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Encyclopedia > Sarskoe Gorodishche
One of the excavators of Sarskoe was Nicholas Roerich. Illustrated is his painting The Town Is Being Built (1902).
One of the excavators of Sarskoe was Nicholas Roerich. Illustrated is his painting The Town Is Being Built (1902).

Sarskoye Gorodishche (Russian: Сарское городище, literally: "Citadel on the Sara") was a medieval fortified settlement in the Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia. It was situated on the bank of the Sara River, a short distance from Lake Nero, to the south of modern Rostov, of which it seems to have been the early medieval predecessor. Guests from Overseas, 1899 (Varangians in Russia) Nicholas Roerich, (October 9, 1874 - December 13, 1947) also known as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Russian: Николай Константинович Рёрих), was a Russian painter and spiritual teacher. ... Yaroslavl Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), which is located in the Central Federal District, surrounded by Tver, Moscow, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Vologda Oblasts. ... Nero (Не́ро) — lake in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ...

Contents

Exploration

The site first attracted the attention of Russian archaeologists in the mid-19th century by its imposing dimensions which have no parallels in the region. Excavations begun by Count Aleksey Uvarov in 1854 revealed a number of superb Varangian objects comparable to the sites in Scandinavia, notably a Carolingian sword with the inscription "Lun fecit". Excavations have been undertaken intermittently since that period by many persons, including Nicholas Roerich in 1903. In his diary, Roerich complained that the site had been reduced drastically by road builders. Count Aleksei S. Uvarov. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Guests from Overseas, 1899 (Varangians in Russia) Nicholas Roerich, (October 9, 1874 - December 13, 1947) also known as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Russian: Николай Константинович Рёрих), was a Russian painter and spiritual teacher. ...


After Soviet archaeologists resumed excavations, they rejected the traditional attribution of the site to the Norsemen, proclaiming it the largest centre (perhaps the capital) of the Merya, a Finnic tribe which inhabited the region prior to the arrival of the Slavs. According to the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia, the Merya township goes back to the 6th century, but its fortifications were constructed by the Slavs in the 10th century. The settlement suffered a decline in the late 10th century but seems to have endured until the 13th century, when it is first mentioned in a major chronicle as "Sarskoe Gorodishche". The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ...


Interpretation

Major Varangian finds at Sarskoe date from ca. 800 onward, indicating that it was a major (perhaps the most important) trade station on the Volga trade route between Scandinavia and Baghdad. Traces of a bath, an iron foundery, a potter's workshop and a jeweller's shop were encountered. There were two hoards of early 9th-century dirhams. Another deposit was detected in the vicinity: it contained dirhams inscribed with Runic signs, interpreted as a thanksgiving to Thor. In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Dirham is a unit of currency in several Arabic-speaking nations, including: Islamic Dirham The Moroccan dirham The United Arab Emirates dirham 1/1000 of the Libyan dinar 1/100 of the Qatari riyal 1/10 of the Jordanian dinar The dirham, spelt diram, is 1/100 of the Tajikistani... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Thors battle against the giants, by Mårten Eskil Winge, 1872 Thor (Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded god of thunder in Norse Mythology and more generally Germanic mythology (Old English: Þunor, Old Dutch and Old High German: Donar, from Proto-Germanic *Þunraz). ...


Side by side with this evidence of a Scandinavian presence, the native Merya element is strong. For instance, there are numerous beaver symbols made of clay: the beaver was a sacred animal for the Finns. Although cremations were encountered, inhumation is predominant. Like the Slavs and Varangians at Gnezdovo, the Merya and the Norsemen seem to have peacefully co-existed in the 9th and 10th centuries. The settlement appears to have escaped the violent clashes of the Norsemen with the indigenous population, so characteristic of the Ladoga region. Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Russian: ) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. ... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ...


Sarskoe vs. Rostov

Rostov as seen from Lake Nero.
Rostov as seen from Lake Nero.

The earliest pavement of Rostov is dated by dendrochronology to 963. These pieces of wood were uncovered in post-1949 digs, throwing much light on the earliest years of the city. At about the same period, the decline of Sarskoe Gorodishche started. Whether the town was simply transferred to a new place remains debatable. It is also not clear if the original Slavic name of Sarskoe Gorodishche was Rostov or something different. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ...


Historians have experienced difficulty in explaining why the superior location of Sarskoe was abandoned in favor of a boggy site where Rostov now stands. According to one theory, the town was transferred primarily for religious considerations, so as to have the water frontage facing a rocky island with a major sanctuary of Veles. Whatever the reasons for the decline of Sarskoe, the similar sites at Timeryovo near Yaroslavl and Gnezdovo near Smolensk relinquished their administrative and economic primacy roughly in the same period. Veles, Volos, Weles, or Voloh is a Slavic god, thought to be the deity of: cattle, commerce, music, divination and the underworld. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ...


References

  • Леонтьев А.Е. Археология мери. (К предыстории Северо-Восточной Руси). М., 1996. (online)
  • Леонтьев А.Е. Сарское городище в истории Ростовской земли.(VIII-ХI вв.). Автореф. канд. дис. М., 1975.
  • Плешанов Е.В. К вопросу о происхождении города Ростова. (online)

External links

  • (Russian) History and illustrations
Garðaríki
Volkhov-Volga trade route: Lyubsha | Aldeigja | Álaborg | Duboviki | Hólmgarðr | Sarskoe | Timerevo
Dvina-Dnieper trade route: Pallteskja | Gnezdovo | Chernigov | Kænugarðr
Other locations: Bjarmaland | Khortitsa | White Shores | Miklagarðr | Særkland
Varangians | Rus' | Slavs | Merya | Bulgars | Khazars


Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (529x767, 109 KB) The Gripsholm Runestone, originally uploaded to the Swedish Wikipedia by Användare:TÃ¥ggas on 20 April 2004, 10. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... Lyubsha (Russian: Любша) is an archaeological site situated on the right bank of the Volkhov, about 1,500 metres downstream from Staraya Ladoga. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Nicholas Roerich. ... Novye Duboviki (Russian: ; literally: New Oak Grove) is an archaeological site in the Leningrad Oblast of Russia, about nine kilometers south of Ladoga upstream the Volkhov River, at the head of the lower Volkhov rapids. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia. ... Timerevo (Russian: Тимерёво, Timeryovo) is an archaeological site near the village Bolshoe Timeryovo, seven kilometers southwest of Yaroslavl, which yielded the largest deposits of early medieval Arabic coins in Northern Europe. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Russian: ) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. ... A 19th century drawing depicting the mound. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Bjarmaland (a. ... Khortytsya view from space. ... Berezan is an island in the Black Sea at the entrance of the Dnieper-Bug estuary, Ukraine. ... Map of Constantinople. ... In Old Norse sources, such as Norse sagas and runestones, Særkland or Serkland is all of the African and Asian regions by the Mediterranean. ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, took its name from its ruling warrior class with Scandinavian roots. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ...


 
 

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