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Encyclopedia > Sassanid art

Sassanid art is the term commonly used to describe the various artistic products of the Sassanid Empire of Persia from about the 3rd century until its fall of Ctesiphon in 640. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia (Iran) during the era of the third Persian Empire from 224 until 651. ... Motto: Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic (Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ«) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Supreme Leader President Islamic republic Ali Khamenei Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Declared Against Mohammad Reza Pahlavi February... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ...

Contents


Architecture

Tâgh-i Kasrâ at Ctesiphon, Drawn in 1824 by Captain Hart.
Tâgh-i Kasrâ at Ctesiphon, Drawn in 1824 by Captain Hart.
Main article: Sassanid architecture

Extant Sasanian architecture is entirely secular; the fire temples have disappeared, and only royal palaces remain; and these are "gigantic skeletons," with their ornamental stucco facing long since fallen away. The oldest of these ruins is the so-called palace of Ardashir I at Firuzabad, southeast of Shiraz. No one knows its date; guesses range from 340 B.C. to A.D. 460. After fifteen centuries of heat and cold, theft and war, the enormous dome still covers a hall one hundred feet high and fifty-five wide. A portal arch eighty-nine feet high and forty-two wide divided a facade 170 feet long; this facade crumbled in our time. From the rectangular central hall squinch arches led up to a circular dome. By an unusual and interesting arrangement, the pressure of the dome was borne by a double hollow wall, whose inner and outer frames were spanned by a barrel vault; and to this reinforcement of inner by outer wall were added external buttresses of attached pilasters of heavy stones. Here was an architecture quite different from the classic columnar style of Persepolis- crude and clumsy, but using forms that would come to perfection in the St. Sophia of Justinian. Palace in Ctesiphon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Palace in Ctesiphon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Taq-e-kasra, Built during the Persian empire of the Sassanide dynasty. ... The Yazd Atash Behram A Fire Temple (also Dar-e Mihr, or Atash Kadeh in Iran, Agiary in India, and various names in North America) is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ... Firuzabad is a town of south-central Iran, in the province of Fars, 72 mi. ... Shiraz can refer to: Shiraz, Iran Shiraz grape/wine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Location of Persepolis Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ...


Painting, sculpture, pottery and textile

Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simurgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. A.D
Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simurgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. A.D

Apparently Sassanid carvings at Taq-e Bostan and Naksh-i Rustam were colored; so were many features of the palaces; but only traces of such painting remain. The literature, however, makes it clear that the art of painting flourished in Sasanian times; the prophet Mani is reported to have founded a school of painting; Firdowsi speaks of Persian magnates adorning their mansions with pictures of Iranian heroes; and the poet al-Buhturi describes the murals in the palace at Ctesiphon. When a Sasanian king died, the best painter of the time was called upon to make a portrait of him for a collection kept in the royal treasury. Painting, sculpture, pottery, and other forms of decoration shared their designs with Sasanian textile art. Silks, embroideries, brocades, damasks, tapestries, chair covers, canopies, tents, and rugs were woven with servile patience and masterly skill, and were dyed in warm tints of yellow, blue, and green. Every Persian but the peasant and the priest aspired to dress above his class; presents often took the form of sumptuous garments; and great colorful carpets had been an appanage of wealth in the East since Assyrian days. The two dozen Sasanian textiles that escaped the teeth of time are the most highly valued fabrics in existence. Even in their own day Sasanian textiles were admired and imitated from Egypt to far east; and during the Crusades these pagan products were favored for clothing the relics of Christian saints. When [Heraclius] captured the palace of Khosru Parvez at Dastagird, delicate embroideries and an immense rug were among his most precious spoils. Famous was the "winter carpet" of Khosru Anushirvan, designed to make him forget winter in its spring and summer scenes: flowers and fruits made of inwoven rubies and diamonds grew, in this carpet, beside walks of silver and brooks of pearls traced on a ground of gold. Harun al-Rashid prided himself on a spacious Sasanian rug thickly studded with jewelry. Persians wrote love poems about their rugs. Image File history File links Textile0001. ... Image File history File links Textile0001. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simurgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. ... Kermanshah or Taq-i-Bustan , is located in western Iran , four miles north-East of Kermanshah. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mani (in Persian مانی), born in western Persia (approximately 210-276 A.D.), was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient gnostic religion that was once prolific but now considered extinct. ... فردوسی Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Assyrian may refer to: List of Assyrian settlements Anything from Assyria, an ancient empire in Mesopotamia Anything from Assyria (Roman province), a province of the Roman Empire Assyrian people, a present-day Middle Eastern ethnic group Several Christian denominations: Assyrian Church of the East Assyrian Church of the Easts... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. ... Persian miniature depicting Harun al-Rashid. ...


Ceramic and metalwork

Dish Shapur II Hunting Lions 4th century,(State Hermitage Museum ,St. Petersburg, Russia.)
Dish Shapur II Hunting Lions 4th century,(State Hermitage Museum ,St. Petersburg, Russia.)

Ceramic art was highly developed in Achaemenid times, and must have had some continuance under the Sasanians to reach such perfection in Islamic Iran. Ernest Fenellosa thought that Persia might be the center from which the art of enamel spread even to the Far East; and art historians debate whether Sasanian Persia or Syria or Byzantium originated lusterware and cloisonne. Sasanian metalworkers made ewers, jugs, bowls, and cups as if for a giant race; turned them on lathes; incised them with graver or chisel, or hammered out a design in repousse from the obverse side; and used gay animal forms, ranging from cock to lion, as handles and spouts. The famous glass "Cup of Khosru" in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris has medallions of crystal glass inserted into a network of beaten gold; tradition reckons this among the gifts sent by Harun to Charlemagne. The Goths may have learned this art of inlay from Persia, and may have brought it to the West. The silversmiths made costly plate, and helped the goldsmiths to adorn lords, ladies, and commoners with jewelry. Several Sasanian silver dishes survive- in the British Museum, the Leningrad Hermitage, the Bibliotheque Nationale, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art; always with kings or nobles at the hunt, and animals more fondly and successfully drawn than men. Sasanian coins sometimes rivaled Rome's in beauty, as in the issues of Shapur I. Even Sasanian books could be works of art; tradition tells how gold and silver trickled from the bindings when Mani's books were publicly burned. Precious materials were also used in Sasanian furniture: Khosru I had a gold table inlaid with costly stones; and Khosru II sent to his savior, the Emperor Maurice, an amber table five feet in diameter, supported on golden feet and encrusted with gems. This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... DVD cover for the film adaptation of Maurice. ...


Literature and pottery

Main article: Pahlavi literature

Of Sasanian Literature and pottery little remains except very few pieces mainly due to burn down of Science and medical academy of Gundishapur and pillage of Sassanid palaces by invading Muslim Arabs during the Islamic conquest of Persia where many of ancient Persian books were stored. This article needs to be wikified. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Sassanid influence

Sassanian art revived forms and traditions native to Persia; and in the Islamic period these reached the shores of the Mediterranean. The influence of sassanid architecture reached far beyond their borders, it had a distinctive influnce on Byzantine architecture and Islamic architecture. Islamic architecture in fact borrowed heavily from Persian architecture. Baghdad, for example, was based on Persian precedents such as Firouzabad in Persia. In fact, it is now known that the two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian, and Mashallah, a former Jew from Khorasan, Iran. The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of Macedonian dynasty. ... Islamic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved within Muslim culture in the course of the history of Islam. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ) (Bexda in Kurdish) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sassanid art

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry, as they still do today. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ...

External links

  • The Art of Sassanians
  • Sasanian art, culture and history
  • Sassanid crowns
  • Sassanid coins
  • Sassanid textile
  • Islamic Metalwork The continuation of Sassanid Art
  • A Review of Sassanid Images and Inscriptions
  • Sasanians in Africa in Transoxiana 4.
  • Ctesiphon ; The capital of the Parthian and the Sassanid empires, By: Jona Lendering

 
 

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