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Encyclopedia > Sarnath
Sarnath
v  d  e
Uttar Pradesh • India
Coordinates: 25.3811° N 83.0214° E
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Coordinates: 25.3811° N 83.0214° E Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, India. Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...   (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Venerable Kondañña was the first Great Disciple of the Buddha to achieve arahantship. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Isipatana is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage which his devout followers should visit[1]. The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Calcutta. ...

Contents

Origin of names

The Dhamekh Stupa, Sarnath
The Dhamekh Stupa, Sarnath

Mrigadava means "deer-park". Isipatana is the name used in the Pali Canon, and means the place where holy men (Pali: isi, Sanskrit: rishi) fell to earth. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Dhamekh Stupa Dhamekh Stupa bears particular significance at Sarnath as it signifies the seat of the holy Buddha, as he proclaimed his faith. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ...


The legend says that when the Buddha-to-be was born, some devas came down to announce it to 500 rishis. The rishis all rose into the air and disappeared and their relics fell to the ground[citation needed]. Another explanation for the name is that Isipatana was so called because sages, on their way through the air (from the Himalayas), alight here or start from here on their aerial flight (isayo ettha nipatanti uppatanti cāti-Isipatanam). Pacceka Buddhas, having spent seven days in contemplation in the Gandhamādana, bathe in the Anotatta Lake and come to the habitations of men through the air, in search of alms. They descend to earth at Isipatana[2]. Sometimes the Pacceka Buddhas come to Isipatana from Nandamūlaka-pabbhāra[3]. This article is about Buddhist deities. ...


Hiouen Thsang quotes the Nigrodhamiga Jātaka (J.i.145ff) to account for the origin of the Migadāya. According to him the Deer Park was the forest gifted by the king of Benares of the Jātaka, where the deer might wander unmolested. The Migadāya was so-called because deer were allowed to roam about there unmolested.


Sarnath, from Saranganath, means "Lord of the Deer" and relates to another old Buddhist story in which the Bodhisattva is a deer and offers his life to a king instead of the doe the latter is planning to kill. The king is so moved that he creates the park as a sanctuary for deer. The park is still there today. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


History

Pilgrimage to
Buddha's
Holy Sites
The Four Main Sites
Lumbini · Bodh Gaya
Sarnath · Kushinagar
Four Additional Sites
Sravasti · Rajgir
Sankissa · Vaishali
Other Sites
Patna · Gaya
 Kausambi · Mathura
Kapilavastu · Devadaha
Kesariya · Pava
Nalanda · Varanasi
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Buddhism
The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Calcutta. ... Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ... Lumbini (Sanskrit for the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal near the Indian border. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26. ... SrāvastÄ« or SāvatthÄ« (Chinese: 舍衛), a city of ancient India, was one of the largest cities during Gautama Buddha’s lifetime. ... Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sankassa (also Sankasia, Sankissa and Sankassya) was a city in India at the time of Gautama Buddha, thirty leagues from Savatthi[1]. Currently it has ruins of old monasteries and Buddhist monuments. ... Vaishali or Vesali (Pali) was a city, the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms that existed in the Nakdong River valley of Korea during the Three Kingdoms era. ... Kosambi (Pali) or Kausambi (Sanskrit) was one of the greatest cities in India in the Buddhas time (500 BC). ... Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and 150 km south of Delhi. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Devadaha was a township of the Sākiyans. ... Kesariya is a small city in Bihar, India. ... Pawapuri in Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ...



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History
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

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map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

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The Five Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the way that leads to... The five precepts (Pali: Pañcasīla, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wǔ jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ... Buddhist concept. ... The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Dharma (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pāli) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli) or stong pa nyid (Tibetan), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, intimately related to the doctrine of the three marks of existence (ti-lakkhana). ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:縁起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

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Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

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Gautama Buddha at Isipatana

The Buddha went from Bodhgaya to Sarnath about 5 weeks after his enlightenment. Before Gautama (the Buddha-to-be) attained enlightenment, he gave up his austere penances and his friends, the Pañcavaggiya monks, left him and went to Isipatana[4]. Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya is the location of Gautama Siddharthas attainment of Enlightenment. ...


After attaining Enlightenment the Buddha, leaving Uruvela, travelled to the Isipatana to join and teach them. He went to them because, using his spirital powers, he had seen that his five former companions would be able to understand Dharma quickly. While travelling to Sarnath, Gautama Buddha had to cross the Ganges. Having no money with which to pay the ferryman, he crossed the Ganges through the air. When King Bimbisāra heard of this, he abolished the toll for ascetics. When Gautama Buddha found his five former companions, he taught them, they understood and as a result they also became enlightened. At that time the Sangha, the community of the enlightened ones, was founded. The sermon Buddha gave to the five monks was his first sermon, called the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. It was given on the full-moon day of Asalha[5]. Buddha subsequently also spent his first rainy season at Sarnath[6] at the Mulagandhakuti. The Sangha had grown to 60 in number (after Yasa and his fiends had become monks), and Buddha sent them out in all directions to travel alone and teach the Dharma. All 60 monks were Arahants. Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... This is the Buddhas first discourse after he reached Enlightenment. ... Vassa (Thai พรรษา, pansa or phansaa), also called Rains Retreat, is the traditional retreat during the rainy season lasting for three lunar months from July to October. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa, was the written code of law created by Genghis Khan It was in force in the Mongol empire. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ...


Several other incidents connected with the Buddha, besides the preaching of the first sermon, are mentioned as having taken place in Isipatana. Here it was that one day at dawn Yasa came to the Buddha and became an Arahant[7]. It was at Isipatana, too, that the rule was passed prohibiting the use of sandals made of talipot leaves[8]. On another occasion when the Buddha was staying at Isipatana, having gone there from Rājagaha, he instituted rules forbidding the use of certain kinds of flesh, including human flesh[9]. Twice, while the Buddha was at Isipatana, Māra visited him but had to go away discomfited[10]. Yassa, alternatively Yasa, was the written code of law created by Genghis Khan It was in force in the Mongol empire. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Mara may mean: // Look up Mara in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Besides the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta mentioned above, several other suttas were preached by the Buddha while staying at Isipatana, among them

  • the Anattalakkhana Sutta,
  • the Saccavibhanga Sutta,
  • the Pañca Sutta (S.iii.66f),
  • the Rathakāra or Pacetana Sutta (A.i.110f),
  • the two Pāsa Suttas (S.i.105f),
  • the Samaya Sutta (A.iii.320ff),
  • the Katuviya Sutta (A.i.279f.),
  • a discourse on the Metteyyapañha of the Parāyana (A.iii.399f), and
  • the Dhammadinna Sutta (S.v.406f), preached to the distinguished layman Dhammadinna, who came to see the Buddha.

Some of the most eminent members of the Sangha seem to have resided at Isipatana from time to time; among recorded conversations at Isipatana are several between Sariputta and Mahakotthita[11], and one between Mahākotthita and Citta-Hatthisariputta[12]. Mention is made, too, of a discourse in which several monks staying at Isipatana tried to help Channa in his difficulties[13]. Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ... Species  Channa amphibeus - Borna snakehead  Channa argus argus  Channa argus warpachowskii - Amur snakehead  Channa asiatica - Small snakehead, chinafish  Channa aurantimaculata  Channa bankanensis  Channa barca - Barca snakehead  Channa bleheri  Channa burmanica  Channa cyanospilos  Channa diplogramma  Channa gachua - Dwarf snakehead  Channa harcourtbutleri - Burmese snakehead  Channa lucius  Channa maculata - Snakehead mullet  Channa marulioides...


According to the Udapāna Jātaka (J.ii.354ff ) there was a very ancient well near Isipatana which, in the Buddha's time, was used by the monks living there.


Isipatana after the Buddha

According to the Mahavamsa, there was a large community of monks at Isipatana in the second century B.C. For, we are told that at the foundation ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa in Anurādhapura, twelve thousand monks were present from Isipatana led by the Elder Dhammasena[14]. The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ...


Hiouen Thsang[15] found, at Isipatana, fifteen hundred monks studying the Hīnayāna. In the enclosure of the Sanghārāma was a vihāra about two hundred feet high, strongly built, its roof surmounted by a golden figure of the mango. In the centre of the vihāra was a life-size statue of the Buddha turning the wheel of the Law. To the south-west were the remains of a stone stupa built by King Asoka. The Divy. (389-94) mentions Asoka as intimating to Upagupta his desire to visit the places connected with the Buddha's activities, and to erect thupas there. Thus he visited Lumbinī, Bodhimūla, Isipatana, Migadāya and Kusinagara; this is confirmed by Asoka's lithic records, e.g. Rock Edict, viii. This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Lumbini (Sanskrit for the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal near the Indian border. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located next to Kasia a rural town in the state of Uttar Pradesh, 52 km off Gorakhpur, in northern India. ...


In front of it was a stone pillar to mark the spot where the Buddha preached his first sermon. Near by was another stupa on the site where the Pañcavaggiyas spent their time in meditation before the Buddha's arrival, and another where five hundred Pacceka Buddhas entered Nibbāna. Close to it was another building where the future Buddha Metteyya received assurance of his becoming a Buddha. The following article is about the term Nirvana in the context of Buddhism. ...


Buddhism flourished in Sarnath in part because of kings and wealthy merchants based in Varanasi. By the third century Sarnath had become an important center for the arts, which reached its zenith during the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries CE). In the 7th century by the time Xuan Zang visited from China, he found 30 monasteries and 3000 monks living at Sarnath. VārāṇasÄ«   (Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... This article is about the surname Gupta. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ...


Sarnath became a major centre of the Sammatiya school of Buddhism, one of the early Buddhist schools. However, the presence of images of Heruka and Tara indicate that Vajrayana Buddhism was (at a later time) also practiced here. Also images of Brahminist gods as Shiva and Brahma were found at the site, and there is still a Jain temple located very close to the Dhamekh Stupa. Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Heruka ( also known by his Sanskrit name Chakrasamvara, Tibetan: Korlo Demchog) is a principal Deity (Tantric Buddha) of the class of Mother Tantra in Tibetan and Indian Buddhism. ... In Hinduism, the goddess Tara (meaning star) is a manifestation of the queen of time, Kali. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is considered to be the supreme God in Shaivism, a denomination of Hinduism and one of the five primary forms of the Divine in Smarta tradition or Smartism, a denomination of Hinduism. ... Brahma (IAST: Brahmā) (Devanagari ब्रह्मा, pronounced as ) is the Hindu god (deva) of creation, and one of the Hindu Trinity - Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Dhamekh Stupa Dhamekh Stupa bears particular significance at Sarnath as it signifies the seat of the holy Buddha, as he proclaimed his faith. ...


At the end of the 12th century Sarnath was sacked by Turkish Muslims, and the site was subsequently plundered for building materials. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Discovery of Isipatana

Isipatana is identified with the modern Sarnath, six miles from Benares. Alexander Cunningham[16] found the Migadāya represented by a fine wood, covering an area of about half a mile, extending from the great tomb of Dhamekha on the north to the Chaukundi mound on the south. Sir Alexander Cunningham (23 January 1814–28 November 1893) was an English archaeologist and army engineer, known as the father of the Archaeological Survey of India. ...


Legendary characteristics of Isipatana

According to the Buddhist Commentarial Scriptures, all the Buddhas preach their first sermon at the Migadāya in Isipatana; it is one of the four avijahitatthānāni (unchanging spots), the others being the bodhi-pallanka, the spot at the gate of Sankassa, where the Buddha first touched the earth on his return from Tāvatimsa, and the site of the bed in the Gandhakuti in Jetavana[17] Media:Example. ... Sankassa (also Sankasia, Sankissa and Sankassya) was a city in India at the time of Gautama Buddha, thirty leagues from Savatthi[1]. Currently it has ruins of old monasteries and Buddhist monuments. ... The (Sanskrit; Pāli ) heaven is an important world of the devas in Buddhist cosmology. ... Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries in India. ...


In past ages Isipatana sometimes retained its own name, E.g., in the time of Phussa Buddha (Bu.xix.18), Dhammadassī (BuA.182) and Kassapa (BuA.218). Kassapa was born there (ibid., 217). But more often Isipatana was known by different names (for these names see under those of the different Buddhas). Thus in Vipassī's time it was known as Khema-uyyāna. It is the custom for all Buddhas to go through the air to Isipatana to preach their first sermon. Gotama Buddha, however, walked all the way, eighteen leagues, because he knew that by so doing he would meet Upaka, the Ajivaka, to whom he could be of service[18].

The first five disciples pay respects to the Wheel of the Dharma at the deerpark of Isipatana.
The first five disciples pay respects to the Wheel of the Dharma at the deerpark of Isipatana.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 262 pixelsFull resolution (2684 × 880 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 262 pixelsFull resolution (2684 × 880 pixel, file size: 1. ...   (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ...

Current Features of Isipatana

Most of the ancient buildings and structures at Sarnath were damaged or destroyed by the Turks. However, amongst the ruins can be distinguished:

  • The Dhamek Stupa; it is an impressive 128 feet high and 93 feet in diameter.
  • The Dharmarajika Stupa is one of the few pre-Ashokan stupas remaining, although only the foundations remain. The rest of the Dharmarajika Stupa was removed to Varanasi to be used as building materials in the 18h century. At that time, also relics were found in the Dharmarajika Stupa. These relics were subsequently thrown in the Ganges river.
  • The Chaukhandi Stupa commemorates the spot where the Buddha met his first disciples, dating back to the fifth century or earlier and later enhanced by the addition of an octagonal tower of Islamic origin. In recent years it is undergoing restoration.
  • The ruins of the Mulagandhakuti vihara mark the place where the Buddha spent his first rainy season.
  • The modern Mulagandhakuti Vihara is a monastery buiilt in the 1930s by the Sri Lankan Mahabodhi Society, with beautiful wall paintings. Behind it is a the Deer Park (where deer are still to be seen).
  • The Ashoka Pillar was broken some time ago but the base still stands.
  • The Sarnath Archeological Museum houses the famous Ashokan lion capital, which miraculously survived its 45 foot drop to the ground (from the top of the Ashokan Pillar]], and became the national symbol on the Indian flag. The museum also houses a famous and refined Buddha-image of the Buddha in Dharmachakra-posture.
  • There is also a Bodhi tree planted by Anagarika Dharmapala which was grown from a cutting of the Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya.

For Buddhists, Sarnath (or Isipatana) is one of four pilgrimage sites designated by Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumbini. Dharmek Stupa Dhamek Stupa is located at Sarnath, 13 km away from Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Chaukhandi Stupa Chaukhandi Stupa is an important Buddhist stupa in Sarnath, located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Founded by Anagarika Dhammapala, the Maha Bodhi Society is a South Asian Buddhist society. ... Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edict of Ashoka (238 BCE), in Brahmi, sandstone. ... ... Anagarika Dharmapala (1864 - 1933) was born David Hewavitarne in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Lumbini (Sanskrit for the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal near the Indian border. ...

Notes

  1. ^ (D.ii.141)
  2. ^ MA.i.387; AA.i.347 adds that sages also held the uposatha at Isipatana)
  3. ^ (MA.ii.1019; PsA.437-8)
  4. ^ J.i.68
  5. ^ Vin.i.10f.; on this occasion 80 kotis of Brahmas and innumerable gods attained the comprehension of the Truth (Mil.30); (130 kotis says Mil.350). The Lal. (528) gives details of the stages of this journey
  6. ^ BuA., p.3
  7. ^ Vin.i.15f
  8. ^ Vin.i.189
  9. ^ Vin.i.216ff.; the rule regarding human flesh was necessary because Suppiyā made broth out of her own flesh for a sick monk
  10. ^ S.i.105f
  11. ^ S.ii.112f;iii.167f;iv.162f; 384ff
  12. ^ (A.iii.392f)
  13. ^ S.iii.132f)
  14. ^ Mhv.xxix.31)
  15. ^ Beal: Records of the Western World, ii.45ff
  16. ^ Arch. Reports, i. p. 107
  17. ^ (BuA.247; DA.ii.424).
  18. ^ DA.ii.471)

See also

Ashokas Major Rock Edict is one of the most important Edicts of Ashoka, and is located outside the town of Junagadh on the Saurashtra peninsula in the state of Gujarat, India. ... The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Calcutta. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sarnath
  1. Anatta-lakkhana Sutta - The Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic
  2. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta - Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion''
  • Buddhanet
  • Map showing Sarnath

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... Sutra (सूत्र) in Sanskrit is derived from the verb siv-, meaning to sew (these words, including English to sew and Latinate suture, all derive from PIE *syū-). It literally means a rope or thread, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sarnath (2489 words)
King Asoka visited Sarnath in 249 BC and erected several monuments to mark his pilgrimage, notably; the Dhamek stupa, Dharmarajika stupa and the Asokan pillar surmounted by the famous Lion Capital, which is now the crest of India.
She built a large monastery at Sarnath named Dhammacakka Jina Vihara, the ruins of which were exposed during excavations in the early 20th century.
He established the Mahabodhi Society in Sarnath, which is located on the left of the Mulagandhakuti Vihara, which it oversees, in addition to the Mahabodhi schools, college, library and training school for monks and nuns.
Sarnath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (635 words)
Sarnath (formerly also Mrigadava, Rishipattana, Isipatana), located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha was founded.
Sarnath, from Saranganath, means "Lord of the Deer" and relates to another old Buddhist story in which the Bodhisattva is a deer and offers his life to a king instead of the doe the latter is planning to kill.
Sarnath became a major centre of the Sammatiya school of Buddhism, one of the Nikaya or Hinayana schools.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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