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Encyclopedia > Sassanid
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Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent

The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia during the era of the second Persian For alternative meanings, see Empire (disambiguation) An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. By extension, one could classify as... Empire, from Years: 220 221 222 223 - 224 - 225 226 227 228 Decades: 190s 200s 210s - 220s - 230s 240s 250s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. Births Deaths Categories: 224 ... 224 until Years: 647 648 649 650 - 651 - 652 653 654 655 Decades: 620s 630s 640s - 650s - 660s 670s 680s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. End of the Afghanistan and capture Herat. The bakt between Egypt and Makuria... 651, when the last Sassanid Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian word khshathra king, is the Persian term for a monarch and used by the former rulers of Persia (present-day Iran) as well as the rulers of the Persian Empire. The title roughly translates as Emperor in English as the... shah, Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. He was a mere child and never really ruled... Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Umayyad Caliphate, the first of the This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Islamic empires.

Contents

The Empire

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Bust of a Sassanian King, 5th-7th Century CE
 flag in sassanid era
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Derafsh Kaviani Persia or Persian most often refer to: Persia The Persians, an ethnic group, also called Tajiks Persian language Persian (Pokémon) See also Iranian, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages and Aryan. The terms can also refer to topics in: Contents // 1 Persian culture and history 2 Plants and animals named after... Persian flag in sassanid era

The Sassanid era began in earnest in Years: 224 225 226 227 - 228 - 229 230 231 232 Decades: 190s 200s 210s - 220s - 230s 240s 250s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Shah Artashir I, four years after establishing the Sassanid Persian Empire, completes his conquest of Parthia. Births Deaths Domitius Ulpian, Roman jurist (murdered in... 228, when the Shah Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. Ardashir was born in the late second Century CE. He inherited a tribal kingship of the Fars province, Persis, in 208. He rapidly extended his territory, defeating his... Ardashir I destroyed the Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Contents // 1 Origins 2 The Parthian Empire 3 The Indo... Parthian Empire which had held sway over the region for centuries. He and his successors created a vast empire, based in Firouzabad, External links Official website of Fars Governorship (http://www.farsprovince.com/) Provinces of Iran Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azarbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and... Fars, which included those lands of the old History of Iran also referred to as Persia Median Empire Achaemenid dynasty Seleucid dynasty Parthian Empire Sassanid dynasty Samanid dynasty Islamic Republic of Iran Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height... Achaemenid Persian empire east of the The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define... Euphrates River. The Sassanids wanted to recreate the glories of ancient Iran and claimed to Persianise the country. They made The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. Zoroastrianism is the name given to a religion practiced by several hundred thousand people. While there are few Zoroastrians now, it once was the official religion of Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). From The New York... Zoroastrianism the state religion and claimed in inscriptions to have persecuted other faiths (although these claims are not reflected in native Jewish and Christian sources of the time). It was the shahs' long sought-after goal to reunify all of the old Achaemenid territory, which brought them into frequent wars against the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire and The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The... Byzantine Empire.


Ardeshir's son Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. The Persian legend which makes him the son of an Arsacid princess is not historical. Ardashir I had towards the end of his reign renewed the war against Rome; Shapur conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and... Shapur I ( Years: 237 238 239 240 - 241 - 242 243 244 245 Decades: 210s 220s 230s - 240s - 250s 260s 270s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... 241 Years: 268 269 270 271 - 272 - 273 274 275 276 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. During the... 272) continued this expansion, conquering Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). To the east, it was bordered by the ancient region of Gandhara in the Indian subcontinent. Bactrias inhabitants spoke... Bactria and Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150 The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China... Kushan, while leading several campaigns against Rome. In Years: 255 256 257 258 - 259 - 260 261 262 263 Decades: 220s 230s 240s - 250s - 260s 270s 280s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Postumus revolts against Gallienus, in Gaul. The western provinces of Britain and Spain, join his independent realm—which is called in modern times... 259, the Persian army defeated the Roman emperor Valerian at the battle of This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. Edessa may be one of the following... Edessa where more than 70,000 Roman soldiers were captured or slain. Valerian then tried to negotiate a peace with Shapur, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. Shapur used Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse, thus subjecting a Roman emperor to the ultimate humiliation by a foreign leader. Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.


Near the end of the ( (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Definitive declaration of biblical canon: Council... 5th century a new enemy, the barbaric The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. The term Hephthalite derives from Greek, supposedly a rendering of Hayathelite, the name used by Persian writers to refer to a 6th century... Hephthalites, or "White Huns," attacked Persia; they defeated the Persian king This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Peroz (Peirozes, Priscus, fr. 33; Perozes, Procop. Pers. I. 3 and Agath. iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Feroz, Firuz), Sassanid king of Persia, AD 457-484, son of Yazdegerd... Firuz (or Peroz) I in Years: 479 480 481 482 - 483 - 484 485 486 487 Decades: 450s 460s 470s - 480s - 490s 500s 510s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events March 13 - Pope Felix III succeeds Pope Simplicius The general Illus and Verina, mother-in-law of Byzantine emperor Zeno I, attempt to overthrow... 483 and for some years thereafter exacted heavy tribute. It was not until the reign of Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. According to one account, Khosrau was the Kavadhs son through a peasant girl, and was originally considered unworthy of inheriting his fathers throne. His... Khosroe (or Khosrau) I ( Years: 527 528 529 530 - 531 - 532 533 534 535 Decades: 500s 510s 520s - 530s - 540s 550s 560s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. Khosrau I succeeds Kavadh I as king... 531 Years: 575 576 577 578 - 579 - 580 581 582 583 Decades: 540s 550s 560s - 570s - 580s 590s 600s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. Pope Benedict I is succeeded by Pope Pelagius II. Northern Zhou Wu Di succeeded by Northern... 579), one of the greatest Sassanian rulers, that the Huns were beaten. Khosro I (531-579 CE), also known as Anushirvan the Just, is the most celebrated of the Sassanid rulers. He reformed the tax system and reorganized the army and the bureaucracy, tying the army more closely to the central government than to local lords. His reign witnessed the rise of the dihqans (literally, village lords), the petty landholding nobility who were the backbone of later Sassanid provincial administration and the tax collection system. Khosro was a great builder, embellishing his capital, founding new towns, and constructing new buildings. He rebuilt the canals and restocked the farms, which had been destroyed in the wars. He built strong fortifications at the passes and placed subject tribes in carefully chosen towns on the frontiers, so that they could act as guardians of the state against invaders.


Justinian paid Khosrow 440,000 pieces of gold as a bribe to keep the peace, but he seems to have been a man who genuinely enjoyed the fruits of peace and saw no reason to continue a senseless war. He was tolerant of all religions, though he decreed that The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. Zoroastrianism is the name given to a religion practiced by several hundred thousand people. While there are few Zoroastrians now, it once was the official religion of Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). From The New York... Zoroastrianism should be the official state religion, but he was not unduly disturbed when one of his sons became a Christian. Under his auspices, too, many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for... Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world.


System of Governing

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Sassanid Bas-relief, Tagh-e Bostan, Kermanshah
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A rock relief at Naqshe Rostam, near Shiraz Tomb of Naksh-i Rustam (also Naqsh-i Rustam or Nakshi Rustam) is an archaeological site in Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. The name... Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. The Persian legend which makes him the son of an Arsacid princess is not historical. Ardashir I had towards the end of his reign renewed the war against Rome; Shapur conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and... Shapur I over the Roman Emperor Valerian may mean: Valerian, two genera of garden plants Emperor Valerian I, Roman emperor 253-260 Valerian II, son of Gallienus (d. 258) St. Valerian, bishop of Abbenza (d. 457), Valerian, a comics character This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Valerian, and Philip the Arabian.

The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the History of Iran also referred to as Persia Median Empire Achaemenid dynasty Seleucid dynasty Parthian Empire Sassanid dynasty Samanid dynasty Islamic Republic of Iran Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height... Achaemenids, with the capital at Taq-i-Kasra, Ctesiphon, today. Ctesiphon was one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Persian Empire, for more than 600 years. Located approximately 20 miles southeast of the modern city of Baghdad, along the river Tigris... Ctesiphon. The Sassanids consciously sought to resuscitate Iranian may refer to: Iranians Iran Persian See also: List of topics related to Iran This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix... Iranian traditions and to obliterate Greek cultural influence. Their rule was characterized by considerable centralization, ambitious urban planning, agricultural development, and technological improvements. Sassanid rulers adopted the title of Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. It literally means Shah of Shahs, or King of Kings. Categories: Stub | Titles ... shahanshah (king of kings), as sovereigns over numerous petty rulers, known as shahrdars. Historians believe that society was divided into four classes: the priests, warriors, secretaries, and commoners. The royal princes, petty rulers, great landlords, and priests together constituted a privileged stratum, and the social system appears to have been fairly rigid. Sassanid rule and the system of social stratification were reinforced by The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. Zoroastrianism is the name given to a religion practiced by several hundred thousand people. While there are few Zoroastrians now, it once was the official religion of Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). From The New York... Zoroastrianism, which became the state religion. The Zoroastrian priesthood became immensely powerful. The head of the priestly class, the mobadan mobad, along with the military commander, the eran spahbod, and the head of the bureaucracy, were among the great men of the state. Rome, with its capital at Constantinople, had replaced Greece as Iran's principal Western enemy, and hostilities between the two empires were frequent. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. The Persian legend which makes him the son of an Arsacid princess is not historical. Ardashir I had towards the end of his reign renewed the war against Rome; Shapur conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and... Shapur I (240-272 CE), son and successor of Ardeshir, waged successful campaigns against the Romans and in 260 CE even took the emperor Valerian prisoner. Between 260 and 263 CE he had lost his conquest to Odenathus, and ally of Rome. Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). When King Hormizd II died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Romans); the throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd. It... Shapur II (ruled 309-379 CE) regained the lost territories, however, in three successive wars with the Romans.


Expansion to India

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Figure in Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). From The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art permanent collection. The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last... Sassanian dress North-western India, probably Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (sometimes spelt Panjab) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. Once a single entity, it is now split between two nations: see Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. Punjab, India covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square... Punjab Hills Late 6th/early 7th century Sandstone

After The Sassanians came to power in Iran in 226 A.D. The second emperor, Shapur (240-270 A.D.), extended his authority eastwards into India and the previously autonomous Kushans were obliged to accept his suzerainty. Successive Sassanian emperors were either tolerant of other religions or pursued policies of persecution, particularly against Christians, but in India the Kushans were generally tolerant of indigenous beliefs. Thanks to traded goods such as silverware and textiles depicting the Sassanian emperors engaged in hunting or administering justice, their imperial example became well known in Kushan India and, owing to the political relationship, it was wise for Kushan art to be seen to be drawing inspiration from Iran, imitation being one of the best forms of flattery. This adoption of Iranian forms, rather than Indian, also helped the Kushans to maintain their aloofness from their subjects. Although the Kushan empire declined at the end of the 3rd century, leading to the rise to power of an indigenous Indian dynasty, the Guptas, in the 4th century, it is clear that Sassanian influence remained relevant in the north-west.


Decline

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The palace ruins of Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. Ardashir was born in the late second Century CE. He inherited a tribal kingship of the Fars province, Persis, in 208. He rapidly extended his territory, defeating his... Ardashir I, founder of the dynasty, south of Contents // 1 Geography 2 History of Shiraz 3 Universities of Shiraz 4 Notable people 5 External links Geography Shiraz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). Its elevation is 1486 metres above sea level amidst the Zagros... Shiraz, Iran ( Persian ( Parsi پارسی ) Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan Region: Middle east Total speakers: 61.7 million Ranking: 29 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Indo-Iranian   Iranian    Western     Southwestern   ... Iran.

Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. He was raised to the throne by the magnates who had rebelled against Hormizd IV till 590, and soon after his father was blinded and killed. But at the same time the... Khosrau II came close to achieving the Sassanid dream of restoring the History of Iran also referred to as Persia Median Empire Achaemenid dynasty Seleucid dynasty Parthian Empire Sassanid dynasty Samanid dynasty Islamic Republic of Iran Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height... Achaemenid boundaries when For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). Jerusalem (Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see... Jerusalem fell to him and Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Modern Greek is the present vernacular language of Greece (also... Constantinople was under his siege in Years: 622 623 624 625 - 626 - 627 628 629 630 Decades: 590s 600s 610s - 620s - 630s 640s 650s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the... 626. However, Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. He was raised to the throne by the magnates who had rebelled against Hormizd IV till 590, and soon after his father was blinded and killed. But at the same time the... Khosrau II had overextended his army and overtaxed the people. When the Byzantine Emperor Flavius Heraclius Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. Although the use of the cognomen Augustus as part of ones name is generally understood to identify the Roman Emperor, this is somewhat misleading; Augustus was the most significant name associated with the Emperor, but it did not actually... Heraclius in a tactical move abandoned his besieged capital and sailed up the Download high resolution version (1300x1000, 315 KB)Satellite image of the Black Sea Source: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?25334 Copyright info: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/help.html This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are... Black Sea to attack Persia from the rear, there was no resistance. Heraclius then marched through This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. For the region in modern times, see Iraq, Syria. See also Mesopotamia, Ohio. Ancient Mesopotamia Euphrates – Tigris Assyriology Cities / Empires Sumer: Uruk – Ur – Eridu Kish – Lagash – Nippur Akkadian Empire: Agade Babylon – Isin – Susa... Mesopotamia and western Persia sacking Takht-i Sulayman and the Palace of Dastgerd. After the death of Khosrau II, and over a period of 14 years and twelve successive kings, the Sassanid Empire weakened considerably, and the power of the central authority passed into the hands of the generals. The Sassanids never recovered.


In the spring of 633 CE a grandson of Khosrau called Yezdegerd ascended the throne, and in that same year the first Arab squadrons made their first raids into Persian territory. Years of warfare had exhausted both the Byzantines and the Iranians. The later Sassanids were further weakened by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of the provincial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers. These factors facilitated the Arab invasion in the seventh century. Internal dissension and a long brutal conflict with the Byzantines left Sassanid Persia prey for the Arabs.


This was the beginning of the end. Yezdegerd was a boy, at the mercy of his advisers, incapable of uniting a vast country which was crumbling into a number of small feudal kingdoms. Rome no longer threatened. The threat came from the small disciplined armies of Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. Khalid bin Walid was born around 584 in Mecca to the chief of the Bani Makhzum clan of the Quraish Tribe. His clan was responsible for warfare, and his father was well off... Khalid ibn Walid, once one of Mohammad's chosen companion-in-arms and now, after the Prophet's death, the leader of the Arab army.


Art

Head of Shapur II, King of Persia, Sasanian dynasty, A.D. 4th century. NY Metropolitan Museum. This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the...
Head of Shapur II, King of Persia, Sasanian dynasty, A.D. 4th century. NY Metropolitan Museum. This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that this qualifies as fair use of the... Enlarge
Head of king Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). When King Hormizd II died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Romans); the throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd. It... Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). From The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art permanent collection.
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Sasanian Silver-gilt Vessels, 5th-7th Century CE
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Sasanian Silver-gilt plate, 5th-7th Century CE
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Dish Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). When King Hormizd II died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Romans); the throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd. It... Shapur II Hunting Lions 4th century,(State Hermitage Museum ,St. Petersburg, Russia.)

In many ways the Sassanian period (AD 224-633) witnessed the highest achievement of Persia or Persian most often refer to: Persia The Persians, an ethnic group, also called Tajiks Persian language Persian (Pokémon) See also Iranian, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages and Aryan. The terms can also refer to topics in: Contents // 1 Persian culture and history 2 Plants and animals named after... Persian civilization, and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the Moslem conquest.


The Sassanian Dynasty, like the Achaemenian, originated in the province of Fars. They saw themselves as successors to the Achaemenians, after the The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Hellenistic and Parthian interlude, and perceived it as their role to restore the greatness of Iran.


At its peak, the Sassanian Empire stretched from Syria to north-west India; but its influence was felt far beyond these political boundaries. Sassanian motifs found their way into the art of Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries in the world. A landlocked sea is a sea... central Asia and China, the The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The... Byzantine Empire, and even For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). The Merovingians were a dynasty of Frankish kings who ruled a frequently fluctuating area in parts of present-day France and Germany from the 5th to 8th century AD. They were sometimes referred to as the long-haired kings by... Merovingian France.


In reviving, the glories of the Achaemenian past, the Sassanians were no mere imitators. The art of this period reveals an astonishing virility. In certain respects it anticipates features later developed during the Islamic period. The conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great had inaugurated the spread of Hellenistic art into Western Asia; but if the East accepted the outward form of this art, it never really assimilated its spirit. Already in the Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Contents // 1 Origins 2 The Parthian Empire 3 The Indo... Parthian period Hellenistic art was being interpreted freely by the peoples of the Near East and throughout the Sassanian period there was a continuing process of reaction against it. Sassanian art revived forms and traditions native to Persia; and in the Islamic period these reached the shores of the Mediterranean.


The splendour in which the Sassanian monarchs lived is well illustrated by their surviving palaces, such as those at Firuzabad and Bishapur in External links Official website of Fars Governorship (http://www.farsprovince.com/) Provinces of Iran Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azarbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and... Fars, and the capital city of Ctesiphon in Mesopotamia. In addition to local traditions, Parthian architecture must have been responsible for a great many of the Sassanian architectural characteristics. All are characterised by the barrel-vaulted iwans introduced in the Parthian period, but now they reached massive proportions, particularly at Ctesiphon. The arch of the great vaulted hall at Ctesiphon attributed to the reign of Shapur I (AD 241-272) has a span of more than 80 ft, and reaches a height of 118 ft. from the ground. This magnificent structure fascinated architects in the centuries that followed and has always been considered as one of the most important pieces of Persian architecture. Many of the palaces contain an inner audience hall which consists, as at Firuzabad, of a chamber surmounted by a dome. The Persians solved the problem of constructing a circular dome on a square building by the squinch. This is an arch built across each corner of the square, thereby converting it into an octagon on which it is simple to place the dome. The dome chamber in the palace of Firuzabad is the earliest surviving example of the use of the squinch and so there is good reason for regarding Persia as its place of invention.


The unique characteristic of Sassanian architecture, was its distinctive use of space. The Sassanian architect conceived his building in terms of masses and surfaces; hence the use of massive walls of brick decorated with molded or carved stucco. Stucco wall decorations appear at Bishapur, but better examples are preserved from Chal Tarkhan near Rayy (late Sassanian or early Islamic in date), and from Taq-i-Kasra, Ctesiphon, today. Ctesiphon was one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Persian Empire, for more than 600 years. Located approximately 20 miles southeast of the modern city of Baghdad, along the river Tigris... Ctesiphon and This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. Kish, an ancient city in Sumer, now... Kish in Mesopotamia. The panels show animal figures set in roundels, human busts, and geometric and floral motifs.


At Bishapur some of the floors were decorated with mosaics showing scenes of merrymaking as at a banquet; the Roman influence here is clear, and the mosaics may have been laid by Roman prisoners. Buildings were also decorated with wall paintings; particularly fine examples have been found at Kuh-i Khwaja in Provinces of Iran Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azarbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and Baluchistan | South Khorasan | Tehran | West Azarbaijan | Yazd | Zanjan Categories: Iran geography stubs... Sistan.


Sassanid rulers

  • Ardashir I (Artaxerxes, Artaxares, Artashastra) was the founder of the Sassanian Empire of Persia and king from around 226 until around 240. Ardashir was born in the late second Century CE. He inherited a tribal kingship of the Fars province, Persis, in 208. He rapidly extended his territory, defeating his... Ardashir I from Years: 220 221 222 223 - 224 - 225 226 227 228 Decades: 190s 200s 210s - 220s - 230s 240s 250s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. Births Deaths Categories: 224 ... 224 to Years: 237 238 239 240 - 241 - 242 243 244 245 Decades: 210s 220s 230s - 240s - 250s 260s 270s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... 241.
  • Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. The Persian legend which makes him the son of an Arsacid princess is not historical. Ardashir I had towards the end of his reign renewed the war against Rome; Shapur conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and... Shapur I from Years: 237 238 239 240 - 241 - 242 243 244 245 Decades: 210s 220s 230s - 240s - 250s 260s 270s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... 241 to Years: 268 269 270 271 - 272 - 273 274 275 276 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. During the... 272
  • Hormizd I, king of Persia, (272-273) was the son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor of Khorasan, and appears in his wars against Rome (Trebellius Pollio, Trig. Tyr. 2, where Noldeke has corrected the name Odomastes into Oromastes, i.e. Hormizd). In the Persian tradition of the... Hormizd I from Years: 268 269 270 271 - 272 - 273 274 275 276 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. During the... 272 to Years: 269 270 271 272 - 273 - 274 275 276 277 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century 273 (number) Events Under the command of Emperor Aurelian, the Roman Army sacks the city of Palmyra. Sassanid Shah Bahram I succeeded Hormizd I. Marcus... 273.
  • Bahram I, was king of Persia (AD 274-277). From a Pahlavi inscription we learn that he was the son (not, as the Greek authors and Tabari say, the grandson) of Shapur I., and succeeded his brother Hormizd I, who had only reigned a year. Bahram I is the king... Bahram I from Years: 269 270 271 272 - 273 - 274 275 276 277 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century 273 (number) Events Under the command of Emperor Aurelian, the Roman Army sacks the city of Palmyra. Sassanid Shah Bahram I succeeded Hormizd I. Marcus... 273 to Years: 272 273 274 275 - 276 - 277 278 279 280 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeded Bahram I. Probus became Roman Emperor. Mani, a sage from Persia, is executed after preaching a religious belief that... 276.
  • Bahram II, king of Persia (277_294), son of Bahram I. During his reign the emperor Carus attacked the Persians and conquered Ctesiphon (283), but died by the plague. Of Bahram II’s reign some theological inscriptions exist (F Stolze and JC Andreas, Persepolis (Berlin, 1882), and EW West, Pahiavi... Bahram II from Years: 272 273 274 275 - 276 - 277 278 279 280 Decades: 240s 250s 260s - 270s - 280s 290s 300s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeded Bahram I. Probus became Roman Emperor. Mani, a sage from Persia, is executed after preaching a religious belief that... 276 to Years: 289 290 291 292 - 293 - 294 295 296 297 Decades: 260s 270s 280s - 290s - 300s 310s 320s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy. Probus succeeds Rufinus as... 293.
  • Bahram III, king of Persia, son of Bahram II, under whose rule he had been governing Sejistan (therefore called Saganshah, Agathias iv. 24, Tabari). He reigned only four months (in 294), and was succeeded by the pretender Narseh. Preceded by: Bahram II Sassanid Ruler Succeeded by: Narseh This article incorporates... Bahram III year Years: 289 290 291 292 - 293 - 294 295 296 297 Decades: 260s 270s 280s - 290s - 300s 310s 320s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy. Probus succeeds Rufinus as... 293.
  • Narseh (also known as Narses, Narseus) was king of Persia (292 - 303), and son of Shapur I. He rose as pretender to the throne against his grand-nephew Bahram III in AD 292, and soon became sole king. He attacked the Romans, but after defeating the emperor Galerius near Callinicum... Narseh from Years: 289 290 291 292 - 293 - 294 295 296 297 Decades: 260s 270s 280s - 290s - 300s 310s 320s Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy. Probus succeeds Rufinus as... 293 to Years: 298 299 300 301 - 302 - 303 305 306 Decades: 270s 280s 290s - 300s - 310s 330s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Diocletian starts passing laws against Sassanid Shah Narseh. Gregory the Illuminator received consecration as Patriarch of Armenia from Leontius of Caesarea Births Deaths Categories: 302 ... 302.
  • Hormizd II, king of Persia, son of Narseh, reigned for seven years and five months, 302-309. Of his reign nothing is known. After his death his oldest son Adarnases was killed by the grandees after a very short reign, as he showed a cruel disposition; another son, Hormizd, was... Hormizd II from Years: 298 299 300 301 - 302 - 303 305 306 Decades: 270s 280s 290s - 300s - 310s 330s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Diocletian starts passing laws against Sassanid Shah Narseh. Gregory the Illuminator received consecration as Patriarch of Armenia from Leontius of Caesarea Births Deaths Categories: 302 ... 302 to Years: 306 307 308 309 - 310 - 311 312 313 314 Decades: 280s 290s 300s - 310s - 320s 330s 340s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. Constantines troops swiftly returned, forcing Maximian to flee... 310.
  • Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). When King Hormizd II died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Romans); the throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd. It... Shapur II from Years: 306 307 308 309 - 310 - 311 312 313 314 Decades: 280s 290s 300s - 310s - 320s 330s 340s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. Constantines troops swiftly returned, forcing Maximian to flee... 310 to Years: 375 376 377 378 - 379 - 380 381 382 383 Decades: 340s 350s 360s - 370s - 380s 390s 400s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. September 13 - Nun Yax Ayin becomes king of Tikal. Ardeshir II becomes King... 379
  • Ardashir II was king of Persia from 379-383. Under the reign of his brother Shapur II he had been governor-king of Adiabene, where he persecuted the Christians. After Shapurs death, he was raised to throne by the magnates, although more than seventy years old. Preceded by: Shapur... Ardashir II from Years: 375 376 377 378 - 379 - 380 381 382 383 Decades: 340s 350s 360s - 370s - 380s 390s 400s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. September 13 - Nun Yax Ayin becomes king of Tikal. Ardeshir II becomes King... 379 to Years: 379 380 381 382 - 383 - 384 385 386 387 Decades: 350s 360s 370s - 380s - 390s 400s 410s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events January 19 - Arcadius is elevated as Roman Emperor. Roman troops in Britain proclaim Magnus Maximus Roman Emperor. He crosses over to the continent and... 383.
  • Shapur III was king of Persia from 383 to 388. Son of Shapur II, he was elevated to the throne by the magnates against his uncle, Ardashir II, and killed by them after a reign of five years. He concluded a treaty with Theodosius the Great. Preceded by: Ardashir II... Shapur III from Years: 379 380 381 382 - 383 - 384 385 386 387 Decades: 350s 360s 370s - 380s - 390s 400s 410s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events January 19 - Arcadius is elevated as Roman Emperor. Roman troops in Britain proclaim Magnus Maximus Roman Emperor. He crosses over to the continent and... 383 to Years: 384 385 386 387 - 388 - 389 390 391 392 Decades: 350s 360s 370s - 380s - 390s 400s 410s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. St. Jerome moves to Palestine for the remainder of his life. The rebellion of Magnus Maximus is put... 388.
  • Bahram IV, king of Persia (389_399), son and successor of Shapur III, under whom he had been governor of Kirman; therefore he was called Kirmanshah (Armenia was divided between the Roman and the Persian empire. Bahram IV was killed by some malcontents. Preceded by: Shapur III Sassanid Ruler Succeeded by... Bahram IV from Years: 384 385 386 387 - 388 - 389 390 391 392 Decades: 350s 360s 370s - 380s - 390s 400s 410s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. St. Jerome moves to Palestine for the remainder of his life. The rebellion of Magnus Maximus is put... 388 to Years: 395 396 397 398 - 399 - 400 401 402 403 Decades: 360s 370s 380s - 390s - 400s 410s 420s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. Anastius I becomes Pope succeeding Pope Siricius. Fa-Hien, a Chinese Buddhist monk, travels to... 399.
  • Yazdegerd I (made by God Izdigerdes), king of Persia, son of Shapur III, 399-420, called the sinner by the Persians. He was a highly intelligent ruler, who tried to emancipate himself from the dominion of the magnates and the Magian priests. He punished the nobles severely when they attempted... Yazdegerd I from Years: 395 396 397 398 - 399 - 400 401 402 403 Decades: 360s 370s 380s - 390s - 400s 410s 420s Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. Anastius I becomes Pope succeeding Pope Siricius. Fa-Hien, a Chinese Buddhist monk, travels to... 399 to For other uses, see number 420. Years: 416 417 418 419 - 420 - 421 422 423 424 Decades: 390s 400s 410s - 420s - 430s 440s 450s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events End of the Jin Dynasty in China. Liu Yu (Song Wu Di) is the first ruler of the... 420.
  • Bahram V, king of Persia (420_439), son of Yazdegerd I, after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of al_Mondhir, the Arabic dynast of Hira. Bahrams mother was Soshandukht, the daughter of the Jewish Exilarch. He promised to... Bahram V frmom For other uses, see number 420. Years: 416 417 418 419 - 420 - 421 422 423 424 Decades: 390s 400s 410s - 420s - 430s 440s 450s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events End of the Jin Dynasty in China. Liu Yu (Song Wu Di) is the first ruler of the... 420 to Years: 434 435 436 437 - 438 - 439 440 441 442 Decades: 400s 410s 420s - 430s - 440s 450s 460s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events February 15 - The Codex Theodosianus, a collection of edicts of Roman law, is published. Yazdegerd II becomes King of Persia. Relics of John Chrysostom... 438.
  • Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia was the son of Bahram V Gor and reigned from 438 to 457. He persecuted the Christians and Jews, and had a short war with Rome in 441. He tried to extend his kingdom in the East and fought against the... Yazdegerd II from Years: 434 435 436 437 - 438 - 439 440 441 442 Decades: 400s 410s 420s - 430s - 440s 450s 460s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events February 15 - The Codex Theodosianus, a collection of edicts of Roman law, is published. Yazdegerd II becomes King of Persia. Relics of John Chrysostom... 438 to Years: 453 454 455 456 - 457 - 458 459 460 461 Decades: 420s 430s 440s - 450s - 460s 470s 480s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. Childeric I succeeds Merovech as king of the Franks (or 458). Majorian is declared emperor by... 457.
  • Hormizd III, king of Persia, son of Yazdegerd I, succeeded his father in 457. He had continually to fight with his brothers and with the Ephthalites in Bactria, and was killed by Peroz in 459. Preceded by: Yazdegerd II Sassanid Ruler Succeeded by: Peroz I This article incorporates text from... Hormizd III from Years: 453 454 455 456 - 457 - 458 459 460 461 Decades: 420s 430s 440s - 450s - 460s 470s 480s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. Childeric I succeeds Merovech as king of the Franks (or 458). Majorian is declared emperor by... 457 to Years: 455 456 457 458 - 459 - 460 461 462 463 Decades: 420s 430s 440s - 450s - 460s 470s 480s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events Dathusena becomes king of Sri Lanka Arguably the worlds first recognizable labor union is formed in Turkey Births Deaths Simeon Stylites finally dies... 459.
  • This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Peroz (Peirozes, Priscus, fr. 33; Perozes, Procop. Pers. I. 3 and Agath. iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Feroz, Firuz), Sassanid king of Persia, AD 457-484, son of Yazdegerd... Peroz I from Years: 453 454 455 456 - 457 - 458 459 460 461 Decades: 420s 430s 440s - 450s - 460s 470s 480s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. Childeric I succeeds Merovech as king of the Franks (or 458). Majorian is declared emperor by... 457 to Years: 480 481 482 483 - 484 - 485 486 487 488 Decades: 450s 460s 470s - 480s - 490s 500s 510s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. Gunthamund becomes king of the Vandals. Pope Felix III excommunicates Peter Mongus, patriarch... 484.
  • Balash (in the Greek authors, Balas; the later form of the name Vologaeses), Sassanian king in AD 484-488, was the brother and successor of Peroz, who had died in a battle against the Hephthalites (White Huns) who invaded Persia from the east. He put down the rebellion of his... Balash from Years: 480 481 482 483 - 484 - 485 486 487 488 Decades: 450s 460s 470s - 480s - 490s 500s 510s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. Gunthamund becomes king of the Vandals. Pope Felix III excommunicates Peter Mongus, patriarch... 484 to Years: 484 485 486 487 - 488 - 489 490 491 492 Decades: 450s 460s 470s - 480s - 490s 500s 510s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. Kavadh I succeeds Balash in Persia. John succeeds Peter as Patriarch of Antioch. Oisc becomes king... 488.
  • Kavadh I (449 - 531), son of Peroz, was a Sassanid king (488 - 531), crowned by the nobles in place who was deposition and blinding of his uncle Balash. At this time the empire was utterly disorganized by the invasion of the Ephthalites or White Huns from the east. After one... Kavadh I from Years: 484 485 486 487 - 488 - 489 490 491 492 Decades: 450s 460s 470s - 480s - 490s 500s 510s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. Kavadh I succeeds Balash in Persia. John succeeds Peter as Patriarch of Antioch. Oisc becomes king... 488 to Years: 527 528 529 530 - 531 - 532 533 534 535 Decades: 500s 510s 520s - 530s - 540s 550s 560s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. Khosrau I succeeds Kavadh I as king... 531.
    • Djamasp from Years: 492 493 494 495 - 496 - 497 498 499 500 Decades: 460s 470s 480s - 490s - 500s 510s 520s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century 496 (number) Events Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis I defeats the Alamanni accepts Catholic baptism at Reims. Pope Anastasius II succeeds Gelasius I. The ruling Tuoba... 496 to Years: 494 495 496 497 - 498 - 499 500 501 502 Decades: 460s 470s 480s - 490s - 500s 510s 520s Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Events November 22 - Symmachus succeeds Anastasius as Pope. Flavian II becomes Patriarch of Antioch. Byzantine emperor Anastasius I reforms the monetary system, using Greek numerals... 498.
  • Khosrau I, the Blessed (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings. According to one account, Khosrau was the Kavadhs son through a peasant girl, and was originally considered unworthy of inheriting his fathers throne. His... Khosrau I from Years: 527 528 529 530 - 531 - 532 533 534 535 Decades: 500s 510s 520s - 530s - 540s 550s 560s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. Khosrau I succeeds Kavadh I as king... 531 to Years: 575 576 577 578 - 579 - 580 581 582 583 Decades: 540s 550s 560s - 570s - 580s 590s 600s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. Pope Benedict I is succeeded by Pope Pelagius II. Northern Zhou Wu Di succeeded by Northern... 579.
  • Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari (Noldeke, Geschichte d. Perser und Arhalter unter den Sasaniden, 264... Hormizd IV from Years: 575 576 577 578 - 579 - 580 581 582 583 Decades: 540s 550s 560s - 570s - 580s 590s 600s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. Pope Benedict I is succeeded by Pope Pelagius II. Northern Zhou Wu Di succeeded by Northern... 579 to Years: 586 587 588 589 - 590 - 591 592 593 594 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events September 3 - St. Gregory I becomes Pope. Persian king Hormizd IV succeeded by Khosrau II . The Byzantine Empire begins a war with Persia. Saint... 590.
  • Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. He was raised to the throne by the magnates who had rebelled against Hormizd IV till 590, and soon after his father was blinded and killed. But at the same time the... Khosrau II from Years: 586 587 588 589 - 590 - 591 592 593 594 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events September 3 - St. Gregory I becomes Pope. Persian king Hormizd IV succeeded by Khosrau II . The Byzantine Empire begins a war with Persia. Saint... 590 to Years: 624 625 626 627 - 628 - 629 630 631 632 Decades: 590s 600s 610s - 620s - 630s 640s 650s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda... 628.
    • Bahram VI from Years: 586 587 588 589 - 590 - 591 592 593 594 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events September 3 - St. Gregory I becomes Pope. Persian king Hormizd IV succeeded by Khosrau II . The Byzantine Empire begins a war with Persia. Saint... 590 to Years: 587 588 589 590 - 591 - 592 593 594 595 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. The first city wall of Hangzhou is constructed. Agilulf marries... 591.
    • Bistam from Years: 587 588 589 590 - 591 - 592 593 594 595 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. The first city wall of Hangzhou is constructed. Agilulf marries... 591 to Years: 588 589 590 591 - 592 - 593 594 595 596 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events After the great slaughter at Woddesbeorg, Ceawlin is deposed as both king of Wessex and Bretwalda. Persian usurper Bistam is defeated by Khosrau II... 592.
    • Hormizd V year Years: 589 590 591 592 - 593 - 594 595 596 597 Decades: 560s 570s 580s - 590s - 600s 610s 620s Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Events Empress Suiko ascends to the throne of Japan. Aethelfrith succeeds Hussa as king of Bernicia (traditional date). Pybba becomes king of Mercia. Persian usurper... 593.
  • Kavadh II Sheroe (Siroes), king of Persia, son of Khosrau II, was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the emperor Heraclius. He put his father and eighteen brothers to death, began negotiations with Heraclius, but died after a reign... Kavadh II year Years: 624 625 626 627 - 628 - 629 630 631 632 Decades: 590s 600s 610s - 620s - 630s 640s 650s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda... 628.
  • Ardashir III, king of Persia from 628 to 630. Son of Kavadh II, he was raised to the throne as a boy of seven years, but was killed two years afterwards by his general, Shahrbaraz. Preceded by: Kavadh II Sassanid Ruler Succeeded by: Shahrbaraz This article incorporates text from the... Ardashir III from Years: 624 625 626 627 - 628 - 629 630 631 632 Decades: 590s 600s 610s - 620s - 630s 640s 650s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda... 628 to Years: 626 627 628 629 - 630 - 631 632 633 634 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recaptures Jerusalem from the Persians Chinese Buddhist monk Xuan Zang reaches India Births Deaths Categories: 630 ... 630.
    • Peroz II year Years: 625 626 627 628 - 629 - 630 631 632 633 Decades: 590s 600s 610s - 620s - 630s 640s 650s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). Emperor Jomei ascends to the throne of Japan Dagobert I becomes king of all... 629.
  • Shahrbaraz (? - June 9, 630 was a general for the Persian army under Khosrau II of Persia. He took Damascus and Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire in 613 and 614, and the Holy Cross was carried away in triumph. Later, though, he conspired with Heraclius and helped to speed the surrender... Shahrbaraz year Years: 626 627 628 629 - 630 - 631 632 633 634 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recaptures Jerusalem from the Persians Chinese Buddhist monk Xuan Zang reaches India Births Deaths Categories: 630 ... 630.
  • Boran and others from Years: 626 627 628 629 - 630 - 631 632 633 634 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recaptures Jerusalem from the Persians Chinese Buddhist monk Xuan Zang reaches India Births Deaths Categories: 630 ... 630 to Years: 627 628 629 630 - 631 - 632 633 634 635 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Battle of Wogastisburg between king Samo of Karantania and Dagobert I of Austrasia Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... 631.
  • Hormizd VI (or V), king of Persia, was one of the many pretenders who rose after the murder of Khosrau II (628). He maintained himself about two years (631, 632) in the district of Nisibis. Preceded by: Boran Sassanid Ruler Succeeded by: Yazdegerd III This article incorporates text from the... Hormizd VI (or V) from Years: 627 628 629 630 - 631 - 632 633 634 635 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Battle of Wogastisburg between king Samo of Karantania and Dagobert I of Austrasia Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... 631 to Years: 628 629 630 631 - 632 - 633 634 635 636 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. Southern Ireland... 632.
  • Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. He was a mere child and never really ruled... Yazdegerd III from Years: 628 629 630 631 - 632 - 633 634 635 636 Decades: 600s 610s 620s - 630s - 640s 650s 660s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. Southern Ireland... 632 to Years: 647 648 649 650 - 651 - 652 653 654 655 Decades: 620s 630s 640s - 650s - 660s 670s 680s Centuries: 6th century - 7th century - 8th century Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. End of the Afghanistan and capture Herat. The bakt between Egypt and Makuria... 651.

See also

Sassanid Art (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/art_of_sassanians.php|)

  • History of Iran also referred to as Persia Median Empire Achaemenid dynasty Seleucid dynasty Parthian Empire Sassanid dynasty Samanid dynasty Buwayhid empire Seljuk Turkish empire Khwarezmid Empire Ilkhanate Safavid dynasty Zand dynasty Qajar dynasty Pahlavi dynasty Iranian Revolution Islamic Republic of Iran Contents // 1 Elamite Empire, 2700BC-660BC 2 Jiroft... List of kings of Persia
  • Firouzabad
  • Palace of Ardashir
  • Ghal'eh Dokhtar, his first base.
  • The Art of Sassanians (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/art_of_sassanians.php|)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sassanid dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3659 words)
The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia, which includes much of present-day Iran, during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate, the first of the Islamic empires.
The later Sassanids were further weakened by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of the provincial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers.
Sassanid rule and the system of social stratification were reinforced by Zoroastrianism, which became the state religion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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