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Encyclopedia > Sarv Khap

Khap (Hindi:खाप, IAST: khāpa) and Sarv Khap (सर्व खाप) was a system of social administration and organization in the republics of Northwestern states like Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India since ancient times. Khap is a term for a social - political grouping and used in a geographical sense. Other parallel terms are Pal, Ganasangha, Janapada or republic. Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... The political process among the ancient Aryans appears to have originally started with semi-nomadic tribal units called Jana (Sanskrit: Jana = tribe). ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ...


For some reasons the political unit of Khap was defined as a group of 84 villages. This unit of measure is found as far back as the Saka migrations/invasions circa 500 BCE into the Indian subcontinent. The concept of Khap is quite ancient. Written references are found as far back as the Rig Vedic times circa 2500 BCE. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with shakya. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and trends September 13, 509 BC - The temple of Jupiter on Romes Capitoline Hill is... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... (Redirected from 2500 BCE) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ...

Contents

Historical back ground

The Indian social fabric was organized around the village unit, from time immemorial, as making shifted from nomadic to settled agricultural practices. Throughout the last few millennium the society of the Indian sub continent, was organized in various forms, tribal, village, monarchial or republican among the ancient Jats, as borne out by the ancient literature, Rig Veda etc, the mode of governing was that of a council of five, which in time was called a Panchayat. We find that the republican form of society existed from the most ancient times known to us. In various times the society coalesced around monarchial forms, but the republican societies did not die out, but maintained their existence with remarkable resilience. We find references to the republican sources in our ancient literature, some of the most ancient as being the Rig Veda. The dating of this work in now generally accepted to be in the circa 2500 BCE period. The forms of governing society are that of the `Sabha’(Hindi: सभा) or `samiti’ (Hindi: समिति) i.e. gathering/assembly. The Sabhapati, the president of the Sabha was elected. [1] · [2] The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... // The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati...


The term `Rajan, Rajanaya' has been taken to denote a monarchial system. A closer look shows the term was used at that time for the householder, the head of the household, and he would participate in the Sabha or assembly. In later times this took on a monarchial connotation, as Raja, Maharaja, a term familiar to most of us. A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ... The word Maharaja (also spelled maharajah) is Hindi as well as ancient Sanskrit for high king (a karmadharaya from maha great and rajan king). Its use is primarily for Hindu potentates (ruler or sovereign). ...


In the texts of Panini and later Buddhist texts we find references to 16 republics or Great Republics Janapadas, or MahaJanpadas' and the reference are to the period circa 600 BCE (conventional dating). We find references to names of republics like Mall, Licchavi, Sakya, Yaudheya, Agreya, and so on. We find Indian and Western sources referring to these republics e.g. in the invasion of Alexander (circa 325 BCE) where Alexander comes wars with the Mall (Malloi) Malli, Kshudrak, Paur, Puru, Kathi, republics. We continue to find the republics referred to as the Yaudheyas, Malls etc are found dominating the Northern Indian landscape in what is now Punjab, Sindh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Janapadas are the major realms or kingdoms of Vedic (Iron Age) India, by the 6th century BC evolving into the sixteen classical Mahajanapadas . ... Look up Mall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... Coin of the Yaudheyas. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Look up Mall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Melli (also spelt Malli) is a town on the West Bengal-Sikkim border on the River Teesta. ... The Purus are a people of Ancient India. ... Kathi Wilcox (born November 19, 1969) is an American musician residing in Washington, D.C. where she performs in the band The Casual Dots. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, and Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ...


The Sarv Khap (or all Khap) Panchayat (council) represented all the Khaps. The individual Khaps would elect leaders who would send delegates, who would represent the Khaps at the Sarv Khap level. It was a political organization, composed of all the clans, communities, and castes in the region. The republics of the Yaudheyas who dominated this region from 600BCE to 400 CE preceded it. Their had their a similar system of governance, and their coins and seals are found in this whole region, Rohtak Haryana was one of the capitals and a major coin mint. [3] Coin of the Yaudheyas. ... Rohtak (Hindi: रोहतक) is located in Rohtak District, Haryana, India. ...


After the fall of Kushan Empire northwest India was divided in to small republics. These small republics could not defend against invaders. So there were formed federations of republics knows as Ganasanghas. One such Ganasangha was on the banks of Sutlej River. Another Gansangha of Arjunayana was in the region between Agra and Bharatpur. Dr Budh Prakash says that the Yaudheyas are related with present Dahiya clan and Arjunayana Ganasanghas were the present Joon clans. [4] Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The Sutlej is a river that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet. ... The Arjunayanas, also Arjunakas and Prarjunas were a tribe of northern India around the area of Mathura. ... Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎), (IPA: ) is a medevial city on the banks of the Yamuna River in India. ... Bharatpur is a city in Rajasthan state of India. ... Coin of the Yaudheyas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Arjunayanas, also Arjunakas and Prarjunas were a tribe of northern India around the area of Mathura. ... Joon is a gotra of Jats found in Haryana in India. ...


Functioning of Khaps

The ancient kshatriyas have always organized themselves into clans or under Panchayat system; both typically Aryan. A clan was based on one large gotra or a number of closely related gotras under one elected leader whose word was law. Mutual quarrels of any intensity could be settled under his orders. In time of danger, the whole clan rallied under the banner of the leader. Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... // The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- (Sanskrit: आर्य, Persian: آریا). Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual has been attached to it in Sanskrit and... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... A gotra (lit. ...


The Panchayat system is territorial and highly democratic. Every village has its own Panchayat. Whenever there is a problem or dispute in the village, a gathering of the Panchayat is called for every member of the village has a right to attend, express his views and vote for or against a proposal. The maximum available people normally attend. There are no elected or nominated Panchayat officials. Nevertheless, some persons, by virtue of their wisdom and eloquence, are automatically accepted as Panches, (one of the five) and their views are heard and respected. While elders discuss a problem it is customary for younger people not to speak but sit and listen. All decisions are taken after open-hearing, full and voluntary expression of views and consensus vote. Even if one of the contending parties considers the Panchayat decision unfair it is accepted and complied with without question.


A number of villages grouped themselves into a Gohand (corresponding to the present Thana area); a number of Gohands formed a ‘Khap’ (covering an area equal to from a Tehsil to a District and a number of Khaps formed a 'Sarva Khap' embracing a full province or state. For example, there was a “Sarva Khap” each for Haryana and Malwa. At what level a Panchayat should gather depended upon the magnitude of the problem and the territory it involved. [5] Gohand is a town and a nagar panchayat in Hamirpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For the Anglo-Saxon royal retainer, see Thane/Thegn. ... A tehsil or taluk is an administrative subdivision or tier found in several South Asian countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ...


The right of attendance and expression was open to every one, whatever the level of the Panchayat. Generally, however, selected - representatives of the villages attended Panchayats of the 'Gohand' and higher level. Leaders were elected and appointed at 'Khap' and 'Sarva Khap' level that maintained records of decisions and had the authority to call an assembly.



Negotiations with kings were done - at 'Sarva Khap' level. Chaudhry Kabul Singh of Village Shoram, District Muzaffarnagar, whose ancestors were leaders of the Sarva Khaap Panchayat, holds some copper plates and papers bearing records of important negotiations.


The Khap and its divisions

One of the terms used to denote the republic was the `Khap'. Others were [Pal]], Janpada, and Ganasangha etc. The Khap consisted a unit of 84 villages. The individual villages were governed by an elected Council, which was known as the Panchayat. A unit of seven villages was called a Thamba and 12 Thambas would form the unit of 84 Villages. We also find Khaps of 12 and 24 villages. Their elected leaders would determine which units would be represented at the Khap level. These Khaps are found to be spread all the way from Northwest India down to Madhya Pradesh, Malwa, Rajasthan, [Sindh]], Multan, Punjab, Haryana, and modern Uttar Pradesh. [6] For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... // The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ... Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... It has been suggested that Hindu temples in Multan be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ...


Sarv Khap of Haryana

This region from Western Uttar Pradesh through Agra, Mathura, to the Sutlej River in the Punjab was known as Haryana, dominated by Jats, and it is of this region that we speak, when refer to the Sarv Khap of Haryana. The influence of the Sarv Khap extended to the Malwa province in Central India, Rajasthan and Sindh. With the ebb and flow of history, the boundaries also expanded and receded. Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎), (IPA: ) is a medevial city on the banks of the Yamuna River in India. ... Mathura (मथुरा) is a city in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and south of Delhi. ... The Sutlej is a river that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ...


The role Sharv Khaps played in India

Some well known occasions, when armies and funds were marshaled under the aegis of Sarva Khaps, are: [5]

  • The battle at the confluence of Hindan and Kali river against Ala ud din Khilji in the 13th Century AD in protest against imposition of heavy taxes and interference in private affairs.
  • The Battle against attack of Timur in 1398 AD by the Haryana Sarv Khap Mahapanchayat and Saurabh (Muzaffarnagar) Sarv Khap Panchayat. [4]

It has been suggested that Hindu temples in Multan be merged into this article or section. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Taraori (Tehsil Karnal) : It is a town 16 kms north of Karnal, India. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Kali (Sanskrit: काली) is a goddess with a long and complex history in Hinduism (although sometimes presented in the West as dark and violent). ... Ala-ud-din Khilji (Persian: علاء الدین خلجی ) (real name Juna Khan) (d. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... Muzaffarnagar   is a medium-sized city in the western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. ...

Reference

  1. ^ J.P. Sharma, Republics in Ancient India, 1968, Leiden
  2. ^ Steve Muhlberger, Democracy in Ancient India, Associate Professor of History, Nipissing University.
  3. ^ Bibliography, Yuadheyoun ka Ithihasa
  4. ^ a b Dr Natthan Singh, Jat-Itihas, (Jat History), Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, F-13, Dr Rajendra Prasad Colony, Tansen marg, Gwalior, M.P, India 474 002 2004
  5. ^ a b Ram Swarup Joon, History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  6. ^ Dr. Bal Kishan Dabas, The Political and Social History of the Jats, 2001 Sanjay Prakashan, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7453-045-2 Meeting held under the chairmanship of Sant Shanta Nand, the account recorded by Ramdas, the Recorder( Bhat) of the Panchayat Source: Shoram collection, Pothi No.1, P.7, quoted in note 33, of ` The Political and Social History of the Jats, Dr. Bal Kishan Dabas

Dr Natthan Singh is an author of Hindi literature, a novelist and a Jat historian. ... Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior is an Organization of Jats in Gwalior region in Madhya Pradesh, India. ...

External links

  • http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/MUHLBERGER/HISTDEM/INDIADEM.HTM
  • Review of Dr. Dabas's book and Khaps

 
 

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