, Shapur I (240-270), extended his authority eastwards into what is today Pakistan and northwestern India. The previously autonomous Kushans were obliged to accept his suzerainty. File links The following pages link to this file: Sassanid dynasty ... File links The following pages link to this file: Sassanid dynasty ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Successive Sassanid emperors were either tolerant of other religions or pursued policies of persecution, particularly against Christians. In India, the Kushans were generally tolerant of indigenous beliefs. Their traded goods such as silverware and textiles depicted the Sassanid emperors engaged in hunting or administering justice. This spread awareness of their imperial example in Kushan India. Kushan art honoring Persian styles facilitated the political relationship. Adopting Persian forms rather than Indian, also helped the Kushans maintain aloofness from their subjects.


Although the Kushan empire declined at the end of the 3rd century, leading to the rise to power of an indigenous Indian dynasty, the Guptas in the 4th century, it is clear that Sassanid influence remained relevant in India's north-west. Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455 CE). ...


Numerous cultural exchanges took place between Persia and India in this period. For example, Persia imported Chess from India and changed the game's name to chatrang (see history of chess). In exchange, Persians introduced Backgammon to India. Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... Close-up of modern backgammon set. ...


Under Khosrau I's auspices, many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. Khosrau's minister, Burzoe, translated Indian Panchatantra from Sanscrit into the middle Persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh va Demneh. These translations later found their way to Arabia and Europe. Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ... ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ...


Important Persian figures in the Sassanid era

Queen Purandokht, the last woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630.
Queen Purandokht, the last woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630.
Please improve this section according to the posted request for expansion.

Image File history File links Drachma of Queen Buran 630 AD. State Hermitage Museum, St. ... Image File history File links Drachma of Queen Buran 630 AD. State Hermitage Museum, St. ... Queen Poran, the only woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630 AD.State Hermitage Museum ,St. ... Mani (in Persian مانی), born in western Persia (approximately 210-276 A.D.), was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient gnostic religion that was once prolific but now considered extinct. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. ... Queen Poran, the only woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630 AD.State Hermitage Museum ,St. ... Barbod or Barbod the Great was the court musician of the Sassanid Empire. ... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Nakisa was the court musician of the Sassanids. ... Rostam Farrokhzād (رستم فرّخزاد in Persian) was the commander of the Sāsānian Empires armed forced under the reign of Yazdgird III, r. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...

Art and science

Please improve this section according to the posted request for expansion.
Bust of a Sassanian King, 5th-7th Century
Bust of a Sassanian King, 5th-7th Century
Sasanian Silver-gilt Vessels, 5th-7th Century
Sasanian Silver-gilt Vessels, 5th-7th Century
Sasanian Silver-gilt plate, 5th-7th century
Sasanian Silver-gilt plate, 5th-7th century
Dish Shapur II Hunting Lions 4th century,(State Hermitage Museum ,St. Petersburg, Russia.)
Dish Shapur II Hunting Lions 4th century,(State Hermitage Museum ,St. Petersburg, Russia.)

In many ways the Sassanian period (224-633) witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization and constituted the last great Persian Empire before the Muslim conquest. In fact much of what later became known as Muslim culture, architecture, writing and other skills, were taken mainly from the Persians into the broad Muslim world. According to Will Durant, Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, as they still do today. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Taq-e-kasra, Built during the Persian empire of the Sassanide dynasty. ... Here are the list of castles whove been built by Sassanid dynasty of Persia. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ... William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885—November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher and writer. ...


"Sassanid art fulfilled its mission by spreading artistic forms in India, Turk lands, China, Egypt, Constantinple, the Balkans and Spain. Perhaps its influence also helped Greek art to free itself from classical approach and move toward what eventually became Byzantine art. The art of making large gates and domes in the Sassanid era made its way into Islamic architecture." The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sofia) in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) - the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ...


The Sassanian Dynasty, like the Achaemenian, originated in the province of Persis (Fars). They saw themselves as successors to the Achaemenians, after the Hellenistic and Parthian interlude, and perceived it as their role to restore the greatness of Persia. External links Official website of Fars Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


At its peak, the Sassanian Empire stretched from Syria to north-west India, but its influence was felt far beyond these political boundaries. Sassanian motifs found their way into the art of central Asia and China, the Byzantine Empire, and even Merovingian France. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ...


In reviving the glories of the Achaemenian past, the Sassanians were no mere imitators. The art of this period reveals an astonishing virility. In certain respects it anticipates features later developed during the Islamic period. The conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great inaugurated the spread of Hellenistic art into Western Asia. Though the East accepted the outward form of this art, it never really assimilated its spirit. Already in the Parthian period, Hellenistic art was being interpreted freely by the peoples of the Near East. Throughout the Sassanian period there was reaction against it. Sassanian art revived forms and traditions native to Persia, and in the Islamic period these reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Missing image Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of today... The Persian Empire refers to lands ruled by a number of Persian dynasties. ... Alexander the Great fighting Persian king Darius (not in frame) (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...


Surviving palaces illustrate the splendour in which the Sassanian monarchs lived. Examples in clude palaces at Firouzabad and Bishapur in Fars and the capital city of Ctesiphon in Khvarvaran province, Iraq. In addition to local traditions, Parthian architecture influenced Sassanian architectural characteristics. All are characterised by the barrel-vaulted iwans introduced in the Parthian period. During the Sassanian period, they reached massive proportions, particularly at Ctesiphon. The arch of the great vaulted hall at Ctesiphon, attributed to the reign of Shapur I (241-272), has a span of more than 80 feet and reaches a height of 118 feet. This magnificent structure fascinated architects in the centuries that followed and has been considered one of the most important examples of Persian architecture. Many of the palaces contain an inner audience hall constituting, as at Firuzabad, of a chamber surmounted by a dome. The Persians solved the problem of constructing a circular dome on a square building by the squinch. This is an arch built across each corner of the square, thereby converting it into an octagon on which it is simple to place the dome. The dome chamber in the palace of Firouzabad is the earliest surviving example of the use of the squinch and so there is good reason for regarding Persia as its place of invention. Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Khvārvarān, (Modern Iraq)From the Fall of Sasanian Dynasty to the Arab Occupations and Umayyads In CE 600 the country which in our modern time known as Iraq was a province of the Iranian Empire, to which it had belonged to Iran since Cyrus the Great. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ...


The unique characteristic of Sassanian architecture was its distinctive use of space. The Sassanian architect conceived his building in terms of masses and surfaces; hence the use of massive walls of brick decorated with molded or carved stucco. Stucco wall decorations appear at Bishapur, but better examples are preserved from Chal Tarkhan near Rayy (late Sassanian or early Islamic in date), and from Ctesiphon and Kish in Mesopotamia. The panels show animal figures set in roundels, human busts, and geometric and floral motifs. Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Kish, an ancient city in Sumer, now in Iraq Kish, an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf Kish, a person in Bible The Kish Bank is a shallow in the Irish Sea, a fishing ground. ...


At Bishapur some of the floors were decorated with mosaics showing scenes of merrymaking as at a banquet. The Roman influence here is clear, and the mosaics may have been laid by Roman prisoners. Buildings were decorated with wall paintings. Particularly fine examples have been found at Kuh-i Khwaja in Sistan. City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


Studies on Sassanid remains show over 100 types of crowns being worn by Sassanid kings. The various Sassanid crowns demonstrate the cultural, economic, social, and historical situation in each period. The crowns also show the character traits of each king in this era.


There are different symbols and signs on the crowns of Sassanid kings including the moon, stars, eagle, and palm, each illustrating the wearer's religious faith and beliefs.


Sassanid army

Ardashir II is believed to be standing here in this relief at Kermanshah, Iran. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below him is a mounted Persian knight.
Enlarge
Ardashir II is believed to be standing here in this relief at Kermanshah, Iran. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below him is a mounted Persian knight.

The backbone of the Persian army (Spah) in the Sassanid era was their heavy armoured cavalry. The Clibanarii cavalry of Shapur II is described by Greek historian Ammianus Marcellinus as follows: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (522x768, 309 KB) Summary Subject: One of the oldest depictions of a Knight from the Sassanide relief. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (522x768, 309 KB) Summary Subject: One of the oldest depictions of a Knight from the Sassanide relief. ... Ardashir II was king of Persia from 379-383. ... Kermanshah (Also called KirmaÅŸan in Kurdish Language) is the capital of Kermanshah Province of Iran. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... Temple of Anahita: Goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... The Persian Knight. ... The Clibanarii (from the Latin, clibani, meaning campoven) were a late Roman and Byzantine military unit of heavy armored horsemen. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Ammianus Marcellinus is a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ...


All the companies were clad in iron, and all parts of their bodies were covered with thick plates, so fitted that the stiff-joints conformed with those of their limbs; and the forms of human faces were so skillfully fitted to their heads, that since their entire body was covered with metal, arrows that fell upon them could lodge only where they could see a little through tiny openings opposite the pupil of the eye, or where through the tip of their nose they were able to get a little breath. Of these some who were armed with pikes, stood so motionless that you would have thought them held fast by clamps of bronze.


Some of the Sassanid army units and their weaponry:

Indian war elephant, relief at Mathura, 2nd century BC War elephants were important, although not widespread, weapons in ancient military history. ... The Clibanarii (from the Latin, clibani, meaning campoven) were a late Roman and Byzantine military unit of heavy armored horsemen. ... The word cataphract (Greek κατάφρακτος) was what Greek- and later Latin-speaking peoples used to describe heavy cavalry. ... Guilan or Gilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ...

Sassanid Empire chronology

Sassanid rulers
Ruler Year
Ardashir I 224 to 241
Shapur I 241 to 272
Hormizd I 272 to 273
Bahram I 273 to 276
Bahram II 276 to 293
Bahram III 293
Narseh 293 to 302
Hormizd II 302 to 310
Shapur II 310 to 379
Ardashir II 379 to 383
Shapur III 383 to 388
Bahram IV 388 to 399
Yazdegerd I 399 to 420
Bahram V 420 to 438
Yazdegerd II 438 to 457
Hormizd III 457 to 459
Peroz I 457 to 484
Balash 484 to 488
Kavadh I 488 to 531
Djamasp 496 to 498
Khosrau I 531 to 579
Hormizd IV 579 to 590
Khosrau II 590 to 628
Bahram Chobin 590 to 591
Kavadh II 628
Ardashir III 628 to 630
Peroz II 629
Shahrbaraz 630
Purandokht 630 to 631
Hormizd VI 631 to 632
Yazdgird III 632 to 651

226-241: Reign of Ardashir I Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London) Ardashir I (early Middle Persian Arđaxšēr Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom), also known as Ardashīr-i Pāpagān Ardashir, son of Pāpağ and as Artaxerxes, was ruler... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Hormizd I, king of Persia, (272-273) was the son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor of Khorasan, and appears in his wars against Rome (Trebellius Pollio, 2, where Noldeke has corrected the name Odomastes into Oromastes, i. ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Events Under the command of Emperor Aurelian, the Roman Army sacks the city of Palmyra. ... Bahram I, was king of Persia (AD 274-277). ... Events Under the command of Emperor Aurelian, the Roman Army sacks the city of Palmyra. ... Events Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeded Bahram I. Probus became Roman Emperor. ... Bahram II, king of Persia (277_294), son of Bahram I. During his reign the emperor Carus attacked the Persians and conquered Ctesiphon (283), but died by the plague. ... Events Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeded Bahram I. Probus became Roman Emperor. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Bahram III, king of Persia, son of Bahram II, under whose rule he had been governing Sejistan (therefore called Saganshah, Agathias iv. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Narseh (whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was a Sassanian King of Persia (292 - 303), and son of Shapur I. He rose as pretender to the throne against his grand-nephew Bahram III in AD 292, and soon became sole king. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Events Diocletian starts passing laws against Sassanid Shah Narseh. ... Hormizd II, king of Persia, son of Narseh, reigned for seven years and five months, 302-309. ... Events Diocletian starts passing laws against Sassanid Shah Narseh. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Shapur II the Great was king of Persia (309 - 379). ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Ardashir II was king of Persia from 379-383. ... Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Events January 19 - Arcadius is elevated as Roman Emperor. ... Shapur III was king of Persia from 383 to 388. ... Events January 19 - Arcadius is elevated as Roman Emperor. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... Bahram IV, king of Persia (389_399), son and successor of Shapur III, under whom he had been governor of Kirman; therefore he was called Kirmanshah (Armenia was divided between the Roman and the Persian empire. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... Yazdegerd I (made by God Izdigerdes), king of Persia, son of Shapur III, 399-420, called the sinner by the Persians. ... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... // Events End of the Jin Dynasty in China. ... Silver coin of Bahram V with fire temple on its verso (British Museum , London) Bahram V, king of Persia (420-439), also called Bahram Gur,son of Yazdegerd I, after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of al... // Events End of the Jin Dynasty in China. ... Events February 15 - The Codex Theodosianus, a collection of edicts of Roman law, is published. ... Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia was the son of Bahram V Gor and reigned from 438 to 457. ... Events February 15 - The Codex Theodosianus, a collection of edicts of Roman law, is published. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... Hormizd III, king of Persia, son of Yazdegerd II, succeeded his father in 457. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... Events Dathusena becomes king of Sri Lanka Arguably the worlds first recognizable labor union is formed in Turkey Births Deaths Simeon Stylites dies on top of his tower along the road from Antioch to Seleucia Hormizd III, king of Persia Category: ... Peroz (Peirozes, Priscus, fr. ... Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Balash (in the Greek authors, Balas; the later form of the name Vologaeses), Sassanian king in AD 484-488, was the brother and successor of Peroz, who had died in a battle against the Hephthalites (White Huns) who invaded Persia from the east. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. ... Kavadh I (449-531), son of Peroz, was a Sassanid king (488-531), crowned by the nobles in place of his deposed and blinded uncle Balash. ... Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Alt. ... Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. ... Events November 22 - After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected pope in the Lateran Palace, while Laurentius is elected pope in Santa Maria Maggiore. ... A coin of Khosrau I Khosrau I, (Anushirvan Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushirvan the just (Anushirvan Adel) (ruled 531-579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid kings. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. ... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Parvez, the Victorious (Khosau II), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... Bahrahm Chobin was a famous Eran spahbod (military commander) during Khosraus II rule in Sassanid Iran. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. ... Kavadh II Sheroe (Siroes), king of Persia, son of Khosrau II, was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the emperor Heraclius. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... Ardashir III, king of Persia from 628 to 630. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Shahrbaraz (? - June 9, 630 was a general for the Persian army under Khosrau II of Persia. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Queen Poran, the only woman on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630 AD.State Hermitage Museum ,St. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Hormizd VI (or V), king of Persia, was one of the many pretenders who rose after the murder of Khosrau II (628). ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. ...

241-271: Reign of Shapur I Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ...

271-301: A period of dynastic struggles Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ... Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Persians under King Shapur I on AD 259. ... Mani may refer to: Mani Peninsula in Greece Maní, Yucatán, a small city in Yucatán, Mexico Mani, Evros, a town in the northeastern part of the Evros Prefecture in Greece Mani (prophet), a third-century Persian prophet, the founder of the dualistic Manichaean religion, which borrowed eclectically from... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ...


309-379: Reign of Shapur II "the Great" Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...

  • 337-350: First war with Rome with a relatively little success.
  • 358-363: Second war with Rome. Great victories, extending eastern and western borders of empire.

399-420: Reign of Yazdegerd I "the Sinner" Yazdegerd I (made by God Izdigerdes), king of Persia, son of Shapur III, 399-420, called the sinner by the Persians. ...

  • 409: Christian are permitted to publicly worship and to build churches.
  • 416-420: Persecution of Christians as Yazdegerd revokes his earlier order.

420-438: Reign of Bahram V. Bahram V, king of Persia (420-439), also called Bahram Gur,son of Yazdegerd I, after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of al-Mondhir, the Arabic dynast of Hira. ...

  • 420-422: War with Rome.
  • 424: Council of Dad-Ishu declares the Eastern Church independent of Constantinople.

438-457: Reign of Yazdegerd II. Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia was the son of Bahram V Gor and reigned from 438 to 457. ...

483: Edict of Toleration granted to Christians Combatants Sassanid Empire Armenian rebels Commanders Yazdegerd II Vartan Mamikonian Strength 180,000 to 220,000(According to Armenian sources) 60,000 Casualties Unknown Heavy Battle of Vartanantz (May 26, 451) is remembered by Armenians as probably the greatest battle in their history. ...


491: Armenian Church repudiates the Council of Chalcedon. The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8–November 1, 451 at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ...

531-579: Reign of Khosrau I, "with the immortal soul" (Anushirvan) The Assyrian Church of the East is a church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. ...


533: "Treaty of Endless Peace" with Rome.


540-562: War with Rome.


590-628: Reign of Khosrau II Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ...


603-628: War with Rome. Conquests in Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Anatolia, Persia nearly restored to boundaries of Achaemenid dynasty before being beaten back by Romans. Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ...


610: Arabs defeat a Sassanid army at Dhu-Qar.


626: Unsuccessful siege of Constantinople by Avars and Persians. Map of Constantinople. ...


627: Roman Emperor Heraclius invades Assyria and Mesopotamia. Definitive defeat of Persian forces at the battle of Nineveh by the joint Byzantine force. Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... There were two battles with this name Battle of Nineveh (612 BC) - Fall of Assyria Battle of Nineveh (627) - Byzantine-Persian Wars This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


628-632: Chaotic period of multiple rulers.


632-642: Reign of Yazdgird III Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ...


636: Decisive Sassanid defeat at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah during the Islamic conquest of Iran. The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...


642: Final victory of Arabs when Persian army destroyed at Nahavand (Nehavand). Nahavand (also spelled Nahawand in some texts) is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. ...


651: Last Sassānid ruler Yazdgird III murdered at Merv, present-day Turkmenistan, ending the dynasty. His son Pirooz and many others went into exile in China. Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ...


In modern media

The Sassanid Empire is one of a number of factions in the 2005 PC game Rome Total War: Barbarian invasion. Rome: Total War is a grand strategy computer game where players fight historical and fictious battles during the era of the Roman Republic, from 270 BCE to 14 CE. The game was developed by Creative Assembly and released on September 22, 2004. ...


Notes

  1. ^ George Rawlinson "The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World: The Seventh Monarchy: History of the Sassanian or New Persian Empire" Page 176
  2. ^ George Rawlinson "The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World: The Seventh Monarchy: History of the Sassanian or New Persian Empire" Page 177

References

History of Iran
edit
  • Dr. Abd al-Husayn Zarrin’kub "Ruzgaran : tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi" Sukhan, 1999. ISBN 964-6961-11-8
  • Dr. David Nicolle "Sassanian Armies : the Iranian empire early 3rd to mid-7th centuries AD" Montvert, 1996. ISBN 1-874101-08-6
  • Dr. Ali Akbar Sarfaraz, Dr. Bahman Firuzmandi "Mad, Hakhamanishi, Ashkani, Sasani" Marlik, 1996. ISBN 964-90495-1-7
  • George Rawlinson "The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World: The Seventh Monarchy: History of the Sassanian or New Persian Empire" IndyPublish.com, 2005. ISBN 1421957345
  • The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies at SOAS (CASI at SOAS)
  • Iran Chamber Society (History of Iran)

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The history of Iran covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azerbaijan, Shahr-e Sookhteh (Burned City) in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian and following Empires to the... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000-660 BC of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran and roughly the areas of present day Tehran,Hamedan,azarbaijan,north of Esfahan,zanjan,Kurdistan. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The famous Samanid mausoleum of Ismail of Samanid in Bukhara. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Mullahs in the royal presence. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ...

See also

Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... Marked are the Sasaanid rulers who all reigned the empire at one time. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000-660 BC of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. ... Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, as they still do today. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur etc. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Persian Knight. ... The Zoroastrian calendar (sometimes referred to as the Persian calendar) has a year that is 365 days long, composed of 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional period of 5 days at the end of the year. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... Darband is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... Takht e Soleyman, or Takht e Soleiman, is the holiest shrine of Zoroastrism and Sassanid Empire, now a World Heritage Site near the town of Takab in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... Aerial view of Ardeshirs castle ruins, built by Ardashir I of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. ... Ghaleh Dokhtar castle ruins, Iran, built by Ardashir I in 209AD, before he was finally able to defeat the Parthian empire. ... The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, 1001 Arabian Nights, or simply the Arabian Nights, is a piece of classic Arabic literature in... (Redirected from 1001 Nights) The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, 1001 Arabian Nights, or simply the Arabian Nights, is a piece of...

External links



  Results from FactBites:
 
Sassanid dynasty (1267 words)
Dynasty of Ancient Iran (224- 651 CE), which at its largest covered an area of modern Iran and Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and large parts of Pakistan.
After the fall of the dynasty, and the arrival of Muslim rulers over the old Iranian territories, Zoroastrianism would gradually loose its importance.
Despite the conflicts, this year is defined as the beginning of the Sassanid Dynasty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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